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3.
Res Sq ; 2021 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34401872

RESUMO

Background There is continuing public concern about the safety of COVID-19 vaccination during pregnancy. While there is no compelling biological reason to expect that mRNA COVID-19 vaccination (either preconception or during pregnancy) presents a risk to pregnancy, data are limited. It is, however, well documented that SARS-CoV-2 infection during pregnancy is associated with severe illness and increased risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes. Among recognized pregnancies in high-income countries, 11-16% end in spontaneous abortion (SAB). Methods People enrolled in v-safe, a voluntary smartphone-based surveillance system, who received a COVID-19 vaccine preconception or during pregnancy were contacted by telephone to enroll in the v-safe pregnancy registry. V-safe pregnancy registry participants who received at least one dose of an mRNA COVID-19 vaccine preconception or prior to 20 weeks' gestation and who did not report a pregnancy loss before 6 completed weeks' gestation were included in this analysis to assess the cumulative risk of SAB using Life Table methods. Results Among 2,456 pregnant persons who received an mRNA COVID-19 vaccine preconception or prior to 20 weeks' gestation, the cumulative risk of SAB from 6-19 weeks' gestation was 14.1% (95% CI: 12.1, 16.1%). Using direct age standardization to the selected reference population, the age-standardized cumulative risk of SAB was 12.8% (95% CI: 10.8-14.8%). Conclusions When compared to the expected range of SABs in recognized pregnancies, these data suggest receipt of an mRNA COVID-19 vaccine preconception or during pregnancy is not associated with an increased risk of SAB. These findings add to accumulating evidence that mRNA COVID-19 vaccines during pregnancy are safe.

4.
Birth Defects Res ; 113(17): 1267-1274, 2021 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34327866

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recommended testing for both infants with Zika-associated birth defects (i.e., microcephaly and selected brain or eye anomalies) and infants without birth defects whose mothers had laboratory evidence of possible Zika virus (ZIKV) infection during pregnancy includes nucleic acid amplification testing (NAAT) and immunoglobulin M (IgM) testing within days after birth. Brain and eye defects highly specific for congenital ZIKV infection have been described; sporadic reports have documented negative ZIKV testing in such infants. METHODS: Infants from the U.S. Zika Pregnancy and Infant Registry and Zika Birth Defects Surveillance with Zika-associated birth defects and maternal and infant laboratory testing for ZIKV and two congenital infections (i.e., cytomegalovirus [CMV] and toxoplasmosis) were reviewed for phenotype and laboratory results. Infants with at least one defect considered highly specific for congenital ZIKV infection were designated as having congenital Zika syndrome (CZS) clinical phenotype for this study. RESULTS: Of 325 liveborn infants with Zika-associated birth defects and laboratory evidence of maternal ZIKV infection, 33 (10%) had CZS clinical phenotype; 172 (53%) had ZIKV IgM testing with negative or no ZIKV NAAT. ZIKV IgM was negative in the remaining 121 infants, and for 90%, testing for CMV and toxoplasmosis was missing/incomplete. Among 11 infants testing negative for ZIKV IgM, CMV, and toxoplasmosis, 2 infants had CZS clinical phenotype. CONCLUSIONS: These data add support to previous reports of negative ZIKV IgM testing in infants with clear maternal and phenotypic evidence of congenital ZIKV infection. Follow-up care consistent with the diagnosis is recommended regardless of infant ZIKV test results.


Assuntos
Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez , Infecção por Zika virus , Zika virus , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulina M , Lactente , Mães , Fenótipo , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/diagnóstico , Infecção por Zika virus/diagnóstico
5.
MMWR Recomm Rep ; 70(3): 1-27, 2021 07 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34264565

RESUMO

This report provides CDC recommendations to U.S. health care providers regarding treatment, pre-exposure prophylaxis, and postexposure prophylaxis of plague. Yersinia pestis, the bacterium that causes plague, leads to naturally occurring disease in the United States and other regions worldwide and is recognized as a potential bioterrorism weapon. A bioweapon attack with Y. pestis could potentially infect thousands, requiring rapid and informed decision making by clinicians and public health agencies. The U.S. government stockpiles a variety of medical countermeasures to mitigate the effects of a bioterrorism attack (e.g., antimicrobials, antitoxins, and vaccines) for which the 21st Century Cures Act mandates the development of evidence-based guidelines on appropriate use. Guidelines for treatment and postexposure prophylaxis of plague were published in 2000 by a nongovernmental work group; since then, new human clinical data, animal study data, and U.S. Food and Drug Administration approvals of additional countermeasures have become available. To develop a comprehensive set of updated guidelines, CDC conducted a series of systematic literature reviews on human treatment of plague and other relevant topics to collect a broad evidence base for the recommendations in this report. Evidence from CDC reviews and additional sources were presented to subject matter experts during a series of forums. CDC considered individual expert input while developing these guidelines, which provide recommended best practices for treatment and prophylaxis of human plague for both naturally occurring disease and following a bioterrorism attack. The guidelines do not include information on diagnostic testing, triage decisions, or logistics involved in dispensing medical countermeasures. Clinicians and public health officials can use these guidelines to prepare their organizations, hospitals, and communities to respond to a plague mass-casualty event and as a guide for treating patients affected by plague.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/uso terapêutico , Peste/prevenção & controle , Profilaxia Pós-Exposição , Profilaxia Pré-Exposição , Bioterrorismo , Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. , Humanos , Peste/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
6.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(25): 922-927, 2021 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34166331

RESUMO

The U.S. COVID-19 vaccination program launched on December 14, 2020. The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices recommended prioritizing COVID-19 vaccination for specific groups of the U.S. population who were at highest risk for COVID-19 hospitalization and death, including adults aged ≥75 years*; implementation varied by state, and eligibility was gradually expanded to persons aged ≥65 years beginning in January 2021. By April 19, 2021, eligibility was expanded to all adults aged ≥18 years nationwide.† To assess patterns of COVID-19 vaccination coverage among U.S. adults, CDC analyzed data submitted on vaccinations administered during December 14, 2020-May 22, 2021, by age, sex, and community-level characteristics. By May 22, 2021, 57.0% of persons aged ≥18 years had received ≥1 COVID-19 vaccine dose; coverage was highest among persons aged ≥65 years (80.0%) and lowest among persons aged 18-29 years (38.3%). During the week beginning February 7, 2021, vaccination initiation among adults aged ≥65 years peaked at 8.2%, whereas weekly initiation among other age groups peaked later and at lower levels. During April 19-May 22, 2021, the period following expanded eligibility to all adults, weekly initiation remained <4.0% and decreased for all age groups, including persons aged 18-29 years (3.6% to 1.9%) and 30-49 years (3.5% to 1.7%); based on the current rate of weekly initiation (as of May 22), younger persons will not reach the same levels of coverage as older persons by the end of August. Across all age groups, coverage (≥1 dose) was lower among men compared with women, except among adults aged ≥65 years, and lower among persons living in counties that were less urban, had higher social vulnerabilities, or had higher percentages of social determinants of poor health. Continued efforts to improve vaccination confidence and alleviate barriers to vaccination initiation, especially among adults aged 18-49 years, could improve vaccination coverage.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra COVID-19/administração & dosagem , Cobertura Vacinal/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
7.
N Engl J Med ; 384(24): 2273-2282, 2021 06 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33882218

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Many pregnant persons in the United States are receiving messenger RNA (mRNA) coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) vaccines, but data are limited on their safety in pregnancy. METHODS: From December 14, 2020, to February 28, 2021, we used data from the "v-safe after vaccination health checker" surveillance system, the v-safe pregnancy registry, and the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) to characterize the initial safety of mRNA Covid-19 vaccines in pregnant persons. RESULTS: A total of 35,691 v-safe participants 16 to 54 years of age identified as pregnant. Injection-site pain was reported more frequently among pregnant persons than among nonpregnant women, whereas headache, myalgia, chills, and fever were reported less frequently. Among 3958 participants enrolled in the v-safe pregnancy registry, 827 had a completed pregnancy, of which 115 (13.9%) resulted in a pregnancy loss and 712 (86.1%) resulted in a live birth (mostly among participants with vaccination in the third trimester). Adverse neonatal outcomes included preterm birth (in 9.4%) and small size for gestational age (in 3.2%); no neonatal deaths were reported. Although not directly comparable, calculated proportions of adverse pregnancy and neonatal outcomes in persons vaccinated against Covid-19 who had a completed pregnancy were similar to incidences reported in studies involving pregnant women that were conducted before the Covid-19 pandemic. Among 221 pregnancy-related adverse events reported to the VAERS, the most frequently reported event was spontaneous abortion (46 cases). CONCLUSIONS: Preliminary findings did not show obvious safety signals among pregnant persons who received mRNA Covid-19 vaccines. However, more longitudinal follow-up, including follow-up of large numbers of women vaccinated earlier in pregnancy, is necessary to inform maternal, pregnancy, and infant outcomes.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra COVID-19/efeitos adversos , Gravidez , Aborto Espontâneo/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Sistemas de Notificação de Reações Adversas a Medicamentos , Vacinas contra COVID-19/imunologia , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Pequeno para a Idade Gestacional , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Vigilância em Saúde Pública/métodos , Sistema de Registros , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Vacinas Sintéticas/efeitos adversos , Adulto Jovem
9.
Matern Child Health J ; 25(2): 198-206, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33394275

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Public health responses often lack the infrastructure to capture the impact of public health emergencies on pregnant women and infants, with limited mechanisms for linking pregnant women with their infants nationally to monitor long-term effects. In 2019, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), in close collaboration with state, local, and territorial health departments, began a 5-year initiative to establish population-based mother-baby linked longitudinal surveillance, the Surveillance for Emerging Threats to Mothers and Babies Network (SET-NET). OBJECTIVES: The objective of this report is to describe an expanded surveillance approach that leverages and modernizes existing surveillance systems to address the impact of emerging health threats during pregnancy on pregnant women and their infants. METHODS: Mother-baby pairs are identified through prospective identification during pregnancy and/or identification of an infant with retrospective linking to maternal information. All data are obtained from existing data sources (e.g., electronic medical records, vital statistics, laboratory reports, and health department investigations and case reporting). RESULTS: Variables were selected for inclusion to address key surveillance questions proposed by CDC and health department subject matter experts. General variables include maternal demographics and health history, pregnancy and infant outcomes, maternal and infant laboratory results, and child health outcomes up to the second birthday. Exposure-specific modular variables are included for hepatitis C, syphilis, and Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). The system is structured into four relational datasets (maternal, pregnancy outcomes and birth, infant/child follow-up, and laboratory testing). DISCUSSION: SET-NET provides a population-based mother-baby linked longitudinal surveillance approach and has already demonstrated rapid adaptation to COVID-19. This innovative approach leverages existing data sources and rapidly collects data and informs clinical guidance and practice. These data can help to reduce exposure risk and adverse outcomes among pregnant women and their infants, direct public health action, and strengthen public health systems.


Assuntos
Defesa Civil/métodos , Relações Mãe-Filho , Vigilância da População/métodos , Adulto , COVID-19/complicações , COVID-19/diagnóstico , Defesa Civil/instrumentação , Feminino , Hepatite C/complicações , Hepatite C/diagnóstico , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Gravidez , Sífilis/complicações , Sífilis/diagnóstico
10.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(49): 1860-1867, 2020 Dec 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33301434

RESUMO

In the 10 months since the first confirmed case of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was reported in the United States on January 20, 2020 (1), approximately 13.8 million cases and 272,525 deaths have been reported in the United States. On October 30, the number of new cases reported in the United States in a single day exceeded 100,000 for the first time, and by December 2 had reached a daily high of 196,227.* With colder weather, more time spent indoors, the ongoing U.S. holiday season, and silent spread of disease, with approximately 50% of transmission from asymptomatic persons (2), the United States has entered a phase of high-level transmission where a multipronged approach to implementing all evidence-based public health strategies at both the individual and community levels is essential. This summary guidance highlights critical evidence-based CDC recommendations and sustainable strategies to reduce COVID-19 transmission. These strategies include 1) universal face mask use, 2) maintaining physical distance from other persons and limiting in-person contacts, 3) avoiding nonessential indoor spaces and crowded outdoor spaces, 4) increasing testing to rapidly identify and isolate infected persons, 5) promptly identifying, quarantining, and testing close contacts of persons with known COVID-19, 6) safeguarding persons most at risk for severe illness or death from infection with SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, 7) protecting essential workers with provision of adequate personal protective equipment and safe work practices, 8) postponing travel, 9) increasing room air ventilation and enhancing hand hygiene and environmental disinfection, and 10) achieving widespread availability and high community coverage with effective COVID-19 vaccines. In combination, these strategies can reduce SARS-CoV-2 transmission, long-term sequelae or disability, and death, and mitigate the pandemic's economic impact. Consistent implementation of these strategies improves health equity, preserves health care capacity, maintains the function of essential businesses, and supports the availability of in-person instruction for kindergarten through grade 12 schools and preschool. Individual persons, households, and communities should take these actions now to reduce SARS-CoV-2 transmission from its current high level. These actions will provide a bridge to a future with wide availability and high community coverage of effective vaccines, when safe return to more everyday activities in a range of settings will be possible.


Assuntos
COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Guias como Assunto , Prática de Saúde Pública , COVID-19/mortalidade , COVID-19/transmissão , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/mortalidade , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/prevenção & controle , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/transmissão , Humanos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
11.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(44): 1635-1640, 2020 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33151917

RESUMO

Pregnant women with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are at increased risk for severe illness and might be at risk for preterm birth (1-3). The full impact of infection with SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, in pregnancy is unknown. Public health jurisdictions report information, including pregnancy status, on confirmed and probable COVID-19 cases to CDC through the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System.* Through the Surveillance for Emerging Threats to Mothers and Babies Network (SET-NET), 16 jurisdictions collected supplementary information on pregnancy and infant outcomes among 5,252 women with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection reported during March 29-October 14, 2020. Among 3,912 live births with known gestational age, 12.9% were preterm (<37 weeks), higher than the reported 10.2% among the general U.S. population in 2019 (4). Among 610 infants (21.3%) with reported SARS-CoV-2 test results, perinatal infection was infrequent (2.6%) and occurred primarily among infants whose mother had SARS-CoV-2 infection identified within 1 week of delivery. Because the majority of pregnant women with COVID-19 reported thus far experienced infection in the third trimester, ongoing surveillance is needed to assess effects of infections in early pregnancy, as well the longer-term outcomes of exposed infants. These findings can inform neonatal testing recommendations, clinical practice, and public health action and can be used by health care providers to counsel pregnant women on the risks of SARS-CoV-2 infection, including preterm births. Pregnant women and their household members should follow recommended infection prevention measures, including wearing a mask, social distancing, and frequent handwashing when going out or interacting with others or if there is a person within the household who has had exposure to COVID-19.†.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/diagnóstico , Resultado da Gravidez/epidemiologia , Aborto Espontâneo/epidemiologia , Adulto , COVID-19 , Teste para COVID-19 , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Transmissão Vertical de Doenças Infecciosas/estatística & dados numéricos , Laboratórios , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Medição de Risco , SARS-CoV-2 , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
12.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(44): 1641-1647, 2020 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33151921

RESUMO

Studies suggest that pregnant women might be at increased risk for severe illness associated with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) (1,2). This report provides updated information about symptomatic women of reproductive age (15-44 years) with laboratory-confirmed infection with SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19. During January 22-October 3, CDC received reports through national COVID-19 case surveillance or through the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System (NNDSS) of 1,300,938 women aged 15-44 years with laboratory results indicative of acute infection with SARS-CoV-2. Data on pregnancy status were available for 461,825 (35.5%) women with laboratory-confirmed infection, 409,462 (88.7%) of whom were symptomatic. Among symptomatic women, 23,434 (5.7%) were reported to be pregnant. After adjusting for age, race/ethnicity, and underlying medical conditions, pregnant women were significantly more likely than were nonpregnant women to be admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU) (10.5 versus 3.9 per 1,000 cases; adjusted risk ratio [aRR] = 3.0; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.6-3.4), receive invasive ventilation (2.9 versus 1.1 per 1,000 cases; aRR = 2.9; 95% CI = 2.2-3.8), receive extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) (0.7 versus 0.3 per 1,000 cases; aRR = 2.4; 95% CI = 1.5-4.0), and die (1.5 versus 1.2 per 1,000 cases; aRR = 1.7; 95% CI = 1.2-2.4). Stratifying these analyses by age and race/ethnicity highlighted disparities in risk by subgroup. Although the absolute risks for severe outcomes for women were low, pregnant women were at increased risk for severe COVID-19-associated illness. To reduce the risk for severe illness and death from COVID-19, pregnant women should be counseled about the importance of seeking prompt medical care if they have symptoms and measures to prevent SARS-CoV-2 infection should be strongly emphasized for pregnant women and their families during all medical encounters, including prenatal care visits. Understanding COVID-19-associated risks among pregnant women is important for prevention counseling and clinical care and treatment.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/diagnóstico , Avaliação de Sintomas , Adolescente , Adulto , COVID-19 , Teste para COVID-19 , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Laboratórios , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Medição de Risco , SARS-CoV-2 , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
13.
J Womens Health (Larchmt) ; 29(12): 1491-1499, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33227221

RESUMO

Pregnant women with opioid use disorder (OUD) are at risk of overdose, infectious diseases, and inadequate prenatal care. Additional risks include adverse pregnancy and infant outcomes, such as preterm birth and neonatal abstinence syndrome. Management and treatment of OUD during pregnancy are associated with improved maternal and infant outcomes. Professional organizations, including the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, recommend offering opioid agonist pharmacotherapy (i.e., methadone or buprenorphine) combined with behavioral therapy as standard treatment for pregnant women with OUD. Other medications and herbal supplements have also been used by pregnant women for OUD. Determining which OUD treatments optimize maternal and infant outcomes is challenging given the host of potential factors that affect these outcomes. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention initiated the MATernaL and Infant NetworK to Understand Outcomes Associated with Treatment of Opioid Use Disorder during Pregnancy (MAT-LINK) to monitor more than 2000 mothers and their infants, using data collected from geographically diverse clinical sites. Information learned from MAT-LINK will inform the future management and treatment of pregnant women with OUD.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides/efeitos adversos , Buprenorfina/uso terapêutico , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/tratamento farmacológico , Complicações na Gravidez/tratamento farmacológico , Nascimento Prematuro , Adulto , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Tratamento de Substituição de Opiáceos , Vigilância da População , Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
Lancet Respir Med ; 8(12): 1219-1232, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32763198

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Since August, 2019, US public health officials have been investigating a national outbreak of e-cigarette, or vaping, product use-associated lung injury (EVALI). A spectrum of histological patterns consistent with acute to subacute lung injury has been seen in biopsies; however, autopsy findings have not been systematically characterised. We describe the pathological findings in autopsy and biopsy tissues submitted to the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) for the evaluation of suspected EVALI. METHODS: Between Aug 1, 2019, and Nov 30, 2019, we examined lung biopsy (n=10 individuals) and autopsy (n=13 individuals) tissue samples received by the CDC, submitted by 16 US states, from individuals with: a history of e-cigarette, or vaping, product use; respiratory, gastrointestinal, or constitutional symptoms; and either pulmonary infiltrates or opacities on chest imaging, or sudden death from an undetermined cause. We also reviewed medical records, evaluated histopathology, and performed infectious disease testing when indicated by histopathology and clinical history. FINDINGS: 21 cases met surveillance case definitions for EVALI, with a further two cases of clinically suspected EVALI evaluated. All ten lung biopsies showed histological evidence of acute to subacute lung injury, including diffuse alveolar damage or organising pneumonia. These patterns were also seen in nine of 13 (69%) autopsy cases, most frequently diffuse alveolar damage (eight autopsies), but also acute and organising fibrinous pneumonia (one autopsy). Additional pulmonary pathology not necessarily consistent with EVALI was seen in the remaining autopsies, including bronchopneumonia, bronchoaspiration, and chronic interstitial lung disease. Three of the five autopsy cases with no evidence of, or a plausible alternative cause for acute lung injury, had been classified as confirmed or probable EVALI according to surveillance case definitions. INTERPRETATION: Acute to subacute lung injury patterns were seen in all ten biopsies and most autopsy lung tissues from individuals with suspected EVALI. Acute to subacute lung injury can have numerous causes; however, if it is identified in an individual with a history of e-cigarette, or vaping, product use, and no alternative cause is apparent, a diagnosis of EVALI should be strongly considered. A review of autopsy tissue pathology in suspected EVALI deaths can also identify alternative diagnoses, which can enhance the specificity of public health surveillance efforts. FUNDING: US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.


Assuntos
Lesão Pulmonar Aguda/patologia , Vaping/patologia , Lesão Pulmonar Aguda/etiologia , Adulto , Autopsia , Biópsia , Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Feminino , Humanos , Pulmão/patologia , Masculino , Estados Unidos , Vaping/efeitos adversos
15.
N Engl J Med ; 383(6): 537-545, 2020 08 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32757522

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In 2015 and 2016, Colombia had a widespread outbreak of Zika virus. Data from two national population-based surveillance systems for symptomatic Zika virus disease (ZVD) and birth defects provided complementary information on the effect of the Zika virus outbreak on pregnancies and infant outcomes. METHODS: We collected national surveillance data regarding cases of pregnant women with ZVD that were reported during the period from June 2015 through July 2016. The presence of Zika virus RNA was identified in a subgroup of these women on real-time reverse-transcriptase-polymerase-chain-reaction (rRT-PCR) assay. Brain or eye defects in infants and fetuses and other adverse pregnancy outcomes were identified among the women who had laboratory-confirmed ZVD and for whom data were available regarding pregnancy outcomes. We compared the nationwide prevalence of brain and eye defects during the outbreak with the prevalence both before and after the outbreak period. RESULTS: Of 18,117 pregnant women with ZVD, the presence of Zika virus was confirmed in 5926 (33%) on rRT-PCR. Of the 5673 pregnancies with laboratory-confirmed ZVD for which outcomes had been reported, 93 infants or fetuses (2%) had brain or eye defects. The incidence of brain or eye defects was higher among pregnancies in which the mother had an onset of ZVD symptoms in the first trimester than in those with an onset during the second or third trimester (3% vs. 1%). A total of 172 of 5673 pregnancies (3%) resulted in pregnancy loss; after the exclusion of pregnancies affected by birth defects, 409 of 5426 (8%) resulted in preterm birth and 333 of 5426 (6%) in low birth weight. The prevalence of brain or eye defects during the outbreak was 13 per 10,000 live births, as compared with a prevalence of 8 per 10,000 live births before the outbreak and 11 per 10,000 live births after the outbreak. CONCLUSIONS: In pregnant women with laboratory-confirmed ZVD, brain or eye defects in infants or fetuses were more common during the Zika virus outbreak than during the periods immediately before and after the outbreak. The frequency of such defects was increased among women with a symptom onset early in pregnancy. (Funded by the Colombian Instituto Nacional de Salud and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.).


Assuntos
Encéfalo/anormalidades , Surtos de Doenças , Anormalidades do Olho/epidemiologia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez , Infecção por Zika virus/complicações , Zika virus/isolamento & purificação , Adolescente , Adulto , Colômbia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Doenças Fetais/epidemiologia , Feto/anormalidades , Geografia Médica , Humanos , Incidência , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Microcefalia/epidemiologia , Distribuição de Poisson , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Resultado da Gravidez , Prevalência , RNA Viral/sangue , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Adulto Jovem , Zika virus/genética , Infecção por Zika virus/epidemiologia
16.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(33): 1122-1126, 2020 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32817602

RESUMO

During January 1, 2020-August 10, 2020, an estimated 5 million cases of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) were reported in the United States.* Published state and national data indicate that persons of color might be more likely to become infected with SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, experience more severe COVID-19-associated illness, including that requiring hospitalization, and have higher risk for death from COVID-19 (1-5). CDC examined county-level disparities in COVID-19 cases among underrepresented racial/ethnic groups in counties identified as hotspots, which are defined using algorithmic thresholds related to the number of new cases and the changes in incidence.† Disparities were defined as difference of ≥5% between the proportion of cases and the proportion of the population or a ratio ≥1.5 for the proportion of cases to the proportion of the population for underrepresented racial/ethnic groups in each county. During June 5-18, 205 counties in 33 states were identified as hotspots; among these counties, race was reported for ≥50% of cumulative cases in 79 (38.5%) counties in 22 states; 96.2% of these counties had disparities in COVID-19 cases in one or more underrepresented racial/ethnic groups. Hispanic/Latino (Hispanic) persons were the largest group by population size (3.5 million persons) living in hotspot counties where a disproportionate number of cases among that group was identified, followed by black/African American (black) persons (2 million), American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) persons (61,000), Asian persons (36,000), and Native Hawaiian/other Pacific Islander (NHPI) persons (31,000). Examining county-level data disaggregated by race/ethnicity can help identify health disparities in COVID-19 cases and inform strategies for preventing and slowing SARS-CoV-2 transmission. More complete race/ethnicity data are needed to fully inform public health decision-making. Addressing the pandemic's disproportionate incidence of COVID-19 in communities of color can reduce the community-wide impact of COVID-19 and improve health outcomes.


Assuntos
Grupos de Populações Continentais/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por Coronavirus/etnologia , Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Pneumonia Viral/etnologia , COVID-19 , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
17.
Obstet Gynecol ; 136(2): 262-272, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32544146

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To inform the current coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak, we conducted a systematic literature review of case reports of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the virus that causes COVID-19, during pregnancy and summarized clinical presentation, course of illness, and pregnancy and neonatal outcomes. DATA SOURCES: We searched MEDLINE and ClinicalTrials.gov from inception to April 23, 2020. METHODS OF STUDY SELECTION: We included articles reporting case-level data on MERS-CoV, SARS-CoV, and SARS-CoV-2 infection in pregnant women. Course of illness, indicators of severe illness, maternal health outcomes, and pregnancy outcomes were abstracted from included articles. TABULATION, INTEGRATION, AND RESULTS: We identified 1,328 unique articles, and 1,253 articles were excluded by title and abstract review. We completed full-text review on 75, and 29 articles were excluded by full-text review. Among 46 publications reporting case-level data, eight described 12 cases of MERS-CoV infection, seven described 17 cases of SARS-CoV infection, and 31 described 98 cases of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Clinical presentation and course of illness ranged from asymptomatic to severe fatal disease, similar to the general population of patients. Severe morbidity and mortality among women with MERS-CoV, SARS-CoV, or SARS-CoV-2 infection in pregnancy and adverse pregnancy outcomes, including pregnancy loss, preterm delivery, and laboratory evidence of vertical transmission, were reported. CONCLUSION: Understanding whether pregnant women may be at risk for adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes from severe coronavirus infections is imperative. Data from case reports of SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, and SAR-CoV-2 infections during pregnancy are limited, but they may guide early public health actions and clinical decision-making for COVID-19 until more rigorous and systematically collected data are available. The capture of critical data is needed to better define how this infection affects pregnant women and neonates. This review was not registered with PROSPERO.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Transmissão Vertical de Doenças Infecciosas/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/mortalidade , Resultado da Gravidez , Aborto Espontâneo/epidemiologia , Aborto Espontâneo/virologia , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/virologia , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Nascimento Prematuro/virologia , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Clin Infect Dis ; 70(70 Suppl 1): S37-S50, 2020 05 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32435799

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The safety profile of antimicrobials used during pregnancy is one important consideration in the decision on how to treat and provide postexposure prophylaxis (PEP) for plague during pregnancy. METHODS: We searched 5 scientific literature databases for primary sources on the safety of 9 antimicrobials considered for plague during pregnancy (amikacin, gentamicin, plazomicin, streptomycin, tobramycin, chloramphenicol, doxycycline, sulfadiazine, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole [TMP-SMX]) and abstracted data on maternal, pregnancy, and fetal/neonatal outcomes. RESULTS: Of 13 052 articles identified, 66 studies (case-control, case series, cohort, and randomized studies) and 96 case reports were included, totaling 27 751 prenatal exposures to amikacin (n = 9), gentamicin (n = 345), plazomicin (n = 0), streptomycin (n = 285), tobramycin (n = 43), chloramphenicol (n = 246), doxycycline (n = 2351), sulfadiazine (n = 870), and TMP-SMX (n = 23 602). Hearing or vestibular deficits were reported in 18/121 (15%) children and 17/109 (16%) pregnant women following prenatal streptomycin exposure. First trimester chloramphenicol exposure was associated with an elevated risk of an undescended testis (odds ratio [OR] 5.9, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.2-28.7). Doxycycline was associated with cardiovascular malformations (OR 2.4, 95% CI 1.2-4.7) in 1 study and spontaneous abortion (OR 2.8, 95% CI 1.9-4.1) in a separate study. First trimester exposure to TMP-SMX was associated with increased risk of neural tube defects (pooled OR 2.5, 95% CI 1.4-4.3), spontaneous abortion (OR 3.5, 95% CI 2.3-5.6), preterm birth (OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.1-2.1), and small for gestational age (OR 1.6, 95% CI 1.2-2.2). No other statistically significant associations were reported. CONCLUSIONS: For most antimicrobials reviewed, adverse maternal/fetal/neonatal outcomes were not observed consistently. Prenatal exposure to streptomycin and TMP-SMX was associated with select birth defects in some studies. Based on limited data, chloramphenicol and doxycycline may be associated with adverse pregnancy or neonatal outcomes; however, more data are needed to confirm these associations. Antimicrobials should be used for treatment and PEP of plague during pregnancy; the choice of antimicrobials may be influenced by these data as well as information about the risks of plague during pregnancy.


Assuntos
Aborto Espontâneo , Anti-Infecciosos , Peste , Nascimento Prematuro , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Gravidez , Combinação Trimetoprima e Sulfametoxazol/efeitos adversos
19.
Clin Infect Dis ; 70(70 Suppl 1): S11-S19, 2020 05 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32435800

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Plague, caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis, has killed millions in historic pandemics and continues to cause sporadic outbreaks. Numerous antimicrobials are considered effective for treating plague; however, well-defined information on the relative efficacy of various treatments is lacking. We conducted a systematic review of published data on antimicrobial treatment of plague reported in aggregate. METHODS: We searched databases including Embase, Medline, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, and others for publications with terms related to plague and antimicrobials. Articles were included if they contained 1) a group of patients treated for plague, with outcomes reported by antimicrobial regimen, and 2) laboratory evidence of Y. pestis infection or an epidemiologic link to patients with laboratory evidence of Y. pestis. Case fatality rate by antimicrobial regimen was calculated. RESULTS: In total, 5837 articles were identified; among these, 26 articles published between 1939 and 2008 met inclusion criteria. A total of 2631 cases of human plague reported within these articles were included. Among cases classified by primary clinical form of plague, 93.6% were bubonic, 5.9% pneumonic, and 0.5% septicemic with associated case fatalities of 14.2%, 31.1%, and 20.0%, respectively. Case fatality rate among patients who received monotherapy with tetracyclines, chloramphenicol, aminoglycosides, or sulfonamides was 1.3%, 1.4%, 7.5%, and 20.2%, respectively. Fluoroquinolones were only given as part of combination therapy. Penicillin was associated with a case fatality rate of 75%. CONCLUSIONS: Tetracyclines, chloramphenicol, and aminoglycosides were associated with the lowest case fatality rates of all antimicrobials used for treatment of plague. Additional research is needed to determine the efficacy of fluoroquinolones as monotherapy.


Assuntos
Peste , Yersinia pestis , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Fluoroquinolonas , Humanos , Pulmão , Peste/tratamento farmacológico , Peste/epidemiologia
20.
Clin Infect Dis ; 70(70 Suppl 1): S3-S10, 2020 05 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32435802

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Yersinia pestis remains endemic in Africa, Asia, and the Americas and is a known bioterrorism agent. Treatment with aminoglycosides such as streptomycin or gentamicin is effective when initiated early in illness but can have serious side effects. Alternatives such as fluoroquinolones, tetracyclines, and sulfonamides are potentially safer but lack robust human data on efficacy. METHODS: We searched PubMed Central, Medline, Embase, and other databases for articles in any language with terms related to plague and antimicrobials. Articles that contained case-level information on antimicrobial treatment and patient outcome were included. We abstracted information related to patient demographics, clinical features, treatment, and fatality. RESULTS: Among 5837 articles screened, we found 762 published cases of treated plague reported from 1937 to 2019. Fifty-nine percent were male; median age was 22 years (range, 8 days-80 years). The case fatality rate was 20% overall. Most patients had primary bubonic (63%), pneumonic (21%), or septicemic (5%) plague, with associated case fatality rates of 17%, 27%, and 38%, respectively. Among those treated with an aminoglycoside (n = 407 [53%]), the case fatality rate was 13%. Among those treated with a sulfonamide (n = 322 [42%]), tetracycline (n = 171 [22%]), or fluoroquinolone (n = 61 [8%]), fatality was 23%, 10%, and 12%, respectively. Case fatality rate did not substantially differ between patients treated with 1 vs 2 classes of antimicrobials considered to be effective for plague. CONCLUSIONS: In addition to aminoglycosides, other classes of antimicrobials including tetracyclines, fluoroquinolones, and sulfonamides are effective for plague treatment, although publication bias and low numbers in certain treatment groups may limit interpretation.


Assuntos
Peste , Yersinia pestis , África , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Ásia , Criança , Humanos , Masculino , Peste/tratamento farmacológico , Peste/epidemiologia
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