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1.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 116(34): 16787-16792, 2019 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31383763

RESUMO

Attachment disorganization is a risk factor for difficulties in attention, social relationships, and mental health. Conceptually, attachment disorganization may indicate a breakdown in fear regulation resulting from repeated exposure to frightening maternal care. In addition, past research has examined the influence of stress-inducing contextual factors and/or child factors upon the development of disorganization. However, no past work has assessed whether infant neuroanatomy, important to stress regulation, moderates the association between maternal care and levels of disorganized behavior. Here, utilizing data from a subsample of 82 dyads taking part in the "Growing Up in Singapore towards Healthy Outcomes" (GUSTO) cohort, we assessed the prediction from maternal sensitive caregiving at 6 mo and levels of attachment disorganization at 1.5 y, as moderated by hippocampal and amygdala volume determined within the first 2 weeks of life. Results indicate a significant interaction between neonatal left hippocampal volume and maternal sensitivity upon levels of disorganized behavior. Although these results require substantiation in further research, if replicated, they may enable new strategies for the identification of processes important to child mental health and points for intervention. This is because neonatal neuroanatomy, as opposed to genetic variation and sociodemographic risk, may be more directly linked to stress responses within individuals.

2.
BMC Pediatr ; 19(1): 286, 2019 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31419962

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although infant media exposure has received attention for its implications on child development, upstream risk factors contributing to media exposure have rarely been explored. The study aim was to examine the relationship between maternal risk factors, infant television (TV) viewing, and later child cognition. METHODS: We used a prospective population-based birth cohort study, Growing Up in Singapore Towards healthy Outcomes (GUSTO), with 1247 pregnant mothers recruited in their first trimester. We first explored the relationship of infant TV exposure at 12 months and the composite IQ score at 4.5 years, as measured by the Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test, Second Edition (KBIT-2). Multivariable linear regressions were adjusted for maternal education, maternal mental health, child variables, birth parameters, and other relevant confounders. We then examined the associations of maternal risk factors with the amount of daily TV viewing of 12-month-old infants. Path analysis followed, to test a conceptual model designed a priori to test our hypotheses. RESULTS: The average amount of TV viewing at 12 months was 2.0 h/day (SD 1.9). TV viewing in hours per day was a significant exposure variable for composite IQ (ß = - 1.55; 95% CI: - 2.81 to - 0.28) and verbal IQ (ß = - 1.77; 95% CI: - 3.22 to - 0.32) at 4.5 years. Our path analysis demonstrated that lower maternal education and worse maternal mood (standardized ß = - 0.27 and 0.14, respectively, p < 0.01 for both variables) were both risk factors for more media exposure. This path analysis also showed that maternal mood and infant TV strongly mediated the relationship between maternal education and child cognition, with an exceptional model fit (CFI > 0.99, AIC 15249.82, RMSEA < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Infant TV exposure has a negative association with later cognition. Lower maternal education and suboptimal maternal mental health are risk factors for greater television viewing. Paediatricians have a role in considering and addressing early risks that may encourage television viewing.

3.
Transl Psychiatry ; 9(1): 201, 2019 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31434874

RESUMO

Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a condition of stress reactivity, whose clinical manifestations are evident when patients are triggered following exposure to a traumatic event. While baseline differences in gene expression of glucocorticoid signaling and inflammatory cytokines in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) have been associated with PTSD, these alterations do not fully recapitulate the molecular response to physiological triggers, such as stress hormones. Therefore, it is critical to develop new techniques that will capture the dynamic transcriptional response associated with stress-activated conditions relative to baseline conditions. To achieve this goal, cultured PBMCs from combat-exposed veterans with PTSD(+) (n = 10) and without PTSD(-) (n = 10) were incubated with increasing concentrations (vehicle, 2.5 nM, 5 nM, 50 nM) of dexamethasone (DEX). Across diagnosis and dosage, several genes and gene networks were reliable markers of glucocorticoid stimulation (FDR < 5%), including enhanced expression of FKPB5, VIPR1, NR1I3, and apoptosis-related pathways, and reduced expression of NR3C1, STAT1, IRF1, and related inflammatory and cellular stress-responsive pathways. Dose-dependent differential transcriptional changes in several genes were also identified between PTSD+ and PTSD-. Robust changes in expression were observed at 2.5 nM DEX in PTSD- but not PTSD+ participants; whereas, with increasing concentrations (5 nM and 50 nM), several genes were identified to be uniquely up-regulated in PTSD+ but not PTSD- participants. Collectively, these preliminary findings suggest that genome-wide gene expression profiling of DEX-stimulated PBMCs is a promising method for the exploration of the dynamic differential molecular responses to stress hormones in PTSD, and may identify novel markers of altered glucocorticoid signaling and responsivity in PTSD.

4.
J Neuroendocrinol ; : e12784, 2019 Aug 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31442354

RESUMO

Parental care has a strong impact on neurodevelopment and mental health in the offspring. Although numerous animal studies have revealed that the parental brain is a highly complex system involving many brain structures and neuroendocrine systems, human maternal parenting as a multidimensional construct with cognitive, emotional, and behavioural components has not been characterised comprehensively. This unique multi-method analysis aimed to examine patterns of self-reported and observed parenting from 6 to 60 months postpartum in a cohort of 496 mothers (mean maternal age = 32 years). Self-report questionnaires assessed motivational components of mothering, parenting stress, parenting-related mood, maternal investment, maternal parenting style, mother-child relationship satisfaction, and mother-child bonding at multiple time points. Observed parenting variables included the Ainsworth Sensitivity Scales at 6 and 18 months, the Behavioral Evaluation Strategies Taxonomies at 6 months, an Etch-A-Sketch cooperation task at 48 months, and the Parent-Child Early Relationship Assessment at 60 months. To examine whether different latent constructs underlie these measures of maternal parenting, we conducted an exploratory factor analysis. Self-report measures of parenting correlated only weakly with behavioural observations. Factor analysis on a subsample (n = 197) revealed four latent factors that each explained from 7% to 11% of the variance in the data (32% total variance explained). Based on the loadings of the instruments, the factors were interpreted as: Supportive Parenting, Self-Enjoyment Parenting, Overwhelmed Parenting, and Affectionate Parenting. These factor scores showed specific associations with maternal education and depressive symptoms, as well as with child outcomes, including maternally reported internalising and externalising behavioural problems, school readiness, and child-reported symptoms of mental health. These findings parallel the complexity of the parental brain, suggesting that maternal parenting consists of multiple components, each of which is associated with different maternal characteristics and child outcomes.

5.
Nutr Neurosci ; : 1-10, 2019 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31331255

RESUMO

Objectives: Minerals deficiencies during pregnancy have been shown to be associated with poorer cognitive outcomes in offspring. This study aimed to investigate associations of maternal plasma zinc and magnesium concentrations with cognitive development in 4-year old children from the Growing Up in Singapore Towards healthy Outcome cohort. Methods: Maternal plasma zinc and magnesium concentrations were measured at 26-28 weeks' gestation. The Lollipop test of school readiness, tests of working memory, number knowledge, receptive vocabulary, and phonological awareness were performed in children at 4 years. Associations were examined in 715 mother-offspring pairs using linear regressions adjusted for key confounders. Results: Maternal plasma zinc and magnesium concentrations were 812 ± 144 µg/L and 19.9 ± 1.8 mg/L (mean±SD); 19% and 71% of mothers were zinc deficient and magnesium insufficient, respectively. After adjustment for multiple testing, higher maternal zinc concentrations (per SD increment) were associated with 0.35 higher scores in Lollipop subtest 2 of picture description and spatial identification (95% CI: 0.13, 0.58); higher maternal magnesium concentrations (per SD increment) were associated with 0.65 higher scores in Lollipop subtest 4 of letters and writing identification (95% CI: 0.23, 1.07). Discussion: No significant associations were observed for other tests, suggesting little long term influences of maternal zinc and magnesium on child's cognitive development.

6.
Cereb Cortex ; 2019 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31339998

RESUMO

Maternal depression is associated with disrupted neurodevelopment in offspring. This study examined relationships among postnatal maternal depressive symptoms, the functional reward network and behavioral problems in 4.5-year-old boys (57) and girls (65). We employed canonical correlation analysis to evaluate whether the resting-state functional connectivity within a reward network, identified through an activation likelihood estimation (ALE) meta-analysis of fMRI studies, was associated with postnatal maternal depressive symptoms and child behaviors. The functional reward network consisted of three subnetworks, that is, the mesolimbic, mesocortical, and amygdala-hippocampus reward subnetworks. Postnatal maternal depressive symptoms were associated with the functional connectivity of the mesocortical subnetwork with the mesolimbic and amygdala-hippocampus complex subnetworks in girls and with the functional connectivity within the mesocortical subnetwork in boys. The functional connectivity of the amygdala-hippocampus subnetwork with the mesocortical and mesolimbic subnetworks was associated with both internalizing and externalizing problems in girls, while in boys, the functional connectivity of the mesocortical subnetwork with the amygdala-hippocampus complex and the mesolimbic subnetworks was associated with the internalizing and externalizing problems, respectively. Our findings suggest that the functional reward network might be a promising neural phenotype for effects of maternal depression and potential intervention to nurture child behavioral development.

7.
Mol Neurobiol ; 2019 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31327126

RESUMO

BDNF-oxytocin interactions in the brain are implicated in mammalian maternal behavior. We found that BDNF gene expression is increased in the hippocampus of rat mothers that show increased pup licking/grooming (high LG mothers) compared to low LG mothers. High LG mothers also showed increased BDNF protein levels in the nucleus accumbens (nAcc). Immunoneutralization of BDNF in the nAcc eliminated the differences in pup LG between high and low LG mothers. Oxytocin antagonist in the ventral hippocampus significantly decreased the frequency of maternal LG behavior. Oxytocin antagonist significantly prevented the oxytocin-induced BDNF gene expression in primary hippocampal cell cultures. We suggest that oxytocin-induced regulation of BDNF in the nAcc provides a neuroendocrine basis for both individual differences in maternal behavior and resilience to the stress of reproduction in female mammals.

8.
Dev Psychopathol ; : 1-9, 2019 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31156070

RESUMO

We examined maternal depression and maternal sensitivity as mediators of the association between maternal childhood adversity and her child's temperament in 239 mother-child dyads from a longitudinal, birth cohort study. We used an integrated measure of maternal childhood adversity that included the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire and the Parental Bonding Index. Maternal depression was assessed with the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale at 6 months postpartum. Maternal sensitivity was assessed with the Ainsworth maternal sensitivity scales at 6 months. A measure of "negative emotionality/behavioral dysregulation" was derived from the Early Childhood Behaviour Questionnaire administered at 36 months. Bootstrapping-based mediation analyses revealed that maternal depression mediated the effect of maternal childhood adversity on offspring negative emotionality/behavioral dysregulation (95% confidence interval [0.026, 0.144]). We also found a serial, indirect effect of maternal childhood adversity on child negative emotionality/behavioral mediated first by maternal depression and then by maternal sensitivity (95% confidence interval [0.031, 0.156]). Results suggest the intergenerational transmission of the effects of maternal childhood adversity to the offspring occurs through a two-step, serial pathway, involving maternal depression and maternal sensitivity.

9.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2548, 2019 06 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31186427

RESUMO

Epigenetic processes, including DNA methylation (DNAm), are among the mechanisms allowing integration of genetic and environmental factors to shape cellular function. While many studies have investigated either environmental or genetic contributions to DNAm, few have assessed their integrated effects. Here we examine the relative contributions of prenatal environmental factors and genotype on DNA methylation in neonatal blood at variably methylated regions (VMRs) in 4 independent cohorts (overall n = 2365). We use Akaike's information criterion to test which factors best explain variability of methylation in the cohort-specific VMRs: several prenatal environmental factors (E), genotypes in cis (G), or their additive (G + E) or interaction (GxE) effects. Genetic and environmental factors in combination best explain DNAm at the majority of VMRs. The CpGs best explained by either G, G + E or GxE are functionally distinct. The enrichment of genetic variants from GxE models in GWAS for complex disorders supports their importance for disease risk.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA/genética , DNA/sangue , Interação Gene-Ambiente , Estudos de Coortes , Epigênese Genética , Feminino , Sangue Fetal , Genótipo , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31049953

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Internalising and externalising problems commonly co-occur in childhood. Yet, few developmental models describing the structure of child psychopathology appropriately account for this comorbidity. We evaluate a model of childhood psychopathology that separates the unique and shared contribution of individual psychological symptoms into specific internalising, externalising and general psychopathology factors and assess how these general and specific factors predict long-term outcomes concerning criminal behaviour, academic achievement and affective symptoms in three independent cohorts. METHODS: Data were drawn from independent birth cohorts (Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), N = 11,612; Generation R, N = 7,946; Maternal Adversity, Vulnerability and Neurodevelopment (MAVAN), N = 408). Child psychopathology was assessed between 4 and 8 years using a range of diagnostic and questionnaire-based measures, and multiple informants. First, structural equation models were used to assess the fit of hypothesised models of shared and unique components of psychopathology in all cohorts. Once the model was chosen, linear/logistic regressions were used to investigate whether these factors were associated with important outcomes such as criminal behaviour, academic achievement and well-being from late adolescence/early adulthood. RESULTS: The model that included specific factors for internalising/externalising and a general psychopathology factor capturing variance shared between symptoms regardless of their classification fits well for all of the cohorts. As hypothesised, general psychopathology factor scores were predictive of all outcomes of later functioning, while specific internalising factor scores predicted later internalising outcomes. Specific externalising factor scores, capturing variance not shared by any other psychological symptoms, were not predictive of later outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Early symptoms of psychopathology carry information that is syndrome-specific as well as indicative of general vulnerability and the informant reporting on the child. The 'general psychopathology factor' might be more relevant for long-term outcomes than specific symptoms. These findings emphasise the importance of considering the co-occurrence of common internalising and externalising problems in childhood when considering long-term impact.

11.
Biol Psychiatry ; 2019 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31142432

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genetic polymorphisms of the dopamine transporter gene (DAT1) and perinatal complications associated with poor oxygenation are risk factors for attentional problems in childhood and may show interactive effects. METHODS: We created a novel expression-based polygenic risk score (ePRS) reflecting variations in the function of the DAT1 gene network (ePRS-DAT1) in the prefrontal cortex and explored the effects of its interaction with perinatal hypoxic-ischemic-associated conditions on cognitive flexibility and brain gray matter density in healthy children from two birth cohorts-MAVAN from Canada (n = 139 boys and girls) and GUSTO from Singapore (n = 312 boys and girls). RESULTS: A history of exposure to several perinatal hypoxic-ischemic-associated conditions was associated with impaired cognitive flexibility only in the high-ePRS group, suggesting that variation in the prefrontal cortex expression of genes involved in dopamine reuptake is associated with differences in this behavior. Interestingly, this result was observed in both ethnically distinct birth cohorts. Additionally, parallel independent component analysis (MAVAN cohort, n = 40 children) demonstrated relationships between single nucleotide polymorphism-based ePRS and gray matter density in areas involved in executive (cortical regions) and integrative (bilateral thalamus and putamen) functions, and these relationships differ in children from high and low exposure to hypoxic-ischemic-associated conditions. CONCLUSIONS: These findings reveal that the impact of conditions associated with hypoxia-ischemia on brain development and executive functions is moderated by genotypes associated with dopamine signaling in the prefrontal cortex. We discuss the potential impact of innovative genomic and environmental measures for the identification of children at high risk for impaired executive functions.

12.
Genes Brain Behav ; 18(7): e12576, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31020763

RESUMO

The amygdala and hippocampus undergo rapid development in early life. The relative contribution of genetic and environmental factors to the establishment of their developmental trajectories has yet to be examined. We performed imaging on neonates and examined how the observed variation in volume and microstructure of the amygdala and hippocampus varied by genotype, and compared with prenatal maternal mental health and socioeconomic status. Gene × Environment models outcompeted models containing genotype or environment only to best explain the majority of measures but some, especially of the amygdaloid microstructure, were best explained by genotype only. Models including DNA methylation measured in the neonate umbilical cords outcompeted the Gene and Gene × Environment models for the majority of amygdaloid measures and minority of hippocampal measures. This study identified brain region-specific gene networks associated with individual differences in fetal brain development. In particular, genetic and epigenetic variation within CUX1 was highlighted.

13.
Br J Nutr ; 121(11): 1303-1312, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30935438

RESUMO

Evidence on long-term influences of maternal vitamin B12 deficiency or concentrations on infant cognition is limited. We examined associations between maternal plasma vitamin B12 and cognitive development in 24-month-old infants. Maternal plasma vitamin B12 concentrations were measured at 26-28 weeks' gestation; infant cognitive development was assessed with the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development-III at 24 months, for 443 mother-infant pairs from the Growing Up in Singapore Towards Healthy Outcomes cohort. Linear regressions adjusted for key confounders examined associations of maternal vitamin B12 with cognitive, receptive and expressive language, fine and gross motor subscales. Co-occurrence of maternal vitamin B12 with folate or vitamin B6 insufficiencies on child's cognition was explored. Average maternal plasma vitamin B12 concentrations was 220·5 ± 80·5 pmol/l; 15 % and 41 % of mothers were vitamin B12 deficient (<148 pmol/l) and insufficient (148-220·9 pmol/l), respectively. Infants of mothers with vitamin B12 deficiency had 0·42 (95 % CI -0·70, -0·14) sd lower cognitive scores, compared with infants of mothers with sufficient vitamin B12. Co-occurrence of maternal vitamins B12 and B6 insufficiencies was associated with 0·37 (95 % CI -0·69, -0·06) sd lower cognitive scores in infants compared with infants of mothers sufficient in both vitamins. No significant associations were observed with other subscales. Study findings suggest the possible need to ensure adequate vitamin B12 during pregnancy. The impact of co-occurrence of maternal B-vitamins insufficiencies on early cognitive development warrants further investigation.

14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30858011

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Women exposed to childhood maltreatment (CM) are more likely to exhibit insensitive parenting, which may have consequences for their offspring's development. Variation in the oxytocin-receptor gene (OXTR) moderates risk of CM-associated long-term sequelae associated with mother-child attachment, although functionality of previously investigated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) remained elusive. Here, we investigated the role of OXTR rs237895, a brain tissue expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL), as a moderator of the relationship between CM and maternal behavior (MB) and the association between MB and offspring attachment security. METHOD: Of 110 women with information on rs237895 genotype (T-allele = 64, CC = 46), 107 had information on CM (CTQ) and 99 on standardized observer-based ratings of MB at 6 months postpartum (responsivity and detachment), which were used in principal component analysis to obtain a latent factor representing MB. Offspring (n = 86) attachment was evaluated at 12 months of age. Analyses predicting MB were adjusted for socioeconomic status, age, postpartum depression, and genotype-based ethnicity. Analyses predicting child attachment were adjusted for infant sex, socioeconomic status, and postpartum depression. RESULTS: rs237895 significantly moderated the relationship between CM and MB (F1;66 = 7.99, p < .01), indicating that CM was associated with maternal insensitivity only in high-OXTR-expressing T-allele carriers but not in low-OXTR-expressing CC homozygotes. Moreover, maternal insensitivity predicted offspring insecure attachment (B = -0.551; p < .05). CONCLUSION: Women with a high OXTR expressing genotype are more susceptible to CM-related impairments in MB that, in turn, predict attachment security in their children, supporting the role of the OT system in the intergenerational transmission of risk associated with maternal CM.

15.
EBioMedicine ; 42: 188-202, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30922963

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Activation of brain insulin receptors modulates reward sensitivity, inhibitory control and memory. Variations in the functioning of this mechanism likely associate with individual differences in the risk for related mental disorders (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder or ADHD, addiction, dementia), in agreement with the high co-morbidity between insulin resistance and psychopathology. These neurobiological mechanisms can be explored using genetic studies. We propose a novel, biologically informed genetic score reflecting the mesocorticolimbic and hippocampal insulin receptor-related gene networks, and investigate if it predicts endophenotypes (impulsivity, cognitive ability) in community samples of children, and psychopathology (addiction, dementia) in adults. METHODS: Lists of genes co-expressed with the insulin receptor in the mesocorticolimbic system or hippocampus were created. SNPs from these genes (post-clumping) were compiled in a polygenic score using the association betas described in a conventional GWAS (ADHD in the mesocorticolimbic score and Alzheimer in the hippocampal score). Across multiple samples (n = 4502), the biologically informed, mesocorticolimbic or hippocampal specific insulin receptor polygenic scores were calculated, and their ability to predict impulsivity, risk for addiction, cognitive performance and presence of Alzheimer's disease was investigated. FINDINGS: The biologically-informed ePRS-IR score showed better prediction of child impulsivity and cognitive performance, as well as risk for addiction and Alzheimer's disease in comparison to conventional polygenic scores for ADHD, addiction and dementia. INTERPRETATION: This novel, biologically-informed approach enables the use of genomic datasets to probe relevant biological processes involved in neural function and disorders. FUND: Toxic Stress Research network of the JPB Foundation, Jacobs Foundation (Switzerland), Sackler Foundation.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/metabolismo , Endofenótipos , Estudos de Associação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Receptor de Insulina/genética , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Hipocampo/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Masculino , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Receptor de Insulina/metabolismo , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
16.
Int J Obes (Lond) ; 43(7): 1344-1353, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30923368

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lower inhibitory control has been associated with obesity. One prediction is that lower inhibitory control underlies eating behaviours that promote increased energy intakes. This study examined the relationships between children's inhibitory control measured using the Stop Signal Task (SST), body composition and eating behaviours, which included self-served portion size, number of servings, eating rate, and energy intake at lunch and in an eating in the absence of hunger (EAH) task. METHODS: The sample included 255 6-year-old children from an Asian cohort. Stop-signal reaction time (SSRT) was used as an index of inhibitory control. Children participated in a recorded self-served lunchtime meal, followed by the EAH task where they were exposed to energy-dense snacks. Behavioural coding of oral processing was used to estimate eating rates (g/min). BMI, waist circumference and skinfolds were used as indices of adiposity. RESULTS: Children with lower inhibitory control tended to self-serve larger food portions (p = 0.054), had multiple food servings (p = 0.006) and significantly faster eating rates (p = 0.041). Inhibitory control did not predict energy intake at lunch (p = 0.17) or during the EAH task (p = 0.45), and was unrelated to measures of adiposity (p > 0.32). Twenty percent of the children in the sample had problems focusing on the SST and were described as 'restless'. Post-hoc analysis revealed that these children had lower inhibitory control (p < 0.001) and consumed more energy during the EAH task (p = 0.01), but did not differ in any other key outcomes from the rest of the sample (p > 0.1). CONCLUSIONS: Children with lower inhibitory control showed a trend to select larger food portions, had multiple food servings and faster eating rates, but were equally as responsive to snacks served in the absence of hunger as children with better inhibitory control. Inhibitory control may impact a number of eating behaviours, not limited to energy-dense snacks.

17.
Ann Acad Med Singapore ; 48(2): 55-62, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30926977

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Family history of psychopathology is a risk factor for mood and anxiety disorders in children, but little is known about rates of parental psychopathology among treatment-seeking youth with affective disorders in the Asia Pacific region. This study examined patterns of emotional and behavioural problems in parents of clinically-referred youth in Singapore. We hypothesised that parents would have higher rates of affective disorders compared to the Singapore national prevalence rate of 12%. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, 47 families were recruited from affective disorders and community-based psychiatry programmes run by a tertiary child psychiatry clinic. All children had a confirmed primary clinical diagnosis of depression or an anxiety disorder. Parents completed the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) to assess for lifetime mood and anxiety disorders. They also completed the Adult Self Report (ASR) and Adult Behavior Checklist (ABCL) to assess current internalising and externalising symptoms. RESULTS: Consistent with our hypothesis, 38.5% of mothers and 10.5% of fathers reported a lifetime mood and anxiety disorder. Nearly 1/3 of mothers had clinical/subclinical scores on current internalising and externalising problems. A similar pattern was found for internalising problems among fathers, with a slightly lower rate of clinical/subclinical externalising problems. CONCLUSION: Our findings are consistent with previous overseas studies showing elevated rates of affective disorders among parents - particularly mothers - of children seeking outpatient psychiatric care. Routine screening in this population may help to close the current treatment gap for adults with mood and anxiety disorders.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Ansiedade , Transtornos do Humor , Pais/psicologia , Adulto , Transtornos de Ansiedade/diagnóstico , Transtornos de Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Ansiedade/psicologia , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Saúde da Família/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos do Humor/diagnóstico , Transtornos do Humor/epidemiologia , Transtornos do Humor/psicologia , Relações Pais-Filho , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Psicopatologia , Singapura/epidemiologia
18.
Eur J Nutr ; 2019 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30809702

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To explore the associations between type of milk feeding (the "nutrients") and mode of breast milk feeding (the "nursing") with child cognition. METHODS: Healthy children from the GUSTO (Growing Up in Singapore Toward healthy Outcomes) cohort participated in repeated neurodevelopmental assessments between 6 and 54 months. For "nutrients", we compared children exclusively bottle-fed according to type of milk received: formula only (n = 296) vs some/all breast milk (n = 73). For "nursing", we included only children who were fully fed breast milk, comparing those fed directly at the breast (n = 59) vs those fed partially/completely by bottle (n = 63). RESULTS: Compared to infants fed formula only, those who were bottle-fed breast milk demonstrated significantly better cognitive performance on both the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development (Third Edition) at 2 years [adjusted mean difference (95% CI) 1.36 (0.32, 2.40)], and on the Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test (Second Edition) at 4.5 years [7.59 (1.20, 13.99)]. Children bottle-fed breast milk also demonstrated better gross motor skills at 2 years than those fed formula [1.60 (0.09, 3.10)]. Among infants fully fed breast milk, those fed directly at the breast scored higher on several memory tasks compared to children bottle-fed breast milk, including the deferred imitation task at 6 months [0.67 (0.02, 1.32)] and relational binding tasks at 6 [0.41 (0.07, 0.74)], 41 [0.67 (0.04, 1.29)] and 54 [0.12 (0.01, 0.22)] months. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that nutrients in breast milk may improve general child cognition, while nursing infants directly at the breast may influence memory.

19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30768387

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) and Maternal Adversity, Vulnerability and Neurodevelopment (MAVAN) cohorts were used to determine whether repeated exposure to gastroenteritis in early life could predict risk for psychiatric problems in childhood and in ALSPAC adolescents. We determined whether inflammatory biomarkers moderated the association between repeated gastroenteritis and mental health in adolescents from ALSPAC. METHOD: Episodes of gastroenteritis from birth to 30 and 36 months were reported by mothers. Psychological problems were assessed using the total difficulties and subscale scores on the Revised Rutter Parent Scale for Preschool Children at 42 months and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) at 81 months in ALSPAC. Presence of psychiatric disorders at 15.5 years was assessed using the Development and Well-Being Assessment (DAWBA) in ALSPAC. In the MAVAN replication cohort, total difficulties were assessed on the SDQ at 60 and 72 months. Serum interleukin-6 (IL-6) and C-reactive protein (CRP) at 9.5 years and CRP at 15.5 years were measured in ALSPAC participants. RESULTS: Repeated gastroenteritis associated with the total difficulties score in ALSPAC and MAVAN children. The ß values were small, indicating that the clinical relevance of these findings requires further investigation. Repeated gastroenteritis was significantly associated with an increased prevalence of externalizing disorders at age 15.5 years, but odds ratios were small. CRP or IL-6 at 9.5 years or CRP at 15.5 years did not significantly moderate the association between repeated gastroenteritis and prevalence of psychiatric disorders. CONCLUSION: Identifying factors associated with vulnerability to psychopathology is key to early identification of individuals at risk.

20.
Dev Med Child Neurol ; 61(10): 1127-1133, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30740660

RESUMO

The developing brain in utero and during the first years of life is highly vulnerable to environmental influences. Experiences occurring during this period permanently modify brain structure and function through epigenetic modifications (alterations of the DNA structure and chromatin function) and consequently affect the susceptibility to mental disorders. In this review, we describe evidence linking adverse environmental variation during early life (from the fetal period to childhood) and long-term changes in brain volume, microstructure, and connectivity, especially in amygdala and hippocampal regions. We also describe genetic variations that moderate the impact of adverse environmental conditions on child neurodevelopment, such as polymorphisms in brain-derived neurotrophic factor and catechol-O-methyltransferase genes, as well as genetic pathways related to glutamate and monoaminergic signaling. Lastly, we have depicted positive early life experiences that could benefit childhood neurodevelopment and reverse some detrimental effects of adversity in the offspring. WHAT THIS PAPER ADDS: Prenatal, peripartum, and postnatal adversities influence child behavior and neurodevelopment. Exposure to environmental enrichment and positive influences may revert these effects. Putative mechanisms involve alterations in neurotrophic factors and neurotransmitter systems. New tools/big data improved the understanding on how early adversity alters neurodevelopment. This permits better translation/application of the findings from animal models to humans.

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