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1.
Am J Med ; 2020 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33010226

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We evaluated whether the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 pandemic was associated with changes in the pattern of acute cardiovascular admissions across European centres. METHODS: We set-up a multi-centre, multi-national, pan-European observational registry in 15 centres from 12 countries. All consecutive acute admissions to emergency departments and cardiology departments throughout a 1-month period during the COVID-19 outbreak were compared with an equivalent 1-month period in 2019. The acute admissions to cardiology departments were classified into 5 major categories: acute coronary syndrome, acute heart failure, arrhythmia, pulmonary embolism and other. RESULTS: Data from 54331 patients were collected and analysed. Nine centres provided data on acute admissions to emergency departments comprising 50384 patients: 20226 in 2020 vs 30158 in 2019 - incidence rate ratio (IRR) with 95% confidence interval (95%CI): 0.66(0.58-0.76). The risk of death at the emergency departments was higher in 2020 vs 2019: odds ratio (OR) with 95%CI: 4.1(3.0-5.8), P<0.0001. All 15 centers provided data on acute cardiology departments admissions: 3007 patients in 2020 vs 4452 in 2019, respectively, IRR(95%CI): 0.68(0.64-0.71). In 2020, there were less admissions with IRR(95%CI): acute coronary syndrome: 0.68(0.63-0.73), acute heart failure: 0.65(0.58-0.74), arrhythmia: 0.66(0.60-0.72), other: 0.68(0.62-0.76); we found a relatively higher percentage of pulmonary embolism admissions in 2020: OR(95%CI): 1.5(1.1-2.1), P=0.02. Among patients with acute coronary syndrome there were fewer admissions with unstable angina: 0.79(0.66-0.94), non-ST segment elevation myocardial infarction: 0.56(0.50-0.64) and ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction: 0.78(0.68-0.89). CONCLUSION: In the European centres during the COVID-19 outbreak, there were fewer acute cardiovascular admissions. Also, fewer patients were admitted to the emergency departments with 4-times higher death risk at the emergency departments.

2.
Heart Fail Rev ; 2020 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32939666

RESUMO

Heart failure (HF) and cancer are of the most common diseases globally, both associated with significant adverse outcomes and greatly impaired quality of life. Despite those similarities, over the last 15 years, the United States (USA) and European authorities have approved only 5 and 3 new drugs for HF respectively, none using an accelerated process and none for patients with either acute HF (AHF) or with HF and preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). During the same period, more than 100 new drugs were approved for treatment of various cancers, several receiving accelerated approval. HF drugs in the last 15 years were mostly approved for reduction in mortality, whereas most approved cancer drugs addressed disease progression and surrogate markers. Consequently, the size of the trials in HF were far greater than those in oncology which was associated with lower probability of success. Given the larger study size and smaller probability of approval, pharma progressively reduces the necessary investments in new HF drugs. We suggest for HF drugs be developed, especially those used to treat patients with HFpEF and AHF, consideration of approval based beyond morbidity and mortality on improvements in symptoms and functional capacity and, like oncology, based on measures of disease progression and end organ damage. At the same time, HF drug development should adopt some approaches used in other diseases (such as oncology) focusing on better defining specific phenotypes and defining specific disease-related targets for new drugs.

3.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0238039, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32853284

RESUMO

Sepsis is a global economic and health burden. Dipeptidyl peptidase 3 (DPP3) is elevated in the plasma of septic patients. The highest levels of circulating DPP3 (cDPP3) are found in non-survivor septic shock patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the benefits of inhibiting cDPP3 by a specific antibody, Procizumab (PCZ), on cardiac function in an experimental model of sepsis, the caecal ligature and puncture (CLP) model. Rats were monitored by invasive blood pressure and echocardiography. Results are presented as mean ± SD, with p <0.05 considered significant. PCZ rapidly restored left ventricular shortening fraction (from 39 ± 4% to 51 ± 2% before and 30 min after PCZ administration (p = 0.004)). Cardiac output and stroke volume were higher in the CLP + PCZ group when compared to the CLP + PBS group (152 ± 33 mL/min vs 97 ± 25 mL/min (p = 0.0079), and 0.5 ± 0.1 mL vs 0.3 ± 1.0 mL (p = 0.009), respectively) with a markedly reduced plasma DPP3 activity (138 ± 70 U/L in CLP + PCZ group versus 735 ± 255 U/L (p = 0.048) in the CLP + PBS group). Of note, PCZ rapidly reduced oxidative stress in the heart of the CLP + PCZ group when compared to those of the CLP + PBS group (13.3 ± 8.2 vs 6.2 ± 2.5 UI, p = 0.005, 120 min after administration, respectively). Our study demonstrates that inhibition of cDPP3 by PCZ restored altered cardiac function during sepsis in rats.

4.
Int J Cardiol ; 2020 Aug 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32841617

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Inflammatory responses play an important role in the pathophysiology of cardiogenic shock (CS). The aim of this study was to investigate the kinetics of procalcitonin (PCT), C-reactive protein (CRP), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in CS and to assess their relation to clinical presentation, other biochemical variables, and prognosis. METHODS: Levels of PCT, CRP and IL-6 were analyzed in serial plasma samples (0-120h) from 183 patients in the CardShock study. The study population was dichotomized by PCTmax ≥ and < 0.5 µg/L, and IL-6 and CRPmax above/below median. RESULTS: PCT peaked already at 24 h [median PCTmax 0.71 µg/L (IQR 0.24-3.4)], whereas CRP peaked later between 48 and 72 h [median CRPmax 137 mg/L (59-247)]. PCT levels were significantly higher among non-survivors compared with survivors from 12 h on, as were CRP levels from 24 h on (p < 0.001). PCTmax ≥ 0.5 µg/L (60% of patients) was associated with clinical signs of systemic hypoperfusion, cardiac and renal dysfunction, acidosis, and higher levels of blood lactate, IL-6, growth-differentiation factor 15 (GDF-15), and CRPmax. Similarly, IL-6 > median was associated with clinical signs and biochemical findings of systemic hypoperfusion. PCTmax ≥ 0.5 µg/L and IL-6 > median were associated with increased 90-day mortality (50% vs. 30% and 57% vs. 22%, respectively; p < 0.01 for both), while CRPmax showed no prognostic significance. The association of inflammatory markers with clinical infections was modest. CONCLUSIONS: Inflammatory markers are highly related to signs of systemic hypoperfusion in CS. Moreover, high PCT and IL-6 levels are associated with poor prognosis.

5.
Resuscitation ; 2020 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32858156

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Early and reliable prognostication after cardiac arrest (CA) remains crucial. We hypothesized that protein-S100B (PS100B) could predict more accurately outcome in the early phase of CA compared with other current biomarkers. METHODS: This prospective single-center study included 330 adult comatose non-traumatic successfully resuscitated CA patients, treated with targeted temperature management but not extra-corporeal life support. Lactate, pH, creatinine, NSE, and PS100B were sampled in ICU early after return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) corresponding to admission (Adm). Serial measurements were also performed at H24 and H48. PS100B was the sole biomarker blinded to physicians. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: The median delay between ROSC and first PS100B sampling was 220 min. At admission, all biomarkers were significantly associated with good outcome (CPC1-2; 109 patients) at 3-month follow-up (P ≤ 0.001, except for NSE: P = 0.03). PS100B-Adm showed the best AUC of ROC curves for outcome prediction at 3-month (AUC 0.83 [95%-CI: 0.78-0.88]), compared with other biomarkers (P < 0.0001), while AUC for lactate-Adm was higher than for NSE-Adm. AUC for PS100B-H24 was significantly higher than for other biomarkers except NSE-H24 (P ≤ 0.0001), while AUC for NSE-H24 was higher than for lactate-H24 and pH-H24. AUCs for PS100-H48 and NSE-H48 were significantly higher than for all other biomarkers (P < 0.001). Compared to patients with decreased PS100B values over time, an increasing PS100B value between admission and H24 was significantly associated with poor outcome at 3 months (P = 0.001). No-flow, initial non-shockable rhythm, PS100B-Adm, lactate-Adm, pH-Adm, clinical seizures, and absence of therapeutic hypothermia were independent predictors associated with poor outcome at 3-month in multivariate analysis. Net-Reclassification-Index was 70%, 64%, and 81% when PS100B-Adm was added to the clinical model, to clinical model with NSE-Adm, and to clinical model with standard biological parameters, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Early PS100B compared with other biomarkers was independently correlated with outcome after CA, with an interesting added value.

6.
J Emerg Med ; 2020 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32739129

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epinephrine effectiveness and safety are still questioned. It is well known that the effect of epinephrine varies depending on patients' rhythm and time to injection. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to assess the association between epinephrine use during out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) care and patient 30-day (D30) survival. METHODS: Between 2011 and 2017, 27,008 OHCA patients were included from the French OHCA registry. We adjusted populations using a time-dependent propensity score matching. Analyses were stratified according to patient's first rhythm. After matching, 2837 pairs of patients with a shockable rhythm were created and 20,950 with a nonshockable rhythm. RESULTS: Whatever the patient's rhythm (shockable or nonshockable), epinephrine use was associated with less D30 survival (odds ratio [OR] 0.508; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.440-0.586] and OR 0.645; 95% CI 0.549-0.759, respectively). In shockable rhythms, on all outcomes, epinephrine use was deleterious. In nonshockable rhythms, no difference was observed regarding return of spontaneous circulation and survival at hospital admission. However, epinephrine use was associated with worse neurological prognosis (OR 0.646; 95% CI 0.549-0.759). CONCLUSIONS: In shockable and nonshockable rhythms, epinephrine does not seem to have any benefit on D30 survival. These results underscore the need to perform further studies to define the optimal conditions for using epinephrine in patients with OHCA.

7.
Eur Heart J ; 2020 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32840318

RESUMO

AIMS : We sought to describe the clinical presentation, management, and 6-month outcomes in women with peripartum cardiomyopathy (PPCM) globally. METHODS AND RESULTS : In 2011, >100 national and affiliated member cardiac societies of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) were contacted to contribute to a global registry on PPCM, under the auspices of the ESC EURObservational Research Programme. These societies were tasked with identifying centres who could participate in this registry. In low-income countries, e.g. Mozambique or Burkina Faso, where there are no national societies due to a shortage of cardiologists, we identified potential participants through abstracts and publications and encouraged participation into the study. Seven hundred and thirty-nine women were enrolled in 49 countries in Europe (33%), Africa (29%), Asia-Pacific (15%), and the Middle East (22%). Mean age was 31 ± 6 years, mean left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) was 31 ± 10%, and 10% had a previous pregnancy complicated by PPCM. Symptom-onset occurred most often within 1 month of delivery (44%). At diagnosis, 67% of patients had severe (NYHA III/IV) symptoms and 67% had a LVEF ≤35%. Fifteen percent received bromocriptine with significant regional variation (Europe 15%, Africa 26%, Asia-Pacific 8%, the Middle East 4%, P < 0.001). Follow-up was available for 598 (81%) women. Six-month mortality was 6% overall, lowest in Europe (4%), and highest in the Middle East (10%). Most deaths were due to heart failure (42%) or sudden (30%). Re-admission for any reason occurred in 10% (with just over half of these for heart failure) and thromboembolic events in 7%. Myocardial recovery (LVEF > 50%) occurred only in 46%, most commonly in Asia-Pacific (62%), and least commonly in the Middle East (25%). Neonatal death occurred in 5% with marked regional variation (Europe 2%, the Middle East 9%). CONCLUSION : Peripartum cardiomyopathy is a global disease, but clinical presentation and outcomes vary by region. Just under half of women experience myocardial recovery. Peripartum cardiomyopathy is a disease with substantial maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality.

8.
Biol Sex Differ ; 11(1): 47, 2020 Aug 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32831121

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Many patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) are women. Exploring mechanisms underlying the sex differences may improve our understanding of the pathophysiology of HFpEF. Studies focusing on sex differences in circulating proteins in HFpEF patients are scarce. METHODS: A total of 415 proteins were analyzed in 392 HFpEF patients included in The Metabolic Road to Diastolic Heart Failure: Diastolic Heart Failure study (MEDIA-DHF). Sex differences in these proteins were assessed using adjusted logistic regression analyses. The associations between candidate proteins and cardiovascular (CV) death or CV hospitalization (with sex interaction) were assessed using Cox regression models. RESULTS: We found 9 proteins to be differentially expressed between female and male patients. Women expressed more LPL and PLIN1, which are markers of lipid metabolism; more LHB, IGFBP3, and IL1RL2 as markers of transcriptional regulation; and more Ep-CAM as marker of hemostasis. Women expressed less MMP-3, which is a marker associated with extracellular matrix organization; less NRP1, which is associated with developmental processes; and less ACE2, which is related to metabolism. Sex was not associated with the study outcomes (adj. HR 1.48, 95% CI 0.83-2.63), p = 0.18. CONCLUSION: In chronic HFpEF, assessing sex differences in a wide range of circulating proteins led to the identification of 9 proteins that were differentially expressed between female and male patients. These findings may help further investigations into potential pathophysiological processes contributing to HFpEF.

9.
ESC Heart Fail ; 2020 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32618139

RESUMO

AIMS: In hospitalized patients with a clinical diagnosis of acute heart failure (HF) with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF), the aims of this study were (i) to assess the proportion meeting the 2016 European Society of Cardiology (ESC) HFpEF criteria and (ii) to compare patients with restrictive/pseudonormal mitral inflow pattern (MIP) vs. patients with MIP other than restrictive/pseudonormal. METHODS AND RESULTS: We included hospitalized participants of the ESC-Heart Failure Association (HFA) EURObservational Research Programme (EORP) HF Long-Term Registry who had echocardiogram with ejection fraction (EF) ≥ 50% during index hospitalization. As no data on e', E/e' and left ventricular (LV) mass index were gathered in the registry, the 2016 ESC HFpEF definition was modified as follows: elevated B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) (≥100 pg/mL for acute HF) and/or N-terminal pro-BNP (≥300 pg/mL) and at least one of the echocardiographic criteria: (i) presence of LV hypertrophy (yes/no), (ii) left atrial volume index (LAVI) of >34 mL/m2 ), or (iii) restrictive/pseudonormal MIP. Next, all patients were divided into four groups: (i) patients with restrictive/pseudonormal MIP on echocardiography [i.e. with presumably elevated left atrial (LA) pressure], (ii) patients with MIP other than restrictive/pseudonormal (i.e. with presumably normal LA pressure), (iii) atrial fibrillation (AF) group, and (iv) 'grey area' (no consistent description of MIP despite no report of AF). Of 6365 hospitalized patients, 1848 (29%) had EF ≥ 50%. Natriuretic peptides were assessed in 28%, LV hypertrophy in 92%, LAVI in 13%, and MIP in 67%. The 2016 ESC HFpEF criteria could be assessed in 27% of the 1848 patients and, if assessed, were met in 52%. Of the 1848 patients, 19% had restrictive/pseudonormal MIP, 43% had MIP other than restrictive/pseudonormal, 18% had AF and 20% were grey area. There were no differences in long-term all-cause or cardiovascular mortality, or all-cause hospitalizations or HF rehospitalizations between the four groups. Despite fewer non-cardiac comorbidities reported at baseline, patients with MIP other than restrictive/pseudonormal (i.e. with presumably normal LA pressure) had more non-cardiovascular (14.0 vs. 6.7 per 100 patient-years, P < 0.001) and cardiovascular non-HF (13.2 vs. 8.0 per 100 patient-years, P = 0.016) hospitalizations in long-term follow-up than patients with restrictive/pseudonormal MIP. CONCLUSIONS: Acute HFpEF diagnosis could be assessed (based on the 2016 ESC criteria) in only a quarter of patients and confirmed in half of these. When assessed, only one in three patients had restrictive/pseudonormal MIP suggestive of elevated LA pressure. Patients with MIP other than restrictive/pseudonormal (suggestive of normal LA pressure) could have been misdiagnosed with acute HFpEF or had echocardiography performed after normalization of LA pressure. They were more often hospitalized for non-HF reasons during follow-up. Symptoms suggestive of acute HFpEF may in some patients represent non-HF comorbidities.

10.
J Cardiovasc Pharmacol ; 76(1): 4-22, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32639325

RESUMO

Levosimendan was first approved for clinical use in 2000, when authorization was granted by Swedish regulatory authorities for the hemodynamic stabilization of patients with acutely decompensated chronic heart failure (HF). In the ensuing 20 years, this distinctive inodilator, which enhances cardiac contractility through calcium sensitization and promotes vasodilatation through the opening of adenosine triphosphate-dependent potassium channels on vascular smooth muscle cells, has been approved in more than 60 jurisdictions, including most of the countries of the European Union and Latin America. Areas of clinical application have expanded considerably and now include cardiogenic shock, takotsubo cardiomyopathy, advanced HF, right ventricular failure, pulmonary hypertension, cardiac surgery, critical care, and emergency medicine. Levosimendan is currently in active clinical evaluation in the United States. Levosimendan in IV formulation is being used as a research tool in the exploration of a wide range of cardiac and noncardiac disease states. A levosimendan oral form is at present under evaluation in the management of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. To mark the 20 years since the advent of levosimendan in clinical use, 51 experts from 23 European countries (Austria, Belgium, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Italy, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Russia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, the United Kingdom, and Ukraine) contributed to this essay, which evaluates one of the relatively few drugs to have been successfully introduced into the acute HF arena in recent times and charts a possible development trajectory for the next 20 years.

13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-603939

RESUMO

The pathophysiology of acute kidney injury (AKI) in COVID-19 patients is still poorly understood. SARS-CoV2 has been suggested to modulate the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS). In this series of COVID-19 critically ill patients, we report evidence of activation of the RAAS in COVID-19 patients with AKI.

16.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 202(6): 822-829, 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32516543

RESUMO

Rationale: Subclinical acute kidney injury (sub-AKI) refers to patients with low serum creatinine but elevated alternative biomarkers of AKI. Its incidence and outcome in critically ill patients remain, however, largely unknown. Plasma proenkephalin A 119-159 (penKid) has been proposed as a sensitive biomarker of glomerular function.Objectives: In this ancillary study of two cohorts, we explored the incidence and outcome of sub-AKI based on penKid.Methods: A prospective observational study in ICUs was conducted. FROG-ICU (French and European Outcome Registry in ICUs) enrolled 2,087 critically ill patients, and AdrenOSS-1 (Adrenomedullin and Outcome in Severe Sepsis and Septic Shock-1) enrolled 583 septic patients. The primary endpoint was 28-day mortality after ICU admission. Sub-AKI was defined by an admission penKid concentration above the normal range (i.e., >80 pmol/L) in patients not meeting the definition of AKI. A sensitivity analysis was performed among patients with estimated glomerular filtration rate above 60 ml/min/1.73 m2 at ICU admission.Measurements and Main Results: In total, 6.1% (122/2,004) and 6.7% (39/583) of patients from the FROG-ICU and AdrenOSS-1 cohorts met the definition of sub-AKI (11.6% and 17.5% of patients without AKI). In patients without AKI or with high estimated glomerular filtration rate, penKid was associated with higher mortality (adjusted standardized hazard ratio [HR], 1.4 [95% confidence interval, 1.1-1.8]; P = 0.010; and HR, 1.6 [95% confidence interval, 1.3-1.8]; P < 0.0001, respectively) after adjustment for age, sex, comorbidities, diagnosis, creatinine, diuresis, and study. Patients with sub-AKI had higher mortality compared with no AKI (HR, 2.4 [95% confidence interval, 1.5-3.7] in FROG-ICU and 2.5 [95% confidence interval, 1.1-5.9] in AdrenOSS-1).Conclusions: Sub-AKI defined using penKid occurred in 11.6-17.5% of patients without AKI and was associated with a risk of death close to patients with AKI.

17.
Anaesth Crit Care Pain Med ; 39(4): 453-455, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32565254

RESUMO

The pathophysiology of acute kidney injury (AKI) in COVID-19 patients is still poorly understood. SARS-CoV-2 has been suggested to modulate the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS). In this series of COVID-19 critically ill patients, we report evidence of activation of the RAAS in COVID-19 patients with AKI.


Assuntos
Lesão Renal Aguda/metabolismo , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/metabolismo , Pneumonia Viral/metabolismo , Sistema Renina-Angiotensina/fisiologia , Lesão Renal Aguda/etiologia , Lesão Renal Aguda/terapia , Idoso , Aldosterona/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Creatinina/sangue , Estado Terminal , Feminino , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/complicações
19.
Can J Anaesth ; 67(9): 1162-1169, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32500514

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The pressure recording analytical method (PRAM) monitor is a non-invasive pulse contour cardiac output (CO) device that cannot be considered interchangeable with the gold standard for CO estimation. It, however, generates additional hemodynamic indices that need to be evaluated. Our objective was to investigate the performance of a multiparametric predictive score based on a combination of several parameters generated by the PRAM monitor to predict fluid responsiveness. METHODS: Secondary analysis of a prospective observational study from April 2016 to December 2017 in two French teaching hospitals. We included critically ill patients who were monitored by esophageal Doppler monitoring and an invasive arterial line, and received a 250-500 mL crystalloid fluid challenge. The main outcome measure was the predictive score discrimination evaluated by the area under the receiver operating characteristics curve. RESULTS: The three baseline PRAM-derived parameters associated with fluid responsiveness in univariate analysis were pulse pressure variation, cardiac cycle efficiency, and arterial elastance (P < 0.01, P = 0.03, and P < 0.01, respectively). The median [interquartile range] predictive score, calculated after discretization of these parameters according to their optimal threshold value was 3 [2-3] in fluid responders and 1 [1-2] in fluid non-responders, respectively (P < 0.001). The area under the curve of the predictive score was 0.807 (95% confidence interval, 0.662 to 0.909; P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: A multiparametric score combining three parameters generated by the PRAM monitor can predict fluid responsiveness with good positive and negative predictive values in intensive care unit patients.

20.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 9(12): e015009, 2020 Jun 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32519555

RESUMO

Background Many patients with heart failure (HF) experience changes in left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) during follow-up. We sought to evaluate the predictors and outcomes of different HF phenotypes according to longitudinal changes in EF. Methods and Results A total of 2104 patients with acute HF underwent echocardiography at baseline and follow-up. Global longitudinal strain was measured at index admission. HF phenotypes were defined as persistent HF with reduced EF (persistent HFrEF, LVEF ≤40% at baseline and follow-up), heart failure with improved ejection fraction (LVEF≤40% at baseline and improved to >40% at follow-up), heart failure with declined ejection fraction (LVEF>40% at baseline and declined to ≤40% at follow up), and persistent HF with preserved EF (persistent HFpEF, LVEF>40% at baseline and follow-up). Overall, 1130 patients had HFrEF at baseline; during follow-up, 54.2% and 46.8% had persistent HFrEF and heart failure with improved ejection fraction, respectively. Among 975 patients with HFpEF at baseline, 89.5% and 10.5% had persistent HFpEF and heart failure with declined ejection fraction at follow-up, respectively. The 5-year all-cause mortality rates were 43.1%, 33.1%, 24%, and 17% for heart failure with declined ejection fraction, persistent HFrEF, persistent HFpEF, and heart failure with improved ejection fraction, respectively (global log-rank P<0.001). In multivariable analyses, each 1% increase in global longitudinal strain (greater contractility) was associated with 10% increased odds for heart failure with improved ejection fraction among patients with HFrEF at baseline and 7% reduced odds for heart failure with declined ejection fraction among patients with HFpEF at baseline. Conclusions LVEF changed during follow-up. Each HF phenotype according to longitudinal LVEF changes has a distinct prognosis. Global longitudinal strain can be used to predict the HF phenotype. REGISTRATION: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT03513653.

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