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1.
Am J Hum Genet ; 2022 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35051358

RESUMO

Nuclear deubiquitinase BAP1 (BRCA1-associated protein 1) is a core component of multiprotein complexes that promote transcription by reversing the ubiquitination of histone 2A (H2A). BAP1 is a tumor suppressor whose germline loss-of-function variants predispose to cancer. To our knowledge, there are very rare examples of different germline variants in the same gene causing either a neurodevelopmental disorder (NDD) or a tumor predisposition syndrome. Here, we report a series of 11 de novo germline heterozygous missense BAP1 variants associated with a rare syndromic NDD. Functional analysis showed that most of the variants cannot rescue the consequences of BAP1 inactivation, suggesting a loss-of-function mechanism. In T cells isolated from two affected children, H2A deubiquitination was impaired. In matching peripheral blood mononuclear cells, histone H3 K27 acetylation ChIP-seq indicated that these BAP1 variants induced genome-wide chromatin state alterations, with enrichment for regulatory regions surrounding genes of the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS). Altogether, these results define a clinical syndrome caused by rare germline missense BAP1 variants that alter chromatin remodeling through abnormal histone ubiquitination and lead to transcriptional dysregulation of developmental genes.

2.
HGG Adv ; 2(4)2021 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34950897

RESUMO

Xia-Gibbs syndrome (XGS; MIM: 615829) is a phenotypically heterogeneous neurodevelopmental disorder (NDD) caused by newly arising mutations in the AT-Hook DNA-Binding Motif-Containing 1 (AHDC1) gene that are predicted to lead to truncated AHDC1 protein synthesis. More than 270 individuals have been diagnosed with XGS worldwide. Despite the absence of an independent assay for AHDC1 protein function to corroborate potential functional consequences of rare variant genetic findings, there are also reports of individuals with XGS-like trait manifestations who have de novo missense AHDC1 mutations and who have been provided a molecular diagnosis of the disorder. To investigate a potential contribution of missense mutations to XGS, we mapped the missense mutations from 10 such individuals to the AHDC1 conserved protein domain structure and detailed the observed phenotypes. Five newly identified individuals were ascertained from a local XGS Registry, and an additional five were taken from external reports or databases, including one publication. Where clinical data were available, individuals with missense mutations all displayed phenotypes consistent with those observed in individuals with AHDC1 truncating mutations, including delayed motor milestones, intellectual disability (ID), hypotonia, and speech delay. A subset of the 10 reported missense mutations cluster in two regions of the AHDC1 protein with known conserved domains, likely representing functional motifs. Variants outside the clustered regions score lower for computational prediction of their likely damaging effects. Overall, de novo missense variants in AHDC1 are likely diagnostic of XGS when in silico analysis of their position relative to conserved regions is considered together with disease trait manifestations.

4.
Am J Med Genet A ; 185(12): 3728-3739, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34346154

RESUMO

Kinesin super family (KIF) genes encode motor kinesins, a family of evolutionary conserved proteins, involved in intracellular trafficking of various cargoes. These proteins are critical for various physiological processes including neuron function and survival, ciliary function and ciliogenesis, and cell-cycle progression. Recent evidence suggests that alterations in motor kinesin genes can lead to a variety of human diseases, including monogenic disorders. Neuropathies, impaired higher brain functions, structural brain abnormalities and multiple congenital anomalies (i.e., renal, urogenital, and limb anomalies) can result from pathogenic variants in many KIF genes. We expand the phenotype associated with KIF4A variants from developmental delay and intellectual disability with or without epilepsy to a congenital anomaly phenotype with hydrocephalus and various brain anomalies at the more severe end of phenotypic manifestations. Additional anomalies of the kidneys and urinary tract, congenital lymphedema, eye, and dental anomalies seem to be variably associated and overlap with clinical signs observed in other kinesinopathies. Caution still applies to missense variants, but hopefully, future work will further establish genotype-phenotype correlations in a larger number of patients and functional studies may give further insights into the complex function of KIF4A.

5.
Ann Neurol ; 90(2): 274-284, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34185323

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The MAST family of microtubule-associated serine-threonine kinases (STKs) have distinct expression patterns in the developing and mature human and mouse brain. To date, only MAST1 has been conclusively associated with neurological disease, with de novo variants in individuals with a neurodevelopmental disorder, including a mega corpus callosum. METHODS: Using exome sequencing, we identify MAST3 missense variants in individuals with epilepsy. We also assess the effect of these variants on the ability of MAST3 to phosphorylate the target gene product ARPP-16 in HEK293T cells. RESULTS: We identify de novo missense variants in the STK domain in 11 individuals, including 2 recurrent variants p.G510S (n = 5) and p.G515S (n = 3). All 11 individuals had developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, with 8 having normal development prior to seizure onset at <2 years of age. All patients developed multiple seizure types, 9 of 11 patients had seizures triggered by fever and 9 of 11 patients had drug-resistant seizures. In vitro analysis of HEK293T cells transfected with MAST3 cDNA carrying a subset of these patient-specific missense variants demonstrated variable but generally lower expression, with concomitant increased phosphorylation of the MAST3 target, ARPP-16, compared to wild-type. These findings suggest the patient-specific variants may confer MAST3 gain-of-function. Moreover, single-nuclei RNA sequencing and immunohistochemistry shows that MAST3 expression is restricted to excitatory neurons in the cortex late in prenatal development and postnatally. INTERPRETATION: In summary, we describe MAST3 as a novel epilepsy-associated gene with a potential gain-of-function pathogenic mechanism that may be primarily restricted to excitatory neurons in the cortex. ANN NEUROL 2021;90:274-284.


Assuntos
Epilepsia/diagnóstico por imagem , Epilepsia/genética , Variação Genética/genética , Proteínas Associadas aos Microtúbulos/genética , /genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Epilepsia/metabolismo , Feminino , Seguimentos , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Proteínas Associadas aos Microtúbulos/biossíntese , Adulto Jovem
6.
Sci Adv ; 7(20)2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33980485

RESUMO

Intellectual disability encompasses a wide spectrum of neurodevelopmental disorders, with many linked genetic loci. However, the underlying molecular mechanism for more than 50% of the patients remains elusive. We describe pathogenic variants in SMARCA5, encoding the ATPase motor of the ISWI chromatin remodeler, as a cause of a previously unidentified neurodevelopmental disorder, identifying 12 individuals with de novo or dominantly segregating rare heterozygous variants. Accompanying phenotypes include mild developmental delay, frequent postnatal short stature and microcephaly, and recurrent dysmorphic features. Loss of function of the SMARCA5 Drosophila ortholog Iswi led to smaller body size, reduced sensory dendrite complexity, and tiling defects in larvae. In adult flies, Iswi neural knockdown caused decreased brain size, aberrant mushroom body morphology, and abnormal locomotor function. Iswi loss of function was rescued by wild-type but not mutant SMARCA5. Our results demonstrate that SMARCA5 pathogenic variants cause a neurodevelopmental syndrome with mild facial dysmorphia.

7.
Am J Med Genet A ; 185(8): 2417-2433, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34042254

RESUMO

Biallelic loss-of-function variants in the thrombospondin-type laminin G domain and epilepsy-associated repeats (TSPEAR) gene have recently been associated with ectodermal dysplasia and hearing loss. The first reports describing a TSPEAR disease association identified this gene is a cause of nonsyndromic hearing loss, but subsequent reports involving additional affected families have questioned this evidence and suggested a stronger association with ectodermal dysplasia. To clarify genotype-phenotype associations for TSPEAR variants, we characterized 13 individuals with biallelic TSPEAR variants. Individuals underwent either exome sequencing or panel-based genetic testing. Nearly all of these newly reported individuals (11/13) have phenotypes that include tooth agenesis or ectodermal dysplasia, while three newly reported individuals have hearing loss. Of the individuals displaying hearing loss, all have additional variants in other hearing-loss-associated genes, specifically TMPRSS3, GJB2, and GJB6, that present competing candidates for their hearing loss phenotype. When presented alongside previous reports, the overall evidence supports the association of TSPEAR variants with ectodermal dysplasia and tooth agenesis features but creates significant doubt as to whether TSPEAR variants are a monogenic cause of hearing loss. Further functional evidence is needed to evaluate this phenotypic association.

8.
Am J Hum Genet ; 108(5): 929-941, 2021 05 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33811806

RESUMO

Proteins involved in transcriptional regulation harbor a demonstrated enrichment of mutations in neurodevelopmental disorders. The Sin3 (Swi-independent 3)/histone deacetylase (HDAC) complex plays a central role in histone deacetylation and transcriptional repression. Among the two vertebrate paralogs encoding the Sin3 complex, SIN3A variants cause syndromic intellectual disability, but the clinical consequences of SIN3B haploinsufficiency in humans are uncharacterized. Here, we describe a syndrome hallmarked by intellectual disability, developmental delay, and dysmorphic facial features with variably penetrant autism spectrum disorder, congenital malformations, corpus callosum defects, and impaired growth caused by disruptive SIN3B variants. Using chromosomal microarray or exome sequencing, and through international data sharing efforts, we identified nine individuals with heterozygous SIN3B deletion or single-nucleotide variants. Five individuals harbor heterozygous deletions encompassing SIN3B that reside within a ∼230 kb minimal region of overlap on 19p13.11, two individuals have a rare nonsynonymous substitution, and two individuals have a single-nucleotide deletion that results in a frameshift and predicted premature termination codon. To test the relevance of SIN3B impairment to measurable aspects of the human phenotype, we disrupted the orthologous zebrafish locus by genome editing and transient suppression. The mutant and morphant larvae display altered craniofacial patterning, commissural axon defects, and reduced body length supportive of an essential role for Sin3 function in growth and patterning of anterior structures. To investigate further the molecular consequences of SIN3B variants, we quantified genome-wide enhancer and promoter activity states by using H3K27ac ChIP-seq. We show that, similar to SIN3A mutations, SIN3B disruption causes hyperacetylation of a subset of enhancers and promoters in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Together, these data demonstrate that SIN3B haploinsufficiency leads to a hitherto unknown intellectual disability/autism syndrome, uncover a crucial role of SIN3B in the central nervous system, and define the epigenetic landscape associated with Sin3 complex impairment.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/genética , Haploinsuficiência/genética , Histona Desacetilases/metabolismo , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Proteínas Repressoras/genética , Acetilação , Adolescente , Animais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA/genética , Feminino , Histonas/química , Histonas/metabolismo , Humanos , Lactente , Larva/genética , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Moleculares , Mutação , Proteínas Repressoras/deficiência , Proteínas Repressoras/metabolismo , Síndrome , Adulto Jovem , Peixe-Zebra/genética , Proteínas de Peixe-Zebra/deficiência , Proteínas de Peixe-Zebra/genética
9.
Am J Hum Genet ; 108(3): 502-516, 2021 03 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33596411

RESUMO

Deletion 1p36 (del1p36) syndrome is the most common human disorder resulting from a terminal autosomal deletion. This condition is molecularly and clinically heterogeneous. Deletions involving two non-overlapping regions, known as the distal (telomeric) and proximal (centromeric) critical regions, are sufficient to cause the majority of the recurrent clinical features, although with different facial features and dysmorphisms. SPEN encodes a transcriptional repressor commonly deleted in proximal del1p36 syndrome and is located centromeric to the proximal 1p36 critical region. Here, we used clinical data from 34 individuals with truncating variants in SPEN to define a neurodevelopmental disorder presenting with features that overlap considerably with those of proximal del1p36 syndrome. The clinical profile of this disease includes developmental delay/intellectual disability, autism spectrum disorder, anxiety, aggressive behavior, attention deficit disorder, hypotonia, brain and spine anomalies, congenital heart defects, high/narrow palate, facial dysmorphisms, and obesity/increased BMI, especially in females. SPEN also emerges as a relevant gene for del1p36 syndrome by co-expression analyses. Finally, we show that haploinsufficiency of SPEN is associated with a distinctive DNA methylation episignature of the X chromosome in affected females, providing further evidence of a specific contribution of the protein to the epigenetic control of this chromosome, and a paradigm of an X chromosome-specific episignature that classifies syndromic traits. We conclude that SPEN is required for multiple developmental processes and SPEN haploinsufficiency is a major contributor to a disorder associated with deletions centromeric to the previously established 1p36 critical regions.


Assuntos
Transtornos Cromossômicos/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 1/genética , Cromossomos Humanos X/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/genética , Adolescente , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/genética , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/patologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Deleção Cromossômica , Transtornos Cromossômicos/fisiopatologia , Metilação de DNA/genética , Epigênese Genética/genética , Feminino , Haploinsuficiência/genética , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/genética , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/fisiopatologia , Fenótipo , Adulto Jovem
10.
J Child Neurol ; 36(2): 93-98, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32928027

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe a founder mutation effect and the clinical phenotype of homozygous FRRS1L c.737_739delGAG (p.Gly246del) variant in 15 children of Puerto Rican (Boricua) ancestry presenting with early infantile epileptic encephalopathy (EIEE-37) with prominent movement disorder. BACKGROUND: EIEE-37 is caused by biallelic loss of function variants in the FRRS1L gene, which is critical for AMPA-receptor function, resulting in intractable epilepsy and dyskinesia. METHODS: A retrospective, multicenter chart review of patients sharing the same homozygous FRRS1L (p.Gly246del) pathogenic variant identified by clinical genetic testing. Clinical information was collected regarding neurodevelopmental outcomes, neuroimaging, electrographic features and clinical response to antiseizure medications. RESULTS: Fifteen patients from 12 different families of Puerto Rican ancestry were homozygous for the FRRS1L (p.Gly246del) pathogenic variant, with ages ranging from 1 to 25 years. The onset of seizures was from 6 to 24 months. All had hypotonia, severe global developmental delay, and most had hyperkinetic involuntary movements. Developmental regression during the first year of life was common (86%). Electroencephalogram showed hypsarrhythmia in 66% (10/15), with many older children evolving into Lennox-Gastaut syndrome. Six patients demonstrated progressive volume loss and/or cerebellar atrophy on brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). CONCLUSIONS: We describe the largest cohort to date of patients with epileptic encephalopathy. We estimate that 0.76% of unaffected individuals of Puerto Rican ancestry carry this pathogenic variant due to a founder effect. Children homozygous for the FRRS1L (p.Gly246del) Boricua variant exhibit a very homogenous phenotype of early developmental regression and epilepsy, starting with infantile spasms and evolving into Lennox-Gastaut syndrome with hyperkinetic movement disorder.


Assuntos
/genética , Síndrome de Lennox-Gastaut/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Mutação/genética , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Espasmos Infantis/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Eletroencefalografia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Porto Rico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Espasmos Infantis/fisiopatologia , Adulto Jovem
11.
Genet Med ; 23(4): 740-750, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33239752

RESUMO

PURPOSE: In this study we investigate the disease etiology in 12 patients with de novo variants in FAR1 all resulting in an amino acid change at position 480 (p.Arg480Cys/His/Leu). METHODS: Following next-generation sequencing and clinical phenotyping, functional characterization was performed in patients' fibroblasts using FAR1 enzyme analysis, FAR1 immunoblotting/immunofluorescence, and lipidomics. RESULTS: All patients had spastic paraparesis and bilateral congenital/juvenile cataracts, in most combined with speech and gross motor developmental delay and truncal hypotonia. FAR1 deficiency caused by biallelic variants results in defective ether lipid synthesis and plasmalogen deficiency. In contrast, patients' fibroblasts with the de novo FAR1 variants showed elevated plasmalogen levels. Further functional studies in fibroblasts showed that these variants cause a disruption of the plasmalogen-dependent feedback regulation of FAR1 protein levels leading to uncontrolled ether lipid production. CONCLUSION: Heterozygous de novo variants affecting the Arg480 residue of FAR1 lead to an autosomal dominant disorder with a different disease mechanism than that of recessive FAR1 deficiency and a diametrically opposed biochemical phenotype. Our findings show that for patients with spastic paraparesis and bilateral cataracts, FAR1 should be considered as a candidate gene and added to gene panels for hereditary spastic paraplegia, cerebral palsy, and juvenile cataracts.


Assuntos
Aldeído Oxirredutases/genética , Éteres , Lipídeos , Paraplegia Espástica Hereditária/genética , Humanos , Fenótipo
12.
Genet Med ; 23(2): 384-395, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33173220

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We sought to delineate the genotypic and phenotypic spectrum of female and male individuals with X-linked, MSL3-related disorder (Basilicata-Akhtar syndrome). METHODS: Twenty-five individuals (15 males, 10 females) with causative variants in MSL3 were ascertained through exome or genome sequencing at ten different sequencing centers. RESULTS: We identified multiple variant types in MSL3 (ten nonsense, six frameshift, four splice site, three missense, one in-frame-deletion, one multi-exon deletion), most proven to be de novo, and clustering in the terminal eight exons suggesting that truncating variants in the first five exons might be compensated by an alternative MSL3 transcript. Three-dimensional modeling of missense and splice variants indicated that these have a deleterious effect. The main clinical findings comprised developmental delay and intellectual disability ranging from mild to severe. Autism spectrum disorder, muscle tone abnormalities, and macrocephaly were common as well as hearing impairment and gastrointestinal problems. Hypoplasia of the cerebellar vermis emerged as a consistent magnetic resonance image (MRI) finding. Females and males were equally affected. Using facial analysis technology, a recognizable facial gestalt was determined. CONCLUSION: Our aggregated data illustrate the genotypic and phenotypic spectrum of X-linked, MSL3-related disorder (Basilicata-Akhtar syndrome). Our cohort improves the understanding of disease related morbidity and allows us to propose detailed surveillance guidelines for affected individuals.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Deficiência Intelectual , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/genética , Proteínas Cromossômicas não Histona , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA , Feminino , Genes Ligados ao Cromossomo X , Genótipo , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Masculino , Fenótipo , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
13.
Genet Med ; 23(3): 543-554, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33149277

RESUMO

PURPOSE: A few de novo missense variants in the cytoplasmic FMRP-interacting protein 2 (CYFIP2) gene have recently been described as a novel cause of severe intellectual disability, seizures, and hypotonia in 18 individuals, with p.Arg87 substitutions in the majority. METHODS: We assembled data from 19 newly identified and all 18 previously published individuals with CYFIP2 variants. By structural modeling and investigation of WAVE-regulatory complex (WRC)-mediated actin polymerization in six patient fibroblast lines we assessed the impact of CYFIP2 variants on the WRC. RESULTS: Sixteen of 19 individuals harbor two previously described and 11 novel (likely) disease-associated missense variants. We report p.Asp724 as second mutational hotspot (4/19 cases). Genotype-phenotype correlation confirms a consistently severe phenotype in p.Arg87 patients but a more variable phenotype in p.Asp724 and other substitutions. Three individuals with milder phenotypes carry putative loss-of-function variants, which remain of unclear pathogenicity. Structural modeling predicted missense variants to disturb interactions within the WRC or impair CYFIP2 stability. Consistent with its role in WRC-mediated actin polymerization we substantiate aberrant regulation of the actin cytoskeleton in patient fibroblasts. CONCLUSION: Our study expands the clinical and molecular spectrum of CYFIP2-related neurodevelopmental disorder and provides evidence for aberrant WRC-mediated actin dynamics as contributing cellular pathomechanism.


Assuntos
Deficiência Intelectual , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento , Actinas/genética , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/metabolismo , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/genética , Convulsões
14.
Mol Psychiatry ; 26(6): 2013-2024, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32346159

RESUMO

Defects in histone methyltransferases (HMTs) are major contributing factors in neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs). Heterozygous variants of SETD1A involved in histone H3 lysine 4 (H3K4) methylation were previously identified in individuals with schizophrenia. Here, we define the clinical features of the Mendelian syndrome associated with haploinsufficiency of SETD1A by investigating 15 predominantly pediatric individuals who all have de novo SETD1A variants. These individuals present with a core set of symptoms comprising global developmental delay and/or intellectual disability, subtle facial dysmorphisms, behavioral and psychiatric problems. We examined cellular phenotypes in three patient-derived lymphoblastoid cell lines with three variants: p.Gly535Alafs*12, c.4582-2_4582delAG, and p.Tyr1499Asp. These patient cell lines displayed DNA damage repair defects that were comparable to previously observed RNAi-mediated depletion of SETD1A. This suggested that these variants, including the p.Tyr1499Asp in the catalytic SET domain, behave as loss-of-function (LoF) alleles. Previous studies demonstrated a role for SETD1A in cell cycle control and differentiation. However, individuals with SETD1A variants do not show major structural brain defects or severe microcephaly, suggesting that defective proliferation and differentiation of neural progenitors is unlikely the single underlying cause of the disorder. We show here that the Drosophila melanogaster SETD1A orthologue is required in postmitotic neurons of the fly brain for normal memory, suggesting a role in post development neuronal function. Together, this study defines a neurodevelopmental disorder caused by dominant de novo LoF variants in SETD1A and further supports a role for H3K4 methyltransferases in the regulation of neuronal processes underlying normal cognitive functioning.


Assuntos
Deficiência Intelectual , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento , Animais , Criança , Drosophila , Drosophila melanogaster , Haploinsuficiência/genética , Histona-Lisina N-Metiltransferase/genética , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/genética
15.
HGG Adv ; 2(2): 100024, 2021 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35047834

RESUMO

Activating Signal Cointegrator 1 Complex, Subunit 3 (ASCC3) is part of the four-part ASC-1 transcriptional cointegrator complex. This complex includes ASCC1 (associated with spinal muscular atrophy with congenital bone fractures 2), TRIP4 (associated with spinal muscular atrophy with congenital bone fractures 1), and ASCC2 (not yet associated with human disease.) ASCC3 encodes a DNA helicase responsible for generating single-stranded DNA as part of the DNA damage response. Interestingly, ASCC3 expresses coding and non-coding isoforms, which act in opposition to balance the recovery of gene transcription after UV-induced DNA damage. Here we report the discovery of ASCC3 as the cause of a neuromuscular syndrome in seven unreported individuals from six unrelated families and updates on the one previously reported family. All the individuals share a neurologic phenotype that ranges from severe developmental delay to muscle fatigue. There appears to be genotype-phenotype correlation, as the most mildly affected individual is homozygous for a rare missense variant, while the more severely affected individuals are compound heterozygotes for a missense and a presumed loss-of-function (LOF) variant. There are no individuals with biallelic presumed LOF variants in our cohort or in gnomAD, as this genotype may not be compatible with life. In summary we report a syndrome in these eleven individuals from seven families with biallelic variants in ASCC3.

16.
Clin Genet ; 98(6): 571-576, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33009664

RESUMO

The gamma-1 isoform of casein kinase 1, the protein encoded by CSNK1G1, is involved in the growth and morphogenesis of cells. This protein is expressed ubiquitously among many tissue types, including the brain, where it regulates the phosphorylation of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors and plays a role in synaptic transmission. One prior individual with a de novo variant in CSNK1G presenting with severe developmental delay and early-onset epilepsy has been reported. Here we report an updated clinical history of this previously published case, as well as four additional individuals with de novo variants in CSNK1G1 identified via microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization, exome, or genome sequencing. All individuals (n = 5) had developmental delay. At least three individuals had diagnoses of autism spectrum disorder. All participants were noted to have dysmorphic facial features, although the reported findings varied widely and therefore may not clearly be recognizable. None of the participants had additional major malformations. Taken together, our data suggest that CSNK1G1 may be a cause of syndromic developmental delay and possibly autism spectrum disorder.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/genética , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Adolescente , Adulto , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/patologia , Caseína Quinase II/genética , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Hibridização Genômica Comparativa , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/patologia , Feminino , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Masculino , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma , Adulto Jovem
17.
Hum Mol Genet ; 29(20): 3388-3401, 2020 12 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33073849

RESUMO

Membrane Protein Palmitoylated 5 (MPP5) is a highly conserved apical complex protein essential for cell polarity, fate and survival. Defects in cell polarity are associated with neurologic disorders including autism and microcephaly. MPP5 is essential for neurogenesis in animal models, but human variants leading to neurologic impairment have not been described. We identified three patients with heterozygous MPP5 de novo variants (DNV) and global developmental delay (GDD) and compared their phenotypes and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to ascertain how MPP5 DNV leads to GDD. All three patients with MPP5 DNV experienced GDD with language delay/regression and behavioral changes. MRI ranged from normal to decreased gyral folding and microcephaly. The effects of MPP5 depletion on the developing brain were assessed by creating a heterozygous conditional knock out (het CKO) murine model with central nervous system (CNS)-specific Nestin-Cre drivers. In the het CKO model, Mpp5 depletion led to microcephaly, decreased cerebellar volume and cortical thickness. Het CKO mice had decreased ependymal cells and Mpp5 at the apical surface of cortical ventricular zone compared with wild type. Het CKO mice also failed to maintain progenitor pools essential for neurogenesis. The proportion of cortical cells undergoing apoptotic cell death increased, suggesting that cell death reduces progenitor population and neuron number. Het CKO mice also showed behavioral changes, similar to our patients. To our knowledge, this is the first report to show that variants in MPP5 are associated with GDD, behavioral abnormalities and language regression/delay. Murine modeling shows that neurogenesis is likely altered in these individuals, with cell death and skewed cellular composition playing significant roles.


Assuntos
Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/etiologia , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/fisiologia , Mutação , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/etiologia , Núcleosídeo-Fosfato Quinase/genética , Núcleosídeo-Fosfato Quinase/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Animais , Criança , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/metabolismo , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/metabolismo , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/patologia , Adulto Jovem
18.
Am J Hum Genet ; 107(3): 544-554, 2020 09 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32730804

RESUMO

RNA polymerase II interacts with various other complexes and factors to ensure correct initiation, elongation, and termination of mRNA transcription. One of these proteins is SR-related CTD-associated factor 4 (SCAF4), which is important for correct usage of polyA sites for mRNA termination. Using exome sequencing and international matchmaking, we identified nine likely pathogenic germline variants in SCAF4 including two splice-site and seven truncating variants, all residing in the N-terminal two thirds of the protein. Eight of these variants occurred de novo, and one was inherited. Affected individuals demonstrated a variable neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by mild intellectual disability, seizures, behavioral abnormalities, and various skeletal and structural anomalies. Paired-end RNA sequencing on blood lymphocytes of SCAF4-deficient individuals revealed a broad deregulation of more than 9,000 genes and significant differential splicing of more than 2,900 genes, indicating an important role of SCAF4 in mRNA processing. Knockdown of the SCAF4 ortholog CG4266 in the model organism Drosophila melanogaster resulted in impaired locomotor function, learning, and short-term memory. Furthermore, we observed an increased number of active zones in larval neuromuscular junctions, representing large glutamatergic synapses. These observations indicate a role of CG4266 in nervous system development and function and support the implication of SCAF4 in neurodevelopmental phenotypes. In summary, our data show that heterozygous, likely gene-disrupting variants in SCAF4 are causative for a variable neurodevelopmental disorder associated with impaired mRNA processing.


Assuntos
Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/genética , Convulsões/genética , Fatores de Processamento de Serina-Arginina/genética , Animais , Criança , Drosophila melanogaster/genética , Feminino , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Variação Genética/genética , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/fisiopatologia , Locomoção/genética , Masculino , Mutação/genética , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/fisiopatologia , RNA Polimerase II/genética , Processamento Pós-Transcricional do RNA/genética , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Convulsões/fisiopatologia , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
19.
Am J Med Genet A ; 182(9): 2037-2048, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32710489

RESUMO

The SET domain containing 2, histone lysine methyltransferase encoded by SETD2 is a dual-function methyltransferase for histones and microtubules and plays an important role for transcriptional regulation, genomic stability, and cytoskeletal functions. Specifically, SETD2 is associated with trimethylation of histone H3 at lysine 36 (H3K36me3) and methylation of α-tubulin at lysine 40. Heterozygous loss of function and missense variants have previously been described with Luscan-Lumish syndrome (LLS), which is characterized by overgrowth, neurodevelopmental features, and absence of overt congenital anomalies. We have identified 15 individuals with de novo variants in codon 1740 of SETD2 whose features differ from those with LLS. Group 1 consists of 12 individuals with heterozygous variant c.5218C>T p.(Arg1740Trp) and Group 2 consists of 3 individuals with heterozygous variant c.5219G>A p.(Arg1740Gln). The phenotype of Group 1 includes microcephaly, profound intellectual disability, congenital anomalies affecting several organ systems, and similar facial features. Individuals in Group 2 had moderate to severe intellectual disability, low normal head circumference, and absence of additional major congenital anomalies. While LLS is likely due to loss of function of SETD2, the clinical features seen in individuals with variants affecting codon 1740 are more severe suggesting an alternative mechanism, such as gain of function, effects on epigenetic regulation, or posttranslational modification of the cytoskeleton. Our report is a prime example of different mutations in the same gene causing diverging phenotypes and the features observed in Group 1 suggest a new clinically recognizable syndrome uniquely associated with the heterozygous variant c.5218C>T p.(Arg1740Trp) in SETD2.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença , Histona-Lisina N-Metiltransferase/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/genética , Tubulina (Proteína)/genética , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Códon/genética , Epigênese Genética/genética , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Humanos , Lactente , Deficiência Intelectual/patologia , Mutação com Perda de Função/genética , Masculino , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Malformações do Sistema Nervoso/genética , Malformações do Sistema Nervoso/patologia , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/fisiopatologia
20.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3698, 2020 07 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32703943

RESUMO

Intellectual disability (ID) is a heterogeneous clinical entity and includes an excess of males who harbor variants on the X-chromosome (XLID). We report rare FAM50A missense variants in the original Armfield XLID syndrome family localized in Xq28 and four additional unrelated males with overlapping features. Our fam50a knockout (KO) zebrafish model exhibits abnormal neurogenesis and craniofacial patterning, and in vivo complementation assays indicate that the patient-derived variants are hypomorphic. RNA sequencing analysis from fam50a KO zebrafish show dysregulation of the transcriptome, with augmented spliceosome mRNAs and depletion of transcripts involved in neurodevelopment. Zebrafish RNA-seq datasets show a preponderance of 3' alternative splicing events in fam50a KO, suggesting a role in the spliceosome C complex. These data are supported with transcriptomic signatures from cell lines derived from affected individuals and FAM50A protein-protein interaction data. In sum, Armfield XLID syndrome is a spliceosomopathy associated with aberrant mRNA processing during development.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Retardo Mental Ligado ao Cromossomo X/genética , Mutação/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/genética , Spliceossomos/metabolismo , Proteínas de Peixe-Zebra/genética , Adulto , Animais , Núcleo Celular/metabolismo , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , Família , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto/genética , Células NIH 3T3 , Linhagem , Fenótipo , Transporte Proteico , Splicing de RNA/genética , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , RNA Nuclear Pequeno/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/metabolismo , Síndrome , Peixe-Zebra/genética , Proteínas de Peixe-Zebra/metabolismo
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