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1.
Lancet ; 395(10221): 339-349, 2020 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32007169

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acute atrial fibrillation is the most common arrythmia treated in the emergency department. Our primary aim was to compare conversion to sinus rhythm between pharmacological cardioversion followed by electrical cardioversion (drug-shock), and electrical cardioversion alone (shock-only). Our secondary aim was to compare the effectiveness of two pad positions for electrical cardioversion. METHODS: We did a partial factorial trial of two protocols for patients with acute atrial fibrillation at 11 academic hospital emergency departments in Canada. We enrolled adult patients with acute atrial fibrillation. Protocol 1 was a randomised, blinded, placebo-controlled comparison of attempted pharmacological cardioversion with intravenous procainamide (15 mg/kg over 30 min) followed by electrical cardioversion if necessary (up to three shocks, each of ≥200 J), and placebo infusion followed by electrical cardioversion. For patients having electrical cardioversion, we used Protocol 2, a randomised, open-label, nested comparison of anteroposterior versus anterolateral pad positions. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1, stratified by study site) for Protocol 1 by on-site research personnel using an online electronic data capture system. Randomisation for Protocol 2 occurred 30 min after drug infusion for patients who had not converted and was stratified by site and Protocol 1 allocation. Patients and all research and emergency department staff were masked to treatment allocation for Protocol 1. The primary outcome was conversion to normal sinus rhythm for at least 30 min at any time after randomisation and up to a point immediately after three shocks. Protocol 1 was analysed by intention to treat and Protocol 2 excluded patients who did not receive electrical cardioversion. This study is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01891058. FINDINGS: Between July 18, 2013, and Oct 17, 2018, we enrolled 396 patients, and none were lost to follow-up. In the drug-shock group (n=204), conversion to sinus rhythm occurred in 196 (96%) patients and in the shock-only group (n=192), conversion occurred in 176 (92%) patients (absolute difference 4%; 95% CI 0-9; p=0·07). The proportion of patients discharged home was 97% (n=198) versus 95% (n=183; p=0·60). 106 (52%) patients in the drug-shock group converted after drug infusion only. No patients had serious adverse events in follow-up. The different pad positions in Protocol 2 (n=244), had similar conversions to sinus rhythm (119 [94%] of 127 in anterolateral group vs 108 [92%] of 117 in anteroposterior group; p=0·68). INTERPRETATION: Both the drug-shock and shock-only strategies were highly effective, rapid, and safe in restoring sinus rhythm for patients in the emergency department with acute atrial fibrillation, avoiding the need for return to hospital. The drug infusion worked for about half of patients and avoided the resource intensive procedural sedation required for electrical cardioversion. We also found no significant difference between the anterolateral and anteroposterior pad positions for electrical cardioversion. Immediate rhythm control for patients in the emergency department with acute atrial fibrillation leads to excellent outcomes. FUNDING: Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada and the Canadian Institutes of Health Research.


Assuntos
Antiarrítmicos/uso terapêutico , Fibrilação Atrial/terapia , Cardioversão Elétrica , Doença Aguda , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Protocolos Clínicos , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
3.
J Appl Lab Med ; 4(2): 170-179, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31639662

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Studies have illustrated how a low or undetectable high-sensitivity cardiac troponin (hs-cTn) concentration at emergency department (ED) presentation can rule out myocardial infarction (MI). A problem with using an undetectable hs-cTn cutoff is that this value may be defined differently among hospitals and is also difficult to monitor. In the present study, we assess the diagnostic performance of a clinical chemistry score (CCS) vs hs-cTn alone in the presentation blood sample in the ED for patient hospital admission in a multicenter setting. METHODS: From January 1 to June 30, 2018, consecutive patients with random glucose, creatinine (for an estimated glomerular filtration rate calculation), and hs-cTnI (Abbott, 2 hospitals, Hamilton, Ontario, n = 10496) or hs-cTnT (Roche, 4 hospitals, Calgary, Alberta, n = 25177) were assessed for hospital admission with the CCS (range of scores, 0-5) or hs-cTn alone. Sensitivity, specificity, predicative values, and likelihood ratios were calculated for a CCS of 0 and 5 and for hs-cTn alone (hs-cTnI cutoffs, 5 and 26 ng/L; hs-cTnT cutoffs, 6 and 14 ng/L). RESULTS: The CCS of 0 (CCS <1) identified approximately 10% of all patients as low risk and had a sensitivity for hospital admission of nearly 98% as compared to <93% when hs-cTnT (<6 ng/L) or hs-cTnI (<5 ng/L) cutoffs alone were used. A CCS ≥5 had a specificity for hospital admission >95%, with approximately 14% of patients at high risk. CONCLUSIONS: An ED disposition (admit or send home) using the presentation blood sample could occur in nearly 25% of all patients by use of the CCS.

6.
Can J Cardiol ; 35(10): 1296-1300, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31495687

RESUMO

In this Viewpoint concerns raised by Canadian emergency physicians regarding recommendations 2 and 6 from the recent Canadian Cardiovascular Society 2018 update for atrial fibrillation are discussed. These recommendations narrow the window for safe cardioversion and suggest 4 weeks of anticoagulation for all patients who undergo urgent cardioversion regardless of their CHADS-65 status. We discuss the implications of Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation weak recommendations on the basis of low-quality evidence.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31446556

RESUMO

Predicting daily patient volume is necessary for emergency department (ED) strategic and operational decisions, such as resource planning and workforce scheduling. For these purposes, forecast accuracy requires understanding the heterogeneity among patients with respect to their characteristics and reasons for visits. To capture the heterogeneity among ED patients (case-mix), we present a patient coding and classification scheme (PCCS) based on patient demographics and diagnostic information. The proposed PCCS allows us to mathematically formalize the arrival patterns of the patient population as well as each class of patients. We can then examine the volume and case-mix of patients presenting to an ED and investigate their relationship to the ED's quality and time-based performance metrics. We use data from five hospitals in February, July and November for the years of 2007, 2012, and 2017 in the city of Calgary, Alberta, Canada. We find meaningful arrival time patterns of the patient population as well as classes of patients in EDs. The regression results suggest that patient volume is the main predictor of time-based ED performance measures. Case-mix is, however, the key predictor of quality of care in EDs. We conclude that considering both patient volume and the mix of patients are necessary for more accurate strategic and operational planning in EDs.

8.
Ann Emerg Med ; 73(5): 500-510, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30691921

RESUMO

STUDY OBJECTIVE: The prevalence of pulmonary embolism among patients with syncope is understudied. In accordance with a recent study with an exceptionally high pulmonary embolism prevalence, some advocate evaluating all syncope patients for pulmonary embolism, including those with another clear cause for their syncope. We seek to evaluate the pulmonary embolism prevalence among emergency department (ED) patients with syncope. METHODS: We combined data from 2 large prospective studies enrolling adults with syncope from 17 EDs in Canada and the United States. Each study collected the results of pulmonary embolism-related investigations (ie, D-dimer, ventilation-perfusion scan, or computed tomography [CT] pulmonary angiography) and 30-day adjudicated outcomes: pulmonary embolism or nonpulmonary embolism outcome (arrhythmia, myocardial infarction, serious hemorrhage, and death). RESULTS: Of the 9,374 patients enrolled, 9,091 (97.0%; median age 66 years, 51.9% women) with 30-day follow-up were analyzed: 547 (6.0%) were evaluated for pulmonary embolism (278 [3.1%] had D-dimer, 39 [0.4%] had ventilation-perfusion scan, and 347 [3.8%] had CT pulmonary angiography). Overall, 874 patients (9.6%) experienced 30-day serious outcomes: 818 patients (9.0%) with nonpulmonary embolism serious outcomes and 56 (prevalence 0.6%; 95% confidence interval 0.5% to 0.8%) with pulmonary embolism (including 8 [0.2%] out of 3521 patients diagnosed during the index hospitalization and 7 [0.1%] diagnosed after the index visit). Eighty-six patients (0.9%) died, and 4 deaths (0.04%) were related to pulmonary embolism. Only 11 patients (0.1%) with a nonpulmonary embolism serious condition had a concomitant pulmonary embolism. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of pulmonary embolism is very low among ED patients with syncope, including those hospitalized after syncope. Although an underlying pulmonary embolism may cause syncope, clinicians should be cautious about indiscriminate investigations for pulmonary embolism.


Assuntos
Embolia Pulmonar/epidemiologia , Síncope/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Canadá/epidemiologia , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Embolia Pulmonar/mortalidade , Síncope/mortalidade , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
9.
Circulation ; 139(11): 1396-1406, 2019 03 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30661373

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The optimal duration of cardiac rhythm monitoring after emergency department (ED) presentation for syncope is poorly described. We sought to describe the incidence and time to arrhythmia occurrence to inform decisions regarding duration of monitoring based on ED risk stratification. METHODS: We conducted a prospective cohort study with enrolled adult patients (≥16 years old) presenting within 24 hours of syncope at 6 EDs. We collected baseline characteristics, time of syncope and ED arrival, and the Canadian Syncope Risk Score (CSRS) risk category. We followed subjects for 30 days, and our adjudicated primary outcome was serious arrhythmic conditions (arrhythmias, interventions for arrhythmias, and unexplained death). After excluding patients with an obvious serious condition on ED presentation and those with missing CSRS predictors, we used Kaplan-Meier analysis to describe the time to serious arrhythmic outcomes. RESULTS: A total of 5581 patients (mean age, 53.4 years; 54.5% females; 11.6% hospitalized) were available for analysis, including 346 (6.2%) for whom the 30-day follow-up was incomplete and who were censored at the last follow-up time. A total of 417 patients (7.5%) experienced serious outcomes, 207 of which (3.7%; 95% CI, 3.3%-4.2%) were arrhythmic (161 arrhythmias, 30 cardiac device implantations, 16 unexplained deaths). Overall, 4123 (73.9%) were classified as CSRS low risk, 1062 (19.0%) medium risk, and 396 (7.1%) high risk. The CSRS accurately stratified subjects as low risk (0.4% risk for 30-day arrhythmic outcome), medium risk (8.7% risk), and high risk (25.3% risk). One-half of arrhythmic outcomes were identified within 2 hours of ED arrival in low-risk patients and within 6 hours in medium- and high-risk patients, and the residual risk after these cut points were 0.2% for low-risk, 5.0% for medium-risk, and 18.1% for high-risk patients. Overall, 91.7% of arrhythmic outcomes among medium- and high-risk patients, including all ventricular arrhythmias, were identified within 15 days. None of the low-risk patients experienced ventricular arrhythmia or unexplained death, whereas 0.9% of medium-risk patients and 6.3% of high-risk patients experienced them ( P<0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: Serious underlying arrhythmia was often identified within the first 2 hours of ED arrival for CSRS low-risk patients and within 6 hours for CSRS medium- and high-risk patients. Outpatient cardiac rhythm monitoring for 15 days for selected medium-risk patients and all high-risk patients discharged from the hospital should also be considered.


Assuntos
Arritmias Cardíacas/diagnóstico , Serviço Hospitalar de Cardiologia , Morte Súbita Cardíaca/prevenção & controle , Eletrocardiografia , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Síncope/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Arritmias Cardíacas/mortalidade , Arritmias Cardíacas/fisiopatologia , Arritmias Cardíacas/terapia , Canadá , Causas de Morte , Eletrocardiografia Ambulatorial , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Síncope/mortalidade , Síncope/fisiopatologia , Síncope/terapia , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
10.
CJEM ; 21(1): 26-33, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30261938

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Sex-specific diagnostic cut-offs may improve the test characteristics of high-sensitivity troponin assays for the diagnosis of myocardial infarction (MI). The objective of this study was to quantify test characteristics of sex-specific cut-offs of a single, high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT) assay for 7-day MI in patients with chest pain. METHODS: This observational cohort study included consecutive emergency department (ED) patients with suspected cardiac chest pain from four Canadian EDs who had an hs-cTnT assay performed within 60 minutes of ED arrival. The primary outcome was MI at 7 days. We quantified test characteristics (sensitivity, negative predictive value [NPV], likelihood ratios and proportion of patients ruled out) for multiple combinations of sex-specific, rule-out cut-offs. We calculated the net reclassification index compared to universal rule-out cut-offs. RESULTS: In 7,130 patients (3,931 men and 3,199 women), the 7-day MI incidence was 7.38% among men and 3.78% among women. Optimal sex-specific cut-offs (<8 ng/L for men and <7 ng/L for women) had a 98.5% sensitivity for MI and ruled out MI in 55.8% of patients. This would enable an absolute increase in the proportion of patients who were able to be ruled out with a single hs-cTnT of 13.2% to 22.2%, depending on the universal rule-out concentration used as a comparator. CONCLUSIONS: Sex-specific hs-cTnT cut-offs for ruling out MI at ED arrival may improve classification performance, enabling more patients to be safely ruled out at ED arrival. However, differences between sex-specific and universal cut-off concentrations are within the variation of the assay, limiting the clinical utility of this approach. These findings should be confirmed in other data sets.

11.
CMAJ ; 190(48): E1406-E1413, 2018 12 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30510045

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Ottawa chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) Risk Scale (OCRS), which consists of 10 criteria, was previously derived to identify patients in the emergency department with COPD who were at high risk for short-term serious outcomes. We sought to validate, prospectively and explicitly, the OCRS when applied by physicians in the emergency department. METHODS: We conducted this prospective cohort study involving patients in the emergency departments at 6 tertiary care hospitals and enrolled adults with acute exacerbation of COPD from May 2011 to December 2013. Physicians evaluated patients for the OCRS criteria, which were recorded on a data form along with the total risk score. We followed patients for 30 days and the primary outcome, short-term serious outcomes, was defined as any of death, admission to monitored unit, intubation, noninvasive ventilation, myocardial infarction (MI) or relapse with hospital admission. RESULTS: We enrolled 1415 patients with a mean age of 70.6 (SD 10.6) years and 50.2% were female. Short-term serious outcomes occurred in 135 (9.5%) cases. Incidence of short-term serious outcomes ranged from 4.6% for a total score of 0 to 100% for a score of 10. Compared with current practice, an OCRS score threshold of greater than 1 would increase sensitivity for short-term serious outcomes from 51.9% to 79.3% and increase admissions from 45.0% to 56.6%. A threshold of greater than 2 would improve sensitivity to 71.9% with 47.9% of patients being admitted. INTERPRETATION: In this clinical validation of a risk-stratification tool for COPD in the emergency department, we found that OCRS showed better sensitivity for short-term serious outcomes compared with current practice. This risk scale can now be used to help emergency department disposition decisions for patients with COPD, which should lead to a decrease in unnecessary admissions and in unsafe discharges.


Assuntos
Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Intubação Intratraqueal/estatística & dados numéricos , Mortalidade , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/terapia , Respiração Artificial/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Canadá/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Progressão da Doença , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ventilação não Invasiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Prospectivos , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/epidemiologia , Recidiva , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Medição de Risco
12.
CJEM ; 20(5): 725-731, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29866211

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: D-dimer testing is an important component of the workup for pulmonary embolism (PE). However, age-related increases in D-dimer concentrations result in false positives in older adults, leading to potentially unnecessary imaging utilization. The objective of this study was to quantify the test characteristics of an age-adjusted D-dimer cut-off for ruling out PE in older patients investigated in actual clinical practice. METHODS: This observational study used administrative data from four emergency departments from July 2013 to January 2015. Eligible patients were ages 50 and older with symptoms of PE who underwent D-dimer testing. The primary outcome was 30-day diagnosis of PE, confirmed by imaging reports. Test characteristics of the D-dimer assay were calculated using the standard reference value (500 ng/ml), the local reference value (470 ng/ml), and an age-adjusted threshold (10 ng/ml × patient's age). RESULTS: This cohort includes 6,655 patients ages 50 and older undergoing D-dimer testing for a possible PE. Of these, 246 (3.7%) were diagnosed with PE. Age-adjusted D-dimer cut-offs were more specific than standard cut-offs (75.4% v. 63.8%) but less sensitive (90.3% v. 97.2%). The false-negative risk in this population was 0.49% using age-adjusted D-dimer cut-offs compared with 0.15% with traditional cut-offs. CONCLUSION: Age-adjusted D-dimer cut-offs are substantially more specific than traditional cut-offs and may reduce CT utilization among older patients with suspected PE. We observed a loss of sensitivity, with an increased risk of false-negatives, using age-adjusted cut-offs. We encourage further evaluation of the safety and accuracy of age-adjusted D-dimer cut-offs in actual clinical practice.


Assuntos
Produtos de Degradação da Fibrina e do Fibrinogênio/análise , Embolia Pulmonar/sangue , Idoso , Biomarcadores/análise , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Embolia Pulmonar/diagnóstico por imagem , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
13.
Expert Rev Mol Diagn ; 18(6): 481-489, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29756512

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The Elecsys Troponin T Gen 5 STAT test (distributed in the United States (US) by Roche Diagnostics, Indianapolis, IN) is the first high-sensitivity cardiac troponin test approved for use by the FDA in the US (2017). Areas covered: The test offers clinicians the opportunity for more rapid decision-making for diagnosing myocardial infarction (MI) in the emergency department (ED). The Troponin T Gen 5 STAT test (labeled as TNT-G5ST on the reagent pack) is similar to the Troponin T hs STAT (TNT-HSST) and Troponin T hs (TNT-HS) tests that have been available outside the US since 2009. Collectively, these tests can all be considered as high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT) assays. Expert commentary: Studies performed in the US and throughout the world using 0 and 3 h blood draws for hs-cTnT testing in patients with possible MI have reliably achieved a sensitivity of >94% and negative predictive value of ≥99% for MI in the ED setting.


Assuntos
Análise Química do Sangue/instrumentação , Análise Química do Sangue/métodos , Infarto do Miocárdio/sangue , Infarto do Miocárdio/diagnóstico , Troponina T/sangue , Humanos , Estados Unidos
14.
CJEM ; 20(5): 702-712, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29615138

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Some centres favour early intervention for ureteral colic while others prefer trial of spontaneous passage, and relative outcomes are poorly described. Calgary and Vancouver have similar populations and physician expertise, but differing approaches to ureteral colic. We studied 60-day hospitalization and intervention rates for patients having a first emergency department (ED) visit for ureteral colic in these diverse systems. METHODS: We used administrative data and structured chart review to study all Vancouver and Calgary patients with an index visit for ureteral colic during 2014. Patient demographics, arrival characteristics and triage category were captured from ED information systems, while ED visits and admissions were captured from linked regional hospital databases. Laboratory results were obtained from electronic health records and stone characteristics were abstracted from diagnostic imaging reports. Our primary outcome was hospitalization or urological intervention from 0 to 60 days. Secondary outcomes included ED revisits, readmissions and rescue interventions. Time to event analysis was conducted and Cox Proportional Hazards modelling was performed to adjust for covariate imbalance. RESULTS: We studied 3283 patients with CT-defined stones. Patient and stone characteristics were similar for the cities. Hospitalization or intervention occurred in 60.9% of Calgary patients and 31.3% of Vancouver patients (p<0.001). Calgary patients had higher index intervention rates (52.1% v. 7.5%), and experienced more ED revisits and hospital readmissions during follow-up. The data suggest that outcome events were associated with overtreatment of small stones in one city and undertreatment of large stones in the other. CONCLUSIONS: An early interventional approach was associated with higher ED revisit, hospitalization and intervention rates. If these events are markers of patient disability, then a less interventional approach to small stones and earlier definitive management of large stones may reduce system utilization and improve outcomes for patients with acute ureteral colic.


Assuntos
Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Padrões de Prática Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Cólica Renal/terapia , Alberta , Colúmbia Britânica , Feminino , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
Can J Cardiol ; 34(2): 98-108, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29407013

RESUMO

This article synthesizes current best evidence for the evaluation of patients with suspected acute coronary syndrome (ACS) using high-sensitivity troponin assays, enabling physicians to effectively incorporate them into practice. Unlike conventional assays, high-sensitivity assays can precisely measure blood cardiac troponin concentrations in the vast majority of healthy individuals, facilitating the creation of rapid diagnostic algorithms. Very low troponin concentrations on presentation accurately rule out acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and enable the discharge of approximately 20% of patients after a single test, whereas an additional 30%-40% of patients can be safely discharged after short-interval serial sampling in as little as 1 or 2 hours. In contrast, highly abnormal troponin concentrations on presentation (more than 5 times the upper reference limit) or rapidly rising levels on serial testing can rapidly rule in AMI with high specificity. However, approximately one-third of patients remain in a biomarker-indeterminate "observation zone" even after serial sampling. These patients pose a disposition challenge to clinicians because although the differential diagnosis of elevated troponin concentrations is broad, these patients have an increased risk for short-term major adverse cardiac events. Use of repeated serial troponin sampling and structured clinical prediction tools may assist disposition for these patients, because no validated pathways currently exist to guide clinicians. Ongoing research to tailor diagnostic thresholds to individual patient characteristics may enable improved diagnostic accuracy and usher in a new era of personalized medicine in the evaluation of suspected ACS.


Assuntos
Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/diagnóstico , Dor no Peito/etiologia , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Troponina/sangue , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/sangue , Fatores Etários , Algoritmos , Biomarcadores/sangue , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Eletrocardiografia , Humanos , Insuficiência Renal/sangue , Medição de Risco , Fatores Sexuais
16.
Clin Chim Acta ; 479: 166-170, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29366835

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Clinicians regularly observe increased high-sensitivity cardiac troponin (hs-cTn) concentrations in patients with low estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). The challenge is to differentiate acute coronary syndrome (ACS) from increased hs-cTn results across a range of eGFR. The objective of this study was to determined the optimal hs-cTn concentrations for acute myocardial infarction (MI) and a composite cardiovascular outcome across different eGFR ranges and to assess the utility of a low hs-cTn cutoff to rule-out events. METHODS: We undertook an observational study in the emergency department of patients (n = 1212) with symptoms suggestive of ACS who had an eGFR and at least one Roche hs-cTnT and one Abbott hs-cTnI result. The 7-day outcomes were MI or a composite of MI, unstable angina, congestive heart failure, serious ventricular cardiac arrhythmia, or death. The maximum hs-cTn concentration was assessed across different eGFR ranges (<30,30-59,60-89,≥90 ml/min/1.73m2) by spearman correlation, ROC-curve analyses, and sensitivity and negative predictive value (NPV) for the proposed rule-out hs-cTn cutoffs (hs-cTnI<5 ng/l and hs-cTnT<6 ng/l) for the outcomes. RESULTS: Both hs-cTnI and hs-cTnT concentrations were negatively correlated with eGFR. The lower the eGFR, the lower the AUC and the higher the optimal hs-cTn cutoffs for both MI and the composite outcome. The highest combined sensitivity (100%), NPV (100%) and proportion of low-risk for MI (45% of group) was observed for patients with hs-cTnT<6 ng/l with an eGFR≥90. CONCLUSION: The test performance for hs-cTn for diagnosing or ruling-out an acute cardiac event varies per the eGFR. Accurate risk stratification requires knowledge of the eGFR.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Infarto do Miocárdio/sangue , Troponina I/sangue , Troponina T/sangue , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Infarto do Miocárdio/diagnóstico , Infarto do Miocárdio/cirurgia
17.
CJEM ; 20(3): 443-447, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29378670

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this panel was to generate recommendations to promote the engagement of front-line emergency department (ED) clinicians in clinical and implementation research. METHODS: Panel members conducted semi-structured interviews with 37 Canadian adult and pediatric emergency medicine researchers to elicit barriers and facilitators to clinician engagement in research activities, and to glean strategies for promoting clinician engagement. RESULTS: Responses were organized by themes, and, based on these responses, recommendations were developed and refined in an iterative fashion by panel members. CONCLUSIONS: We offer eight recommendations to promote front-line clinician engagement in clinical research activities. Recommendations to promote clinician engagement specifically address the creation of a research-friendly culture in the ED, minimizing the burden of data collection on clinical staff through the careful design of data collection tools and the use of research staff, and communication between researchers and clinical staff to promote adherence to study protocols.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica/organização & administração , Comunicação , Medicina de Emergência , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/normas , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Canadá , Humanos
18.
CJEM ; 20(3): 448-452, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29378671

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The objective of Panel 2b was to present an overview of and recommendations for the conduct of implementation trials and multicentre studies in emergency medicine. METHODS: Panel members engaged methodologists to discuss the design and conduct of implementation and multicentre studies. We also conducted semi-structured interviews with 37 Canadian adult and pediatric emergency medicine researchers to elicit barriers and facilitators to conducting these kinds of studies. RESULTS: Responses were organized by themes, and, based on these responses, recommendations were developed and refined in an iterative fashion by panel members. CONCLUSIONS: We offer eight recommendations to facilitate multicentre clinical and implementation studies, along with guidance for conducting implementation research in the emergency department. Recommendations for multicentre studies reflect the importance of local study investigators and champions, requirements for research infrastructure and staffing, and the cooperation and communication between the coordinating centre and participating sites.


Assuntos
Competência Clínica , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto/organização & administração , Medicina de Emergência/métodos , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto/normas , Pesquisadores/normas , Sociedades Médicas , Pesquisa Biomédica/organização & administração , Canadá , Humanos
19.
Can J Cardiol ; 34(2): 168-179, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29287944

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acute heart failure (AHF) accounts for a substantial proportion of Emergency Department (ED) visits and hospitalizations. Previous studies have shown that emergency physicians' clinical gestalt is not sufficient to stratify patients with AHF into severe and requiring hospitalization vs nonsevere and safe to be discharged. Various prognostic algorithms have been developed to risk-stratify patients with AHF, however there is no consensus as to the best-performing risk assessment tool in the ED. METHODS: A systematic review of Medline, PubMed, and Embase up to May 2016 was conducted using established methods. Major cardiology and emergency medicine conference proceedings from 2010 to 2016 were also screened. Two independent reviewers identified studies that evaluated clinical risk scores in adult (ED) patients with AHF, with risk prognostication for mortality or significant morbidity within 7-30 days. Studies included patients who were discharged or admitted. RESULTS: The systematic review search generated 2950 titles that were screened according to title and abstract. Nine articles, describing 6 risk prediction tools met full inclusion criteria, however, prognostic performance and ease of bedside application is limited for most. Because of clinical heterogeneity in the prognostic tools and study outcomes, a meta-analysis was not performed. CONCLUSIONS: Several risk scores exist for predicting short-term mortality or morbidity in ED patients with AHF. No single risk tool is clearly superior, however, the Emergency Heart Failure Mortality Risk Grade might aid in prognostication of mortality and the Ottawa Heart Failure Risk Score might provide useful prognostic information in patients suitable for ED discharge.


Assuntos
Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Insuficiência Cardíaca/mortalidade , Medição de Risco , Medicina de Emergência , Humanos
20.
CJEM ; 20(3): 370-376, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28587704

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Although procedural sedation for cardioversion is a common event in emergency departments (EDs), there is limited evidence surrounding medication choices. We sought to evaluate geographic and temporal variation in sedative choice at multiple Canadian sites, and to estimate the risk of adverse events due to sedative choice. METHODS: This is a secondary analysis of one health records review, the Recent Onset Atrial Fibrillation or Flutter-0 (RAFF-0 [n=420, 2008]) and one prospective cohort study, the Recent Onset Atrial Fibrillation or Flutter-1 (RAFF-1 [n=565, 2010 - 2012]) at eight and six Canadian EDs, respectively. Sedative choices within and among EDs were quantified, and the risk of adverse events was examined with adjusted and unadjusted comparisons of sedative regimes. RESULTS: In RAFF-0 and RAFF-1, the combination of propofol and fentanyl was most popular (63.8% and 52.7%) followed by propofol alone (27.9% and 37.3%). There were substantially more adverse events in the RAFF-0 data set (13.5%) versus RAFF-1 (3.3%). In both data sets, the combination of propofol/fentanyl was not associated with increased adverse event risk compared to propofol alone. CONCLUSION: There is marked variability in procedural sedation medication choice for a direct current cardioversion in Canadian EDs, with increased use of propofol alone as a sedation agent over time. The risk of adverse events from procedural sedation during cardioversion is low but not insignificant. We did not identify an increased risk of adverse events with the addition of fentanyl as an adjunctive analgesic to propofol.


Assuntos
Antiarrítmicos/uso terapêutico , Fibrilação Atrial/terapia , Flutter Atrial/terapia , Sedação Consciente/efeitos adversos , Cardioversão Elétrica/métodos , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Geriatria/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos
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