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1.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 3173, 2021 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33542437

RESUMO

In the ANRS 12174 trial, HIV-exposed uninfected African neonates who received lopinavir-ritonavir (LPV/r) prophylaxis for 1 year exhibited slower growth from birth to week 50 compared with those receiving lamivudine (3TC). We assessed whether this difference in growth persisted over time, and was accompanied by differences in neuropsychological and clinical outcomes. Between February 2017 and February 2018, we conducted a cross-sectional clinical evaluation among former trial participants who completed the 50-week follow-up and who were not HIV-infected. In addition to clinical examination, neuropsychological outcomes were assessed using the tests Kaufman-ABCII, Test of Variables of Attention, Movement Assessment Battery for Children and the Strengths and Difficulties questionnaire, parent version. Of 1101 eligible children, aged 5-7 years, 553 could be traced and analysed (274 in the LPV/r and 279 in the 3TC groups). Growth, clinical and neuropsychological outcomes did not differ between treatment groups. At school age, children exposed to LPV/r and 3TC at birth for 1 year had comparable growth and neuropsychological outcomes without evidence of long-term side-effects of LPV/r. It provides reassuring data on clinical outcomes for all HIV-infected children treated with this antiretroviral drug in early life.

2.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 1724, 2021 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33462272

RESUMO

High taxonomic diversity in non-industrial human gut microbiomes is often interpreted as beneficial; however, it is unclear if taxonomic diversity engenders ecological resilience (i.e. community stability and metabolic continuity). We estimate resilience through genus and species-level richness, phylogenetic diversity, and evenness in short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) production among a global gut metagenome panel of 12 populations (n = 451) representing industrial and non-industrial lifestyles, including novel metagenomic data from Burkina Faso (n = 90). We observe significantly higher genus-level resilience in non-industrial populations, while SCFA production in industrial populations is driven by a few phylogenetically closely related species (belonging to Bacteroides and Clostridium), meaning industrial microbiomes have low resilience potential. Additionally, database bias obfuscates resilience estimates, as we were 2-5 times more likely to identify SCFA-encoding species in industrial microbiomes compared to non-industrial. Overall, we find high phylogenetic diversity, richness, and evenness of bacteria encoding SCFAs in non-industrial gut microbiomes, signaling high potential for resilience in SCFA production, despite database biases that limit metagenomic analysis of non-industrial populations.

3.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 2021 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33464020

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Serotype-specific diagnosis of pneumococcal community-acquired pneumonia in children under age 5 years would mark a major advancement for understanding pneumococcal epidemiology and supporting vaccine decision-making. METHODS: A Luminex technology-based multiplex urinary antigen detection (UAD) diagnostic assay was developed and subsequently validated in adults, but its applicability to children is unknown. This study aimed to set appropriate cutoffs for use of the UAD in a healthy pediatric population and apply these cutoffs in children with pneumonia in sub-Saharan Africa. The cutoffs were determined by assessing 379 urines obtained from healthy children under age 5 years from the Bobo-Dioulasso area for serotypes included in 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (UAD-1) and the 11 other serotypes unique to 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (UAD-2). RESULTS: Based on the assigned cutoff values, among 108 children who met the World Health Organization consolidation endpoint criteria, UAD-1 and UAD-2 were positive in 23.3% and 8.3%, respectively; among 364 children with clinically suspected pneumonia who did not meet the World Health Organization criteria, UAD-1 and UAD-2 were positive for 6.6% and 3.6%, respectively. Pneumococcal carriage prevalence was similar among pneumonia cases (30%) versus controls (35%) as was semiquantitative carriage density. CONCLUSIONS: UAD-1 and UAD-2 were able to distinguish community controls from children with pneumonia, particularly pneumonia with consolidation. Future studies are needed to confirm these results and more fully assess the contribution of pneumococcal carriage and concurrent viral infection.

4.
J Clin Med ; 9(11)2020 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33207772

RESUMO

Infant antiretroviral (ARV) prophylaxis given to children who are human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-exposed but uninfected (CHEU) to prevent HIV transmission through breastfeeding previously proved its efficacy in the fight against the pediatric epidemic. However, few studies have investigated the short- and long-term safety of prophylactic regimens. We previously reported a decrease of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) content among CHEU who received one year of lamivudine (3TC) or lopinavir-boosted ritonavir (LPV/r) as infant prophylaxis. We aimed to describe mtDNA content at six years of age among these CHEU, including those for whom we identified mtDNA depletion at week 50 (decrease superior or equal to 50% from baseline), and to compare the two prophylactic drugs. We also addressed the association between mtDNA depletion at week 50 with growth, clinical, and neuropsychological outcomes at year 6. Quantitative PCR was used to measure mtDNA content in whole blood of CHEU seven days after birth, at week 50, and at year 6. Among CHEU with identified mtDNA depletion at week 50 (n = 17), only one had a persistent mtDNA content decrease at year 6. No difference between prophylactic drugs was observed. mtDNA depletion was not associated with growth, clinical, or neuropsychological outcomes at year 6. This study brought reassuring data concerning the safety of infant 3TC or LPV/r prophylaxis.

5.
Pan Afr Med J ; 37: 72, 2020.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33244335

RESUMO

Introduction: low levels of contraceptive use in Western Africa are responsible for high fertility rates, which limits economic development. The cost of modern contraceptives is a significant constraint, then the government of Burkina Faso has implemented free family planning. Given this new policy, we provided rural women with a healthcare voucher giving free access to modern contraceptives. We conducted an analysis of the determinants of good free voucher use in order to implement adequate government policy. Methods: six months after the distribution of vouchers to women living in 30 villages in the Houet Province, we conducted a focus-group study based on individual in-depth health care provider interviews in partner healthcare centers. Results: the benefits of family planning, free contraceptive use, husband's approval and moral obligation were factors facilitating voucher use. The desire to become pregnant, husband's opposition, women's reluctance, women's lack of knowledge of contraceptives and factors associated with the intervention were the leading reasons for not using the vouchers. Conclusion: the promotion of modern contraceptive use among married women or concubines requires a holistic approach combining free access to modern contraceptives, effective policies involving men in family planning and the reduction of fertility preferences among the couples.

6.
J Clin Med ; 9(9)2020 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32937988

RESUMO

Children who are human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-exposed but uninfected (CHEU) accumulate maternal HIV and antiretroviral exposures through pregnancy, postnatal prophylaxis, and breastfeeding. Here, we compared the dynamics of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) parameters in African breastfed CHEU receiving lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) or lamivudine (3TC) pre-exposure prophylaxis during the first year of life. The number of mtDNA copies per cell (MCN) and the proportion of deleted mtDNA (MDD) were assessed at day 7 and at week 50 post-delivery (PrEP group). mtDNA depletion was defined as a 50% or more decrease from the initial value, and mtDNA deletions was the detection of mtDNA molecules with large DNA fragment loss. We also performed a sub-analysis with CHEU who did not receive a prophylactic treatment in South Africa (control group). From day seven to week 50, MCN decreased with a median of 41.7% (interquartile range, IQR: 12.1; 64.4) in the PrEP group. The proportion of children with mtDNA depletion was not significantly different between the two prophylactic regimens. Poisson regressions showed that LPV/r and 3TC were associated with mtDNA depletion (reference: control group; LPV/r: PR = 1.75 (CI95%: 1.15-2.68), p < 0.01; 3TC: PR = 1.54 (CI95%: 1.00-2.37), p = 0.05). Moreover, the proportion of children with MDD was unexpectedly high before randomisation in both groups. Long-term health impacts of these mitochondrial DNA parameters should be investigated further for both CHEU and HIV-infected children receiving LPV/r- or 3TC- based regimens.

7.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238431, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32886677

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Dengue fever is a re-emerging pathology in Burkina Faso. It affects everyone and pregnant women are not left out. The objective of this study was to estimate the burden of dengue fever and to assess its effects on pregnancy outcomes in hospitalized pregnant women during the 2017 outbreak in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. METHOD: This was a retrospective cohort study including febrile pregnant women from five health facilities in Ouagadougou. The study was carried out from July 1st to December 31st, 2017. A logistic stepwise regression was performed to identify the pregnancy adverse outcomes risk factors. RESULTS: Our study included 424 pregnant women at a mean age of 27.1 years old (Standard deviation: 6.23 years). Overall 28.54% (121/424) were infected with dengue virus. During follow-up, 29.01% (123/424) presented an adverse pregnancy outcome. Adjusted for gestational age and clinical symptoms, the risk of adverse pregnancy outcome was twice as high among dengue infected women as compared to uninfected women with an adjusted Odds Ratio (aOR) = 2.09 (1.08-4.05). The risk of the adverse pregnancy outcome was higher in the third trimester of pregnancy with aOR = 1.66 (1.02-2.72) in dengue fever infected women. CONCLUSION: Dengue fever is a risk factor for adverse pregnancy outcomes, especially in the third trimester in Burkina Faso. The implementation of effective anti-vectorial control interventions and better management of dengue fever during pregnancy are needed to improve pregnancy outcomes.


Assuntos
Dengue/epidemiologia , Resultado da Gravidez/epidemiologia , Adulto , Burkina Faso/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Dengue/virologia , Vírus da Dengue/patogenicidade , Surtos de Doenças , Feminino , Febre/etiologia , Humanos , Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
8.
Liver Int ; 40(10): 2367-2376, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32633864

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) is a challenge for controlling the hepatitis B epidemic. In Sub-Saharan countries, pilot interventions including the screening of pregnant women for HBsAg, implementation of anti-HBV therapy and infant immunization within 24 hours of life are initiated and need to be evaluated. This pilot study aimed to describe the cascade of care for hepatitis B PMTCT in a real life situation, and to identify sociodemographic factors associated with adequate management of pregnant women and infants. METHOD: The study was conducted from October 1st, 2014 to February 28th, 2016 in the antenatal clinics (ANCV) of Baskuy district which comprises nine first-level public health centres. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis were used to identify sociodemographic factors associated with the likelihood of retention in the cohort, HBV DNA testing, birth dose delivery and HBsAg testing of the children at 6 months of age; P ˂ .05 was selected as cut off for significance. RESULTS: In this prospective cohort study, of 5200 pregnant women consulting for the antenatal visit, 2261 (43.5%) were proposed pre-test counselling and HBsAg screening and 2220 (98.2%) have agreed to screening. Among 1580 (71.2%) women that came back for the post-counselling interview, 75 were positive for HBsAg (4.8%), 73 (97.3% of the women provided HBsAg result) consented to medical consultation with hepatogastroenterologists and 53 (72.6%); performed the HBV DNA testing. Forty-seven out of 60 (78.3%; 65.8-87.9) children born alive were immunized for HBV within 24 hours of life. Retention in care was associated with the level of education of the infant's father, secondary school or higher was associated with a better retention in care of the women (OR: 6.6; P = .03). CONCLUSION: Our study shows large gaps in HBV PMTCT. Resources for hepatitis B screening, care and prevention including universal access to the vaccine birth dose should be allocated to reduce infection in HBV exposed infants born in Burkina Faso.

9.
Pan Afr Med J ; 35: 65, 2020.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32537069

RESUMO

Introduction: in Burkina Faso, the only epidemic focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis confirmed in the literature by lab tests was in Ouagadougou. We report the epidemiological, clinical and biological results of the assessment of a new epidemic focus in Larama in western Burkina Faso. Methods: camps were used to receive patients. Sociodemographic and clinical data were collected using a questionnaire. Confirmation was based on microscopy and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Results: a total of 108 suspected cases have been identified in Larama, reflecting an attack rate of 5.8%. Sex ratio was 1.08. The patients were most often farmers (35.2%) and traders (33.3%). The working population (15-49 years old) accounted for 51.9%. The number of lesions varied between 1 and 5 in 91.7% of the cases. The lesions manifested as raised and infiltrated ulcerative lesions on the limbs (87%) with evolution ranging from 1 to 5 months in 96.3% of the cases. Samples were collected from two patients; microscopy showed leishmanias and PCR confirmed Leishmania major. Conclusion: our results confirm the presence of a cutaneous leishmaniasis major outbreak in the western part of the country. Additional surveys are needed to clarify the burden of leishmaniasis in Burkina Faso.

10.
Int Breastfeed J ; 15(1): 43, 2020 05 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32414404

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Early initiation and exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months reduces infant morbidity and mortality and can positively impact on cognitive function. In Uganda, exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months is recommended but many women introduce alternative feeds early. Interventions to scale-up peer support provision for exclusive breastfeeding are limited. We explored the barriers, facilitators and solutions to scaling-up of peer counselling support for exclusive breastfeeding in Uganda. METHODS: A qualitative study was conducted in Mbale District and Kampala City between April and July 2014. Data were collected through 15 key informant interviews with health workers and managers of organizations involved in child and maternal health as well as seven focus group discussions with peer counsellors who took part in the PROMISE EBF Trial (2006-2008), VHT members, mothers and fathers of children aged 1 year and below. Data were analysed using the content thematic approach. RESULTS: The need for peer support for exclusive breastfeeding, especially for young and first-time mothers, was highlighted by most study participants. While mothers, mothers-in-law, friends and husbands were mentioned as major stakeholders regarding infant feeding, they were perceived to lack adequate information on breastfeeding. Health workers were mentioned as a key source of support, but their constraints of heavy workloads and lack of education materials on breastfeeding were highlighted. High community expectations of peer counsellors, the perceived inadequacy of breast milk, general acceptability of complimentary feeding, household food insecurity, heavy workload for women and unsupportive 'work-places' were key barriers to scaling-up of peer counselling support for breastfeeding. The peer counsellors who were part of the PROMISE EBF trial in Mbale, the village health team programme, health facilities, community groups, the media and professional associations emerged as potential facilitators that can aid the scaling-up of peer counselling support for breastfeeding. CONCLUSIONS: Peer support for breastfeeding is highly valued in this setting. The health system and health workers are regarded as the main facilitators to scaling-up of peer support for exclusive breastfeeding. Partnerships with village health teams (VHTs), community groups, role models, professional associations and the media are other potential facilitators to this scaling-up.

11.
PeerJ ; 8: e9001, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32337106

RESUMO

Shotgun metagenomics applied to archaeological feces (paleofeces) can bring new insights into the composition and functions of human and animal gut microbiota from the past. However, paleofeces often undergo physical distortions in archaeological sediments, making their source species difficult to identify on the basis of fecal morphology or microscopic features alone. Here we present a reproducible and scalable pipeline using both host and microbial DNA to infer the host source of fecal material. We apply this pipeline to newly sequenced archaeological specimens and show that we are able to distinguish morphologically similar human and canine paleofeces, as well as non-fecal sediments, from a range of archaeological contexts.

12.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(15): 18902-18910, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32207010

RESUMO

Many studies have highlighted the link between indoor air pollution from the burning of solid fuels for cooking and heating and the occurrence of various health problems particularly in women and children under 5 years. In developing countries, solid fuels remain the main sources of energy. The purpose of this study aims to describe the distribution of household cooking fuel types and to analyze the factors influencing household cooking energy choice in Ouagadougou. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2017 in 3 neighborhoods of Ouagadougou. A total of 1734 household were randomly selected. We performed a multivariable logistic regression and a multinomial logistic regression to measure the relationship between selected determinants and households' primary cooking fuel. 59.53% of the households of Ouagadougou reported using solid fuels as the main cooking fuel. Wood is the most common primary cooking fuel used (43.93%), followed by LPG (40.41%) and then charcoal (15.60%). About 84% combine at least 2 types of energy for cooking. Cooking fuel choice is strongly influenced by the socioeconomic status, the family size, and also by the woman's educational attainment, her age and the main cooking fuel used in her parents' house. Actions aimed at reducing the impact of solid fuel use in the environment or health must consider these factors.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Culinária , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Características da Família , Feminino , Humanos , Madeira
13.
Clin Infect Dis ; 71(4): 1030-1039, 2020 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31633158

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Perinatal treatment with lopinavir boosted by ritonavir (LPV/r) is associated with steroidogenic abnormalities. Long-term effects in infants have not been studied. METHODS: Adrenal-hormone profiles were compared at weeks 6 and 26 between human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1-exposed but uninfected infants randomly assigned at 7 days of life to prophylaxis with LPV/r or lamivudine (3TC) to prevent transmission during breastfeeding. LPV/r in vitro effect on steroidogenesis was assessed in H295R cells. RESULTS: At week 6, 159 frozen plasma samples from Burkina Faso and South Africa were assessed (LPV/r group: n = 92; 3TC group: n = 67) and at week 26, 95 samples from Burkina Faso (LPV/r group: n = 47; 3TC group: n = 48). At week 6, LPV/r-treated infants had a higher median dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) level than infants from the 3TC arm: 3.91 versus 1.48 ng/mL (P < .001). Higher DHEA levels (>5 ng/mL) at week 6 were associated with higher 17-OH-pregnenolone (7.78 vs 3.71 ng/mL, P = .0004) and lower testosterone (0.05 vs 1.34 ng/mL, P = .009) levels in LPV/r-exposed children. There was a significant correlation between the DHEA and LPV/r AUC levels (ρ = 0.40, P = .019) and Ctrough (ρ = 0.40, P = .017). At week 26, DHEA levels remained higher in the LPV/r arm: 0.45 versus 0.13 ng/mL (P = .002). Lopinavir, but not ritonavir, inhibited CYP17A1 and CYP21A2 activity in H295R cells. CONCLUSIONS: Lopinavir was associated with dose-dependent adrenal dysfunction in infants. The impact of long-term exposure and potential clinical consequences require evaluation. CLINICAL TRIALS REGISTRATION: NCT00640263.

15.
Afr Health Sci ; 19(1): 1321-1328, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31148957

RESUMO

Background: Tuberculosis (TB) diagnosis by culture in most resource-limited settings is hampered by high contamination rate varying up to 31%. Reduction of oral microorganism loads by mouth rinse with antiseptic before sputum collection showed a reduction of contamination. Moreover, knowing the characteristic of residual contaminant microorganisms would be an asset to understand contamination issues. Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of mouth rinsing with chlorhexidine on mycobacteria culture contaminations and to characterize morphologically the residual contaminants. Methods: We consecutively included 158 patients in a TB center. Each of them supplied two sputa: The first before mouth rinse, and the second after 60sec of mouth rinsing with chlorhexidine (0.1%). Petroff method and Lowenstein-Jensen media were used for sputum decontamination and inoculation respectively. The contamination rates were compared, and the type of residual contaminants were characterized and compared. Results: The contamination rate did not differ before and after the mouth rinse (respectively 58/150 (39 %) vs 61/150 (41 %), p=0.7). The major residual contaminants were Gram positive spore forming bacteria (94%). Conclusion: Chlorhexidine mouth rinsing before sputum collection did not reduce mycobacterial culture contamination rate. This is probably due to spore forming bacteria, highlighted as major residual contaminants.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos Locais/farmacologia , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Clorexidina/farmacologia , Desinfetantes/farmacologia , Antissépticos Bucais/farmacologia , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolamento & purificação , Escarro/microbiologia , Adulto , Anti-Infecciosos/administração & dosagem , Anti-Infecciosos Locais/administração & dosagem , Burkina Faso , Clorexidina/administração & dosagem , Desinfetantes/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Antissépticos Bucais/administração & dosagem , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Controle de Qualidade , Escarro/efeitos dos fármacos
16.
Viruses ; 11(6)2019 06 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31207982

RESUMO

Hepatitis E virus infection is a significant public health problem in many parts of the world including Africa. We tested serum samples from 900 patients in Burkina Faso presenting with febrile icterus. They all tested negative for yellow fever, but those from 23/900 (2.6%) patients contained markers of acute HEV infection (anti-HEV IgM and HEV RNA positive). Genotyping indicated that 14 of the strains were HEV genotype 2b. There was an overall HEV IgG seroprevalence of 18.2% (164/900). In a bivariate analysis, the factors linked to HEV exposure were climate and patient age. Older patients and those living in arid regions were more likely to have HEV infection. HEV genotype 2b circulating only in humans can be involved in some acute febrile icterus cases in Burkina Faso. Better access to safe water, sanitation, and improved personal hygiene should improve control of HEV infection in this country.


Assuntos
Hepatite E/epidemiologia , Hepatite E/patologia , Icterícia/epidemiologia , Icterícia/etiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Burkina Faso/epidemiologia , Feminino , Genótipo , Anticorpos Anti-Hepatite/sangue , Vírus da Hepatite E/classificação , Vírus da Hepatite E/genética , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Imunoglobulina M/sangue , Masculino , Prevalência , RNA Viral/sangue , Adulto Jovem
17.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 7194, 2019 05 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31076625

RESUMO

The type of commensal microorganisms can influence the efficiency of sputum decontamination for TB diagnosis. A basic characterization of contaminants from LJ contaminated media showed that Gram positive Spore Forming Bacteria (SFB) were the major contaminants. This study aims to identify the species of this contaminants and to evaluate the effectiveness of VCNT at 10 µg of vancomycin to reduce mycobacterial culture contamination mainly linked to SFB. Fifty-three SFB isolated between February 2016 and May 2017 were used. The effectiveness of LJ with VCNT at 10 µg of Vancomycin were evaluated with sputum collected in the same period. SFB had been stored at -20 °C and identified after subculture onto 5% sheep blood Columbia agar and incubated at 37 °C during 24 h. Bacteria cells and isolated colonies were described. API 50CH/B was performed and MALDI-TOF MS was used for external quality control. Thirty- five (66%) isolates representing 4 genera (Bacillus, Paenibacillus, Brevisbacillus and Lysinibacillus) including 10 species were identified. The most important species were Bacillus cereus (30%) and Bacillus licheniformis (21%). Eighteen (34%) isolates were non-reactive Bacillus. The overall contamination rate on LJ with VCNT at 10 µg of vancomycin was statistically lower than which without VCNT (18.7% versus 43.8%) (p = 0.01). The most important SFB identified were B. cereus and B. licheniformis. Almost all identified strains were similar to those currently isolated in fermented traditional food suggesting in part food related contaminants. VCNT containing 10 µg of vancomycin is a good alternative method to reduce mycobacterial culture contamination.


Assuntos
Meios de Cultura/química , Bactérias Gram-Positivas/classificação , Bactérias Gram-Positivas/efeitos dos fármacos , Vancomicina/farmacologia , Técnicas Bacteriológicas/métodos , Burkina Faso , Colistina/farmacologia , Bactérias Gram-Positivas/isolamento & purificação , Mycobacterium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Nistatina/farmacologia , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização e Dessorção a Laser Assistida por Matriz , Esporos Bacterianos/classificação , Esporos Bacterianos/efeitos dos fármacos , Esporos Bacterianos/isolamento & purificação , Escarro/microbiologia , Simbiose , Trimetoprima/farmacologia
18.
BMC Nephrol ; 20(1): 155, 2019 05 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31064340

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It has been reported that people living with HIV in West Africa exhibited the highest risks for chronic kidney disease (CKD) in the world. Here, we aimed at determining the CKD frequency and changes in kidney function during antiretroviral treatment (ART) in a large cohort of HIV-patients followed in Burkina Faso. METHODS: We included ART-naive adults who initiated ART at the Day Care Unit of the Souro Sanou University Hospital between 01/01/2007 and 12/31/2016. We assessed the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) by serum creatinine using the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) equation. Following the K/DOQI recommendations, CKD was defined as eGFR < 60 ml/min/1.73m2 at two consecutive measurements at least 3 months apart. The factors associated with eGFR decline or CKD were identified by mixed linear regression and Cox regression, respectively. RESULTS: Three thousand, one hundred and thirty-eight patients (72% women) were followed for a median (IQR) of 4.5(2.2-6.9) years. At baseline, median eGFR (IQR) was 110.7(94.4-128.4) ml/min/1.73m2 and 93 (3%) patients exhibited eGFR < 60 ml/min/1.73m2. The lowest-performing progressions of eGFR during the first year of ART were observed in patients with 40-49 yr. age range (- 8.3[- 11.7;-5.0] ml/min/1.73m2, p < 0.001), age ≥ 50 yr. (- 6.2[- 10.7;-1.8] ml/min/1.73m2, p = 0.006) and high blood pressure (HBP) (- 28.4[- 46.9;-9.9] ml/min/1.73m2, p = 0.003) at ART initiation. Regarding the ART exposure in patients with normal baseline eGFR, zidovudine (AZT) with protease inhibitor (PI) (- 4.7[- 7.7;-1.6] ml/min/1.73m2, p = 0.002), tenofovir (TDF) + PI (- 13.1[- 17.4;-8.7] ml/min/1.73m2, p < 0.001), TDF without PI (- 3.2[- 5.0;-1.4] ml/min/1.73m2, p < 0.001), stavudine (d4T) + PI (- 8.5[- 14.6-2.4] ml/min/1.73m2, p = 0.006) and d4T without PI (- 5.0[- 7.6-2.4] ml/min/1.73m2, p < 0.001) were associated with poorer eGFR progression. The prevalence of CKD was 0.5% and the incidence was 1.9 [1.3; 2.7] cases/1000 person-years. The risk of CKD was higher in patients with HBP (4.3[1.8;9.9], p = 0.001), 40-49 yr. patients (4.2[1.6;11.2], p = 0.004), ≥50 yr. patients (4.5[1.5;14.1], p = 0.009) and patients exposed to abacavir (ABC) or didanosine (ddI) based ART (13.1[4.0;42.9], p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings do not confirm the high risk of CKD reported in previous studies of West Africans with HIV, but support the recommendations for early initiation of ART and close kidney function monitoring in patients with HBP or aged ≥40 yr.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Fármacos Anti-HIV/efeitos adversos , Burkina Faso/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Creatinina/sangue , Didanosina/efeitos adversos , Didanosina/uso terapêutico , Didesoxinucleosídeos/efeitos adversos , Didesoxinucleosídeos/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Seguimentos , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Hipertensão/complicações , Incidência , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/etiologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/fisiopatologia , Fatores de Risco , Estavudina/efeitos adversos , Estavudina/uso terapêutico , Tenofovir/efeitos adversos , Tenofovir/uso terapêutico , Fatores de Tempo , Zidovudina/efeitos adversos , Zidovudina/uso terapêutico
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30909455

RESUMO

Background: Approximately 3 billion people, worldwide, rely primarily on biomass for cooking. This study aimed to investigate the association between respiratory symptoms among women in charge of household cooking and the type of fuel used for cooking. Methods: A community-based cross-sectional survey was conducted. A total of 1705 women that were randomly selected, completed the survey. We also performed a bivariate and a multivariate analysis to verify the possible associations between respiratory symptoms in women in charge of household cooking and the type of cooking fuel used. Results: Dry cough, breathing difficulties, and throat irritation frequencies were statistically high in biomass fuel users when compared to liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) users. It was also the case for some chronic respiratory symptoms, such as sputum production, shortness of breath, wheezing, wheezing with dyspnea, wheezing without a cold, waking up with shortness of breath, waking up with coughing attacks, and waking up with breathing difficulty. After adjustment for the respondents' and households' characteristics; dry cough, breathing difficulties, sneezing, nose tingling, throat irritation, chronic sputum production, wheezing, wheezing with dyspnea, wheezing without a cold, waking up with shortness of breath, waking up with coughing attacks, and waking up with breathing difficulty were symptoms that remained associated to biomass fuel compared to LPG. Women who used charcoal reported the highest proportion of all the chronic respiratory symptoms compared to the firewood users. However, this difference was not statistically significant except for the wheezing, waking up with coughing attacks, and waking up with breath difficulty, after adjustment. Conclusion: Exposure to biomass smoke is responsible for respiratory health problems in women. Charcoal, which is often considered as a clean fuel compared to other biomass fuels and often recommended as an alternative to firewood, also presents health risks, including increased respiratory morbidity in women. Effective and efficient energy policies are needed to accelerate the transition to clean and sustainable energies.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados , Culinária , Sistema Respiratório/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Burkina Faso , Tosse , Estudos Transversais , Dispneia , Características da Família , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sons Respiratórios , Fumaça , Adulto Jovem
20.
Lancet HIV ; 6(5): e307-e314, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30814028

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The tolerance of antiretroviral drugs in infants must be carefully evaluated. In previous studies of children with HIV type 1 (HIV-1) less weight gain was observed in children given lopinavir-ritonavir-based combinations than those given nevirapine. We aimed to compare the effects of lopinavir-ritonavir and lamivudine on growth in HIV-exposed uninfected infants included in the ANRS 12174 trial. METHODS: ANRS 12174 was a multicentre, randomised, controlled trial of infant prophylaxis to prevent HIV-1 transmission by breastfeeding done at four antenatal clinics in Burkina Faso, South Africa, Uganda, and Zambia. HIV-exposed uninfected infants born to asymptomatic mothers not eligible for antiretroviral therapy (CD4 count >350 cells per µL) were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive lopinavir-ritonavir or lamivudine 7 days after birth, with stratification by country. In a prespecified secondary analysis, we assessed the effect of lopinavir-ritonavir and lamivudine on the growth of these infants from day 7 until cessation of breastfeeding (maximum treatment time 12 months) in the modified intention-to-treat population, which included all children correctly enrolled with at least one follow-up anthropometric measurement. We compared the growth of infants, defined as children's WHO-defined length-for-age Z score (LAZ), weight-for-length Z score (WAZ), and weight-for-age Z score (WLZ). We used linear mixed effect and ß spline-regression models to compare growth between the treatment groups. The trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00640263. FINDINGS: 1273 HIV-exposed uninfected infants and their mothers were enrolled between Nov 16, 2009, and May 7, 2013, of whom 1266 (99%) infants were included in the modified intention-to-treat analysis (630 assigned to lopinavir-ritonavir, 636 assigned to lamivudine). Baseline characteristics of the infants and mothers were similar across the two treatment groups. No differences in least-squares (LS) mean LAZ were identified between the treatment groups at any timepoint. LS mean WLZ was significantly lower in the lopinavir-ritonavir group than the lamivudine group at 26 weeks (difference -0·22 [95% CI -0·34 to -0·09], p=0·0006) and 50 weeks (-0·25 [-0·47 to -0·04], p=0·02). LS mean WAZ was also significantly lower in the lopinavir-ritonavir group than the lamivudine group at 26 weeks (difference -0·18 [95% CI -0·30 to -0·05], p=0·01) and 50 weeks (-0·24 [-0·45 to -0·05], p=0·02). Linear mixed models showed that lopinavir-ritonavir was associated with decreases in WLZ and WAZ over time (p<0·0001 and p=0·002), whereas spline regression models indicated that these reductions occurred early and remained constant thereafter (p<0·0001 with a knot at 44 days for WLZ; p=0·02 with a knot at 118 days for WAZ). The difference in LS mean WLZ at 50 weeks between the treatment groups was higher among girls than boys (difference -0·29 [95% CI -0·58 to 0·01], p=0·05 for girls; -0·22 [-0·53 to 0·09], p=0·18 for boys). INTERPRETATION: Less weight gain was observed in infants given lopinavir-ritonavir than those given lamivudine, which is indicative of a persistent effect that could have long-term deleterious effects. This finding merits attention considering the recommendations for early and lifelong treatment of infants with HIV. FUNDING: French National Agency for Research on AIDS and Viral Hepatitis, the Total Foundation, the European Developing Countries Clinical Trials Partnership, and the Research Council of Norway.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Inibidores da Protease de HIV/uso terapêutico , HIV-1/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade , Contagem de Linfócito CD4 , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/imunologia , Inibidores da Protease de HIV/farmacologia , HIV-1/imunologia , Humanos , Lamivudina/administração & dosagem , Lopinavir/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Ritonavir/administração & dosagem , Resultado do Tratamento , Carga Viral , Adulto Jovem
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