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1.
Bioorg Med Chem Lett ; 29(11): 1423-1429, 2019 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30940396

RESUMO

Indole- and azaindole-based glyoxylyl amide derivatives have been described as HIV-1 attachment inhibitors (AIs) that act by blocking the interaction between the viral gp120 coat protein and the human host cell CD4 receptor. As part of an effort to more deeply understand the role of the indole/azaindole heterocycle in the expression of antiviral activity, a survey of potential replacements was conducted using parallel synthesis methodology. The design and optimization was guided by a simple 2-dimensional overlay based on an overall planar topography between the indole/azaindole and C-7 substituents that had been deduced from structure-activity studies leading to the discovery of temsavir (3). 2-Substituted naphthalene- and quinoline-derived chemotypes emerged as the most interesting prototypes, with C-5 and C-6 substituents enhancing antiviral potency. Despite the fact that neither of these chemotypes incorporated a H-bond donor that has been shown to engage the side chain carboxylate of Asp113 in gp120, the antiviral potency of several analogues met or exceeded that of 3, demonstrating that engaging Asp113 is not a prerequisite for potent antiviral activity.

2.
J Med Chem ; 62(7): 3553-3574, 2019 Apr 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30938524

RESUMO

Phosphate and amino acid prodrugs of the HIV-1 protease inhibitor (PI) atazanavir (1) were prepared and evaluated to address solubility and absorption limitations. While the phosphate prodrug failed to release 1 in rats, the introduction of a methylene spacer facilitated prodrug activation, but parent exposure was lower than that following direct administration of 1. Val amino acid and Val-Val dipeptides imparted low plasma exposure of the parent, although the exposure of the prodrugs was high, reflecting good absorption. Screening of additional amino acids resulted in the identification of an l-Phe ester that offered an improved exposure of 1 and reduced levels of the circulating prodrug. Further molecular editing focusing on the linker design culminated in the discovery of the self-immolative l-Phe-Sar dipeptide derivative 74 that gave four-fold improved AUC and eight-fold higher Ctrough values of 1 compared with oral administration of the drug itself, demonstrating a successful prodrug approach to the oral delivery of 1.

4.
J Med Chem ; 62(3): 1348-1361, 2019 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30609350

RESUMO

A series of 5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-1,6-naphthyridine derivatives targeting the allosteric lens-epithelium-derived-growth-factor-p75 (LEDGF/p75)-binding site on HIV-1 integrase, an attractive target for antiviral chemotherapy, was prepared and screened for activity against HIV-1 infection in cell culture. Small molecules that bind within the LEDGF/p75-binding site promote aberrant multimerization of the integrase enzyme and are of significant interest as HIV-1-replication inhibitors. Structure-activity-relationship studies and rat pharmacokinetic studies of lead compounds are presented.

5.
Bioorg Med Chem Lett ; 29(4): 659-663, 2019 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30638874

RESUMO

Screening of 100 acylsulfonamides from the Bristol-Myers Squibb compound collection identified the C3-cyclohexyl indole 6 as a potent Nav1.7 inhibitor. Replacement of the C2 furanyl ring of 6 with a heteroaryl moiety or truncation of this group led to the identification of 4 analogs with hNav1.7 IC50 values under 50 nM. Fluorine substitution of the truncated compound 12 led to 34 with improved potency and isoform selectivity. The inverted indole 36 also maintained good activity. Both 34 and 36 exhibited favorable CYP inhibition profiles, good membrane permeability and a low efflux ratio and, therefore, represent new leads in the search for potent and selective Nav1.7 inhibitors to treat pain.

6.
J Med Chem ; 62(2): 831-856, 2019 Jan 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30576602

RESUMO

3-Aryl-indole and 3-aryl-indazole derivatives were identified as potent and selective Nav1.7 inhibitors. Compound 29 was shown to be efficacious in the mouse formalin assay and also reduced complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA)-induced thermal hyperalgesia and chronic constriction injury (CCI) induced cold allodynia and models of inflammatory and neuropathic pain, respectively, following intraperitoneal (IP) doses of 30 mg/kg. The observed efficacy could be correlated with the mouse dorsal root ganglion exposure and NaV1.7 potency associated with 29.

7.
J Med Chem ; 61(16): 7289-7313, 2018 Aug 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30067361

RESUMO

GSK3532795, formerly known as BMS-955176 (1), is a potent, orally active, second-generation HIV-1 maturation inhibitor (MI) that advanced through phase IIb clinical trials. The careful design, selection, and evaluation of substituents appended to the C-3 and C-17 positions of the natural product betulinic acid (3) was critical in attaining a molecule with the desired virological and pharmacokinetic profile. Herein, we highlight the key insights made in the discovery program and detail the evolution of the structure-activity relationships (SARs) that led to the design of the specific C-17 amine moiety in 1. These modifications ultimately enabled the discovery of 1 as a second-generation MI that combines broad coverage of polymorphic viruses (EC50 <15 nM toward a panel of common polymorphisms representative of 96.5% HIV-1 subtype B virus) with a favorable pharmacokinetic profile in preclinical species.

8.
J Med Chem ; 61(14): 6308-6327, 2018 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29920093

RESUMO

The optimization of the 4-methoxy-6-azaindole series of HIV-1 attachment inhibitors (AIs) that originated with 1 to deliver temsavir (3, BMS-626529) is described. The most beneficial increases in potency and pharmacokinetic (PK) properties were attained by incorporating N-linked, sp2-hybridized heteroaryl rings at the 7-position of the heterocyclic nucleus. Compounds that adhered to a coplanarity model afforded targeted antiviral potency, leading to the identification of 3 with characteristics that provided for targeted exposure and PK properties in three preclinical species. However, the physical properties of 3 limited plasma exposure at higher doses, both in preclinical studies and in clinical trials as the result of dissolution- and/or solubility-limited absorption, a deficiency addressed by the preparation of the phosphonooxymethyl prodrug 4 (BMS-663068, fostemsavir). An extended-release formulation of 4 is currently in phase III clinical trials where it has shown promise as part of a drug combination therapy in highly treatment-experienced HIV-1 infected patients.

9.
Bioorg Med Chem Lett ; 28(12): 2124-2130, 2018 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29779976

RESUMO

BMS-707035 is an HIV-1 integrase strand transfer inhibitor (INSTI) discovered by systematic optimization of N-methylpyrimidinone carboxamides guided by structure-activity relationships (SARs) and the single crystal X-ray structure of compound 10. It was rationalized that the unexpectedly advantageous profiles of N-methylpyrimidinone carboxamides with a saturated C2-substitutent may be due, in part, to the geometric relationship between the C2-substituent and the pyrimidinone core. The single crystal X-ray structure of 10 provided support for this reasoning and guided the design of a spirocyclic series 12 which led to discovery of the morpholino-fused pyrimidinone series 13. Several carboxamides derived from this bicyclic scaffold displayed improved antiviral activity and pharmacokinetic profiles when compared with corresponding spirocyclic analogs. Based on the excellent antiviral activity, preclinical profiles and acceptable in vitro and in vivo toxicity profiles, 13a (BMS-707035) was selected for advancement into phase I clinical trials.

10.
Nat Rev Drug Discov ; 17(8): 559-587, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29700501

RESUMO

Prodrugs are molecules with little or no pharmacological activity that are converted to the active parent drug in vivo by enzymatic or chemical reactions or by a combination of the two. Prodrugs have evolved from being serendipitously discovered or used as a salvage effort to being intentionally designed. Such efforts can avoid drug development challenges that limit formulation options or result in unacceptable biopharmaceutical or pharmacokinetic performance, or poor targeting. In the past 10 years, the US Food and Drug Administration has approved at least 30 prodrugs, which accounts for more than 12% of all approved small-molecule new chemical entities. In this Review, we highlight prodrug design strategies for improved formulation and pharmacokinetic and targeting properties, with a focus on the most recently marketed prodrugs. We also discuss preclinical and clinical challenges and considerations in prodrug design and development.

11.
Bioorg Med Chem Lett ; 28(10): 1853-1859, 2018 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29650290

RESUMO

A series of tripeptidic acylsulfonamide inhibitors of HCV NS3 protease were prepared that explored structure-activity relationships (SARs) at the P4 position, and their in vitro and in vivo properties were evaluated. Enhanced potency was observed in a series of P4 ureas; however, the PK profiles of these analogues were less than optimal. In an effort to overcome the PK shortcomings, modifications to the P3-P4 junction were made. This included a strategy in which one of the two urea N-H groups was either N-methylated or replaced with an oxygen atom. The former approach provided a series of regioisomeric N-methylated ureas while the latter gave rise to P4 reverse carbamates, both of which retained potent NS3 inhibitory properties while relying upon an alternative H-bond donor topology. Details of the SARs and PK profiles of these analogues are provided.

12.
J Med Chem ; 61(9): 4176-4188, 2018 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29693401

RESUMO

HIV-1 protease inhibitors (PIs), which include atazanavir (ATV, 1), remain important medicines to treat HIV-1 infection. However, they are characterized by poor oral bioavailability and a need for boosting with a pharmacokinetic enhancer, which results in additional drug-drug interactions that are sometimes difficult to manage. We investigated a chemo-activated, acyl migration-based prodrug design approach to improve the pharmacokinetic profile of 1 but failed to obtain improved oral bioavailability over dosing the parent drug in rats. This strategy was refined by conjugating the amine with a promoiety designed to undergo bio-activation, as a means of modulating the subsequent chemo-activation. This culminated in a lead prodrug that (1) yielded substantially better oral drug delivery of 1 when compared to the parent itself, the simple acyl migration-based prodrug, and the corresponding simple l-Val prodrug, (2) acted as a depot which resulted in a sustained release of the parent drug in vivo, and (3) offered the benefit of mitigating the pH-dependent absorption associated with 1, thereby potentially reducing the risk of decreased bioavailability with concurrent use of stomach-acid-reducing drugs.

13.
Bioorg Med Chem Lett ; 28(9): 1550-1557, 2018 05 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29631960

RESUMO

The design and synthesis of a series of C28 amine-based betulinic acid derivatives as HIV-1 maturation inhibitors is described. This series represents a continuation of efforts following on from previous studies of C-3 benzoic acid-substituted betulinic acid derivatives as HIV-1 maturation inhibitors (MIs) that were explored in the context of C-28 amide substituents. Compared to the C-28 amide series, the C-28 amine derivatives exhibited further improvements in HIV-1 inhibitory activity toward polymorphisms in the Gag polyprotein as well as improved activity in the presence of human serum. However, plasma exposure of basic amines following oral administration to rats was generally low, leading to a focus on moderating the basicity of the amine moiety distal from the triterpene core. The thiomorpholine dioxide (TMD) 20 emerged from this study as a compound with the optimal antiviral activity and an acceptable pharmacokinetic profile in the C-28 amine series. Compared to the C-28 amide 3, 20 offers a 2- to 4-fold improvement in potency towards the screening viruses, exhibits low shifts in the EC50 values toward the V370A and ΔV370 viruses in the presence of human serum or human serum albumin, and demonstrates improved potency towards the polymorphic T371A and V362I virus variants.

14.
Bioorg Med Chem Lett ; 28(5): 958-962, 2018 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29439904

RESUMO

Replacement of the piperidine ring in the lead benzenesulfonamide Nav1.7 inhibitor 1 with a weakly basic morpholine core resulted in a significant reduction in Nav1.7 inhibitory activity, but the activity was restored by shortening the linkage from methyleneoxy to oxygen. These efforts led to a series of morpholine-based aryl sulfonamides as isoform-selective Nav1.7 inhibitors. This report describes the synthesis and SAR of these analogs.


Assuntos
Morfolinas/farmacologia , Canal de Sódio Disparado por Voltagem NAV1.7/metabolismo , Sulfonamidas/farmacologia , Bloqueadores do Canal de Sódio Disparado por Voltagem/farmacologia , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Humanos , Estrutura Molecular , Morfolinas/química , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Sulfonamidas/síntese química , Sulfonamidas/química , Bloqueadores do Canal de Sódio Disparado por Voltagem/síntese química , Bloqueadores do Canal de Sódio Disparado por Voltagem/química
15.
J Med Chem ; 2018 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29400967

RESUMO

The electronic properties and relatively small size of fluorine endow it with considerable versatility as a bioisostere and it has found application as a substitute for lone pairs of electrons, the hydrogen atom, and the methyl group while also acting as a functional mimetic of the carbonyl, carbinol, and nitrile moieties. In this context, fluorine substitution can influence the potency, conformation, metabolism, membrane permeability, and P-gp recognition of a molecule and temper inhibition of the hERG channel by basic amines. However, as a consequence of the unique properties of fluorine, it features prominently in the design of higher order structural metaphors that are more esoteric in their conception and which reflect a more sophisticated molecular construction that broadens biological mimesis. In this Perspective, applications of fluorine in the construction of bioisosteric elements designed to enhance the in vitro and in vivo properties of a molecule are summarized.

16.
ACS Med Chem Lett ; 9(2): 143-148, 2018 Feb 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29456803

RESUMO

The design and synthesis of potent, tripeptidic acylsulfonamide inhibitors of HCV NS3 protease that contain a difluoromethyl cyclopropyl amino acid at P1 are described. A cocrystal structure of 18 with a NS3/4A protease complex suggests the presence of a H-bond between the polarized C-H of the CHF2 moiety and the backbone carbonyl of Leu135 of the enzyme. Structure-activity relationship studies indicate that this H-bond enhances enzyme inhibitory potency by 13- and 17-fold compared to the CH3 and CF3 analogues, respectively, providing insight into the deployment of this unique amino acid.

17.
Xenobiotica ; 48(12): 1215-1226, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29182424

RESUMO

1. Due to its unique C-C and C-H bonding properties, conformational preferences and relative hydrophilicity, the cyclopropyl ring has been used as a synthetic building block in drug discovery to modulate potency and drug-like properties. During an effort to discover inhibitors of the hepatitis C virus non-structural protein 5B with improved potency and genotype-coverage profiles, the use of a pyrimidinylcyclopropylbenzamide moiety linked to a C6-substituted benzofuran or azabenzofuran core scaffold was explored in an effort to balance antiviral potency and metabolic stability. 2. In vitro metabolism studies of two compounds from this C6-substituted series revealed an NADPH-dependent bioactivation pathway leading to the formation of multiple glutathione (GSH) conjugates. Analysis of these conjugates by LC-MS and NMR demonstrated that the cyclopropyl group was the site of bioactivation. Based on the putative structures and molecular weights of the cyclopropyl-GSH conjugates, a multi-step mechanism was proposed to explain the formation of these metabolites by P450. This mechanism involves hydrogen atom abstraction to form a cyclopropyl radical, followed by a ring opening rearrangement and reaction with GSH. 3. These findings provided important information to the medicinal chemistry team which responded by replacing the cyclopropyl ring with a gem-dimethyl group. Subsequent compounds bearing this feature were shown to avert the bioactivation pathways in question.

18.
Bioorg Med Chem Lett ; 28(1): 43-48, 2018 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29162454

RESUMO

Naphthalene-linked P2-P4 macrocycles within a tri-peptide-based acyl sulfonamide chemotype have been synthesized and found to inhibit HCV NS3 proteases representing genotypes 1a and 1b with single digit nanomolar potency. The pharmacokinetic profile of compounds in this series was optimized through structural modifications along the macrocycle tether as well as the P1 subsite. Ultimately a compound with oral bioavailability of 100% in rat, and a long half-life in plasma was obtained. However, compounds in this macrocyclic series exhibited cardiac effects in an isolated rabbit heart model and for this reason further optimization efforts were discontinued.


Assuntos
Antivirais/química , Compostos Macrocíclicos/química , Naftalenos/química , Inibidores de Proteases/química , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/antagonistas & inibidores , Administração Oral , Animais , Antivirais/farmacologia , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Meia-Vida , Coração/efeitos dos fármacos , Coração/fisiologia , Hepacivirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Hepacivirus/enzimologia , Compostos Macrocíclicos/farmacocinética , Compostos Macrocíclicos/farmacologia , Microssomos Hepáticos/metabolismo , Conformação Molecular , Inibidores de Proteases/farmacocinética , Inibidores de Proteases/farmacologia , Coelhos , Ratos , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/metabolismo
19.
J Med Chem ; 61(1): 62-80, 2018 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29271653

RESUMO

Human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) infection currently requires lifelong therapy with drugs that are used in combination to control viremia. The indole-3-glyoxamide 6 was discovered as an inhibitor of HIV-1 infectivity using a phenotypic screen and derivatives of this compound were found to interfere with the HIV-1 entry process by stabilizing a conformation of the virus gp120 protein not recognized by the host cell CD4 receptor. An extensive optimization program led to the identification of temsavir (31), which exhibited an improved antiviral and pharmacokinetic profile compared to 6 and was explored in phase 3 clinical trials as the phosphonooxymethyl derivative fostemsavir (35), a prodrug designed to address dissolution- and solubility-limited absorption issues. In this drug annotation, we summarize the structure-activity and structure-liability studies leading to the discovery of 31 and the clinical studies conducted with 35 that entailed the development of an extended release formulation suitable for phase 3 clinical trials.

20.
Bioorg Med Chem Lett ; 27(24): 5355-5372, 2017 12 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29132752

RESUMO

Metal ions play important roles in protein and RNA structure and function and the construction of ligands frequently focuses on the exploitation of functionality designed to engage a metal. However, there are circumstances where functionality can be incorporated into a ligand to emulate the metal ion, allowing target engagement by displacing or replacing the metal and directly interacting with the metal-binding elements in the target. In this Digest, we illustrate protein and RNA modulators that exploit this design principle, with all of the examples based on the displacement or replacement of a magnesium ion, and which can confer a potency advantage. Moreover, this approach relies upon an inversion of the physical chemical properties of a more conventional metal-binding ligand.


Assuntos
Magnésio/química , Preparações Farmacêuticas/química , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/metabolismo , Sítios de Ligação , Humanos , Magnésio/metabolismo , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Preparações Farmacêuticas/metabolismo , Complexo Glicoproteico GPIIb-IIIa de Plaquetas/antagonistas & inibidores , Complexo Glicoproteico GPIIb-IIIa de Plaquetas/metabolismo , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/química , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/metabolismo , RNA/química , RNA/metabolismo , Quinases Associadas a rho/química , Quinases Associadas a rho/metabolismo
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