Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 11 de 11
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Tipo de estudo
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
Food Chem ; 305: 125484, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31514048

RESUMO

Grape pathogenesis-related proteins can cause haze in wine that is undesirable for consumers. Bentonite is used to remove these proteins but is a non-renewable natural material and reduces wine volume due to poor settling. As a potential bentonite alternative, grape seeds powder (GSP) was added to four wines and two grape juice varieties. Addition to wine required high doses (25-32 g/L) for protein removal and haze prevention and this induced changes to wine composition. By contrast, addition to grape juice prior to fermentation required substantially lower doses of GSP (5 g/L) to prevent haze formation. Further 20 g/L of GSP added to the must induced less changes to wine composition than direct addition of GSP to the wine. No changes were recorded in the efficacy of protein removal by changing the GSP source (red or white grape marc), or by using grape seed roasting. Despite the need for additional trials, these preliminary results suggest that GSP may be considered as a viable alternative to bentonite especially when added to juice prior to fermentation.

2.
J Agric Food Chem ; 65(7): 1378-1386, 2017 Feb 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28128557

RESUMO

The chemical composition (protein, polysaccharide, amino acid, and fatty acid/ethyl ester content), foaming properties, and quality of 50 Australian sparkling white wines, representing the four key production methods, that is, Méthode Traditionelle (n = 20), transfer (n = 10), Charmat (n = 10), and carbonation (n = 10), were studied. Méthode Traditionelle wines were typically rated highest in quality and were higher in alcohol and protein contents, but lower in residual sugar and total phenolics, than other sparkling wines. They also exhibited higher foam volume and stability, which might be attributable to higher protein concentrations. Bottle-fermented Méthode Traditionelle and transfer wines contained greater proportions of yeast-derived mannoproteins, whereas Charmat and carbonated wines were higher in grape-derived rhamnogalacturonans; however, total polysaccharide concentrations were not significantly different between sparkling wine styles. Free amino acids were most abundant in carbonated wines, which likely reflects production via primary fermentation only and/or the inclusion of nontraditional grape varieties. Fatty acids and their esters were not correlated with foaming properties, but octanoic and decanoic acids and their ethyl esters were present in Charmat and carbonated wines at significantly higher concentrations than in bottle-fermented wines and were negatively correlated with quality ratings. Research findings provide industry with a better understanding of the compositional factors driving the style and quality of sparkling white wine.


Assuntos
Bebidas Gaseificadas/análise , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Vinho/análise , Aminoácidos/análise , Austrália , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Polissacarídeos/análise , Proteínas/análise , Vitis/química
3.
J Agric Food Chem ; 63(17): 4345-52, 2015 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25877783

RESUMO

Changes in ethanol concentration influence red wine astringency, and yet the effect of ethanol on wine tannin-salivary protein interactions is not well understood. Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) was used to measure the binding strength between the model salivary protein, poly(L-proline) (PLP) and a range of wine tannins (tannin fractions from a 3- and a 7-year old Cabernet Sauvignon wine) across different ethanol concentrations (5, 10, 15, and 40% v/v). Tannin-PLP interactions were stronger at 5% ethanol than at 40% ethanol. The mechanism of interaction changed for most tannin samples across the wine-like ethanol range (10-15%) from a combination of hydrophobic and hydrogen binding at 10% ethanol to only hydrogen binding at 15% ethanol. These results indicate that ethanol concentration can influence the mechanisms of wine tannin-protein interactions and that the previously reported decrease in wine astringency with increasing alcohol may, in part, relate to a decrease tannin-protein interaction strength.


Assuntos
Etanol/química , Peptídeos/química , Taninos/química , Vinho/análise , Ligações de Hidrogênio , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Modelos Químicos
4.
J Agric Food Chem ; 63(16): 4020-30, 2015 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25847216

RESUMO

Protein haze is an aesthetic problem in white wines that can be prevented by removing the grape proteins that have survived the winemaking process. The haze-forming proteins are grape pathogenesis-related proteins that are highly stable during winemaking, but some of them precipitate over time and with elevated temperatures. Protein removal is currently achieved by bentonite addition, an inefficient process that can lead to higher costs and quality losses in winemaking. The development of more efficient processes for protein removal and haze prevention requires understanding the mechanisms such as the main drivers of protein instability and the impacts of various wine matrix components on haze formation. This review covers recent developments in wine protein instability and removal and proposes a revised mechanism of protein haze formation.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Plantas/química , Vitis/química , Vinho/efeitos adversos , Tecnologia de Alimentos , Humanos , Dobramento de Proteína , Vinho/análise
5.
J Agric Food Chem ; 62(29): 7216-24, 2014 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24956950

RESUMO

The molecular size of wine tannins can influence astringency, and yet it has been unclear as to whether the standard methods for determining average tannin molecular weight (MW), including gel-permeation chromatography (GPC) and depolymerization reactions, are actually related to the size of the tannin in wine-like conditions. Small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) was therefore used to determine the molecular sizes and corresponding MWs of wine tannin samples from 3 and 7 year old Cabernet Sauvignon wine in a variety of wine-like matrixes: 5-15% and 100% ethanol; 0-200 mM NaCl and pH 3.0-4.0, and compared to those measured using the standard methods. The SAXS results indicated that the tannin samples from the older wine were larger than those of the younger wine and that wine composition did not greatly impact on tannin molecular size. The average tannin MWs as determined by GPC correlated strongly with the SAXS results, suggesting that this method does give a good indication of tannin molecular size in wine-like conditions. The MW as determined from the depolymerization reactions did not correlate as strongly with the SAXS results. To our knowledge, SAXS measurements have not previously been attempted for wine tannins.


Assuntos
Cromatografia em Gel/métodos , Polimerização , Taninos/química , Vinho/análise
6.
J Agric Food Chem ; 61(47): 11618-27, 2013 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24195587

RESUMO

The impact of wine pH and closure type on color, tannin concentration, and composition was investigated. A single vintage of Cabernet Sauvignon wine was divided into three batches, the pH was adjusted to 3.2, 3.5 or 3.8, and the wines were bottled under screw caps with either SaranTin (ST) or Saranex (Sx) liners. After 24 months, the tannin concentration, tannin percent yield (relating to the proportion of acid-labile interflavan bonds), and the mean degree of polymerization (mDp) had decreased significantly, all of which can contribute to the softening of wine astringency with aging. The higher pH wines contained less percent (-)-epicatechin 3-O-gallate subunits, whereas the Sx pH 3.2 wines were significantly lower in percent yield and mDp than the other wines. Overall, the tannin structure and wine color of the lower pH wines (pH 3.2) bottled under Sx screw caps changed more rapidly with aging than those of the higher pH wines (pH 3.8) bottled under ST screw caps.


Assuntos
Indústria de Processamento de Alimentos/métodos , Taninos/química , Vinho , Cor , Embalagem de Alimentos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Taninos/análise , Fatores de Tempo
7.
J Agric Food Chem ; 61(3): 719-27, 2013 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23289627

RESUMO

Different molecular structures of grape tannins have been shown to influence astringency, however, the in-mouth sensory effects of different molecular structures in red wine tannins remains to be established. The objective of this research was to assess the impact of wine tannin structure on in-mouth sensory properties. Wine tannin was isolated from Cabernet Sauvignon wines of two vintages (3 and 7 years old) and separated into two structurally distinct subfractions with liquid-liquid fractionation using butanol and water. The aqueous subfractions had greater mean degree of polymerization (mDp) and contained a higher proportion of epigallocatechin subunits than the butanol-soluble subfractions, while the older wine tannin fractions showed fewer epicatechin gallate subunits than the younger tannin fractions. The red wine had approximately 3:1 mass ratio of the aqueous and butanol tannin subfractions which approximated an equimolar ratio of tannin in each subfraction. Descriptive sensory analysis of the tannin subfractions in model wine at equimolar concentrations revealed that the larger, more water-soluble wine tannin subfractions from both wines were perceived as more astringent than the smaller, more hydrophobic and more highly pigmented butanol-soluble subfractions, which were perceived as hotter and more bitter. Partial least squares analysis indicated that the greater hydrophobicity and color incorporation in the butanol fractions was negatively associated with astringency, and these characteristics are also associated with aged wine tannins. As the larger, water-soluble tannins had a greater impact on the overall wine astringency, winemaking processes that modulate concentrations of these are likely to most significantly influence astringency.


Assuntos
Adstringentes/química , Taninos/química , Paladar/fisiologia , Vinho/análise , Cor , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Boca/fisiologia , Vitis/química , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/química
8.
J Agric Food Chem ; 60(40): 10093-102, 2012 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22967212

RESUMO

The phenolic composition of red wine impacts upon the color and mouthfeel and thus quality of the wine. Both of these characteristics differ depending on the age of a wine, with the purple of young wines changing to brick red and the puckering or aggressive astringency softening in older wines. This study investigated the color parameters, tannin concentrations and tannin composition of a 50 year series of Cabernet Sauvignon wines from a commercial label as well as 30 year series of Cabernet Sauvignon and Shiraz wines from a separate commercial label to assess the impact of wine age on phenolic composition and concentration. The wine color density in wines of 40 to 50 years old was around 5 AU compared with 16 AU of wine less than 12 months old, which correlated well with the concentration of non-bleachable pigments and pigmented polymers. Conversely, the anthocyanin concentrations in 10 year old wines were substantially lower than that of recently bottled wines (around 100 mg/L compared with 627 mg/L, respectively), adding further evidence that non-bleachable pigments including pigmented polymers play a much larger role in long-term wine color than anthocyanins. No age-related trend was observed for tannin concentration, indicating that the widely noted softer astringency of older red wines cannot necessarily be directly related to lower concentrations of soluble wine tannin and is potentially a consequence of changes in tannin structure. Wine tannins from older wines were generally larger than tannins from younger wines and showed structural changes consistent with oxidation.


Assuntos
Fenóis/análise , Vinho/análise , Austrália , Cor , Sensação , Taninos/análise , Fatores de Tempo
9.
Molecules ; 16(3): 2348-64, 2011 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21399572

RESUMO

Astringency is an important characteristic of red wine quality. The sensation is generally thought to be produced by the interaction of wine tannins with salivary proteins and the subsequent aggregation and precipitation of protein-tannin complexes. The importance of wine astringency for marketability has led to a wealth of research on the causes of astringency and how tannins impact the quality of the sensation, particularly with respect to tannin structure. Ultimately, the understanding of how tannin structure impacts astringency will allow the controlled manipulation of tannins via such methods as micro-oxygenation or fining to improve the quality of wines.


Assuntos
Taninos/farmacologia , Vinho/análise , Interações de Medicamentos , Humanos , Proteínas e Peptídeos Salivares
10.
J Agric Food Chem ; 58(23): 12510-8, 2010 Dec 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21070019

RESUMO

The astringency of red wine is largely due to the interaction between wine tannins and salivary proline-rich proteins and is known to change as wine ages. To further understand the mechanisms behind wine astringency change over time, thermodynamics of the interactions between poly(l-proline) (PLP) and grape seed and skin tannins (preveraison (PV) and commercially ripe) or Shiraz wine tannins (2 years old and 9-10 years old) was analyzed using isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC). The nature of these interactions varied with changes to the tannin structure that are associated with maturation. The change in enthalpy associated with hydrophobic interaction and hydrogen bonding decreased with tannin age and the stoichiometry of binding indicated that grape tannins associated with more proline residues than wine tannins, irrespective of molecular size. These results could provide an explanation for the observed change in wine astringency quality with age.


Assuntos
Aromatizantes/química , Peptídeos/química , Taninos/química , Vitis/química , Vinho/análise , Estrutura Molecular , Extratos Vegetais/química , Termodinâmica
11.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 116(3): 554-60, 2008 Mar 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18289814

RESUMO

AIM OF THE STUDY: The leaves of Planchonia careya (F. Muell.) R. Knuth (Lecythidaceae) have been traditionally implemented in the treatment of wounds by the indigenous people of northern Australia, although the compounds responsible for the medicinal properties have not been identified. In this study, antibacterial compounds from the leaf extracts were isolated and characterized, and the biological activity of each compound was assessed. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Compounds were isolated from the leaf extracts using HPLC-piloted activity-guided fractionation. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were assessed with plate-hole diffusion assays, and the cytotoxicity was determined with MTT assays using monkey kidney epithelial (MA104) cells. RESULTS: Six known compounds were isolated from the leaf extracts and were identified as 1, (+)-gallocatechin; 2, gallocatechin-(4alpha-->8)-gallocatechin; 3, 9(S)-hydroxy-10E,12Z-octadecadienoic acid (alpha-dimorphecolic acid); 4, 2alpha,3beta,24-trihydroxyolean-12-en-28-oic acid (hyptatic acid-A); 5, 3beta-O-cis-p-coumaroyltormentic acid; and 6, 3beta-O-trans-p-coumaroyltormentic acid. Compounds 5 and 6 were weakly selective for vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE) compared with eukaryotic cells, with an MIC of 59.4microg/mL and a 50% inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) of 72.0microg/mL for MA104 cells. CONCLUSIONS: The isolation of six antibacterial compounds from the leaves of Planchonia careya validates the use of this species as a topical wound-healing remedy.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Lecythidaceae/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Animais , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/toxicidade , Linhagem Celular , Células Epiteliais/citologia , Células Epiteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Haplorrinos , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Extratos Vegetais/toxicidade , Folhas de Planta/química
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA