Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 25
Filtrar
1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33638312

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Reliable diagnostics are a key to identifying influenza infections. OBJECTIVES: Our objectives were to describe the detection of influenza among severe acute respiratory infection (SARI) cases, to compare test results from the Fast Track Diagnostics (FTD) Kit for influenza detection to the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) human influenza virus detection and characterization panel, and to assess seasonality of influenza in Burkina Faso. METHODS: Nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal specimens from SARI cases (hospitalized patients with fever, cough, and onset in the previous 10 days) were tested using the FTD-33 Kit and the CDC rRT-PCR influenza assays. We assessed sensitivity and specificity of the FTD-33 Kit for detecting influenza A, influenza B, and the influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 strain using the CDC human influenza rRT-PCR panel as the gold standard. RESULTS: From December 2016 to February 2019, 1706 SARI cases were identified, 1511 specimens were tested, and 211 were positive for influenza A (14.0%) and 100 for influenza B (6.6%) by either assay. Higher influenza circulation occurred between November and April with varying peaks of influenza A and influenza B. Sensitivity of the FTD-33 assay was 91.9% for influenza A, 95.7% for influenza B, and 93.8% for A(H1N1)pdm09 subtype. Specificity was over 99% for all three tests. CONCLUSIONS: Our study indicates that Burkina Faso has one peak of influenza each year which is similar to the Northern Hemisphere and differs from other countries in West Africa. We found high concordance of influenza results between the two assays indicating FTD-33 can be used to reliably detect influenza among SARI cases.

2.
Vaccine ; 38(48): 7603-7611, 2020 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33077298

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite the remarkable achievements of the Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI) in Burkina Faso, numerous challenges remain, including missed opportunities for vaccination (MOV) which occur when people visit a health facility with at least one vaccine due according to the national immunization schedule, are free of contraindications, and leave without receiving all due vaccine doses. In 2016, we used the revised World Health Organization's (WHO) MOV strategy to assess the extent of and reasons for MOV in Burkina Faso. METHODS: We purposively selected 27 primary health facilities (PHFs) from the eight health districts with the highest absolute numbers of children who missed the first dose of measles-rubella (MR1) in 2015. We conducted exit interviews with caregivers of children aged 0-23 months, and requested health workers to complete a self-administered knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) questionnaire. RESULTS: A total of 489 caregivers were interviewed, of which 411 were eligible for inclusion in our analysis. Medical consultation (35%) and vaccination (24.5%) were the most frequent reasons for visiting PHFs. Among the 73% of children eligible for vaccination, 76% of vaccination opportunities were missed. Among eligible children, the percentage with MOV was significantly higher in those aged ≥12 months and also in those attending for a reason other than vaccination. A total of 248 health workers completed the KAP questionnaire. Of these, 70% (n = 168/239) considered their knowledge on immunization to be insufficient or outdated; 83% failed to correctly identify valid contraindications to vaccination. CONCLUSION: Addressing MOV offers the potential for substantial increases in vaccine coverage and equity, and ultimately reducing the burden of vaccine-preventable diseases (VPDs). This will require the implementation of a series of interventions aimed at improving community knowledge and practices, raising health workers' awareness, and fostering the integration of immunization with other health services.

3.
Vaccine ; 38(42): 6517-6523, 2020 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32868131

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Diarrheal illness is a leading cause of hospitalizations among children <5 years. We estimated the costs of inpatient care for rotavirus and all-cause acute gastroenteritis (AGE) in two Burkina Faso hospitals. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study among children <5 years from December 2017 to June 2018 in one urban and one rural pediatric hospital. Costs were ascertained through caregiver interview and chart abstraction. Direct medical, non-medical, and indirect costs per child incurred are reported. Costs were stratified by rotavirus results. RESULTS: 211 children <5 years were included. AGE hospitalizations cost 161USD (IQR 117-239); 180USD (IQR 121-242) at the urban and 154USD (IQR 116-235) at the rural site. Direct medical costs were higher in the urban compared to the rural site (140USD (IQR 102-182) vs. 90USD (IQR 71-108), respectively). Direct non-medical costs were higher at the rural versus urban site (15USD (IQR 10, 15) vs. 11USD (IQR 5-20), respectively). Indirect costs were higher at the rural versus urban site (35USD (IQR 8-91) vs. 0USD (IQR 0-26), respectively). Rotavirus hospitalizations incurred less direct medical costs as compared to non-rotavirus hospitalizations at the rural site (79USD (IQR 64-103) vs. 95USD (IQR 80-118)). No other differences by rotavirus testing status were observed. The total median cost of a hospitalization incurred by households was 24USD (IQR 12-49) compared to 75USD for government (IQR 59-97). Direct medical costs for households were higher in the urban site (median 49USD (IQR 31-81) versus rural (median 14USD (IQR 8-25)). Households in the lowest wealth quintiles at the urban site expended 149% of their monthly income on the child's hospitalization, compared to 96% at the rural site. CONCLUSIONS: AGE hospitalization costs differed between the urban and rural hospitals and were most burdensome to the lowest income households. Rotavirus positivity was not associated with greater household costs.

4.
Vaccine ; 38(35): 5726-5733, 2020 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32591290

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To better understand how to prevent and respond to pneumococcal meningitis outbreaks in the meningitis belt, we retrospectively examined Burkina Faso's case-based meningitis surveillance data for pneumococcal meningitis clusters and assessed potential usefulness of response strategies. METHODS: Demographic and clinical information, and cerebrospinal fluid laboratory results for meningitis cases were collected through nationwide surveillance. Pneumococcal cases were confirmed by culture, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), or latex agglutination; strains were serotyped using PCR. We reviewed data from 2011 to 2017 to identify and describe clusters of ≥ 5 confirmed pneumococcal meningitis cases per week in a single district. We assessed whether identified clusters met the 2016 WHO provisional pneumococcal meningitis outbreak definition: a district with a weekly incidence of >5 suspected meningitis cases/100,000 persons, >60% of confirmed meningitis cases caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, and >10 confirmed pneumococcal meningitis cases. RESULTS: Twenty pneumococcal meningitis clusters were identified, with a maximum weekly incidence of 7 cases and a maximum duration of 4 weeks. Most identified clusters (15/20; 75%) occurred before nationwide introduction of 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) in October 2013. Most cases were due to serotype 1 (74%), 10% were due to PCV13 serotypes besides serotype 1, and 8 clusters had >1 serotype. While 6 identified clusters had a weekly incidence of >5 suspected cases/100,000 and all 20 clusters had >60% of confirmed meningitis cases due to S. pneumoniae, no cluster had >10 confirmed pneumococcal meningitis cases in a single week. CONCLUSIONS: Following PCV13 introduction, pneumococcal meningitis clusters were rarely detected, and none met the WHO provisional pneumococcal outbreak definition. Due to the limited cluster size and duration, there were no clear instances where reactive vaccination could have been useful. More data are needed to inform potential response strategies.

5.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 254, 2020 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32075630

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Meningococcal serogroup A conjugate vaccine (MACV) was introduced in 2017 into the routine childhood immunization schedule (at 15-18 months of age) in Burkina Faso to help reduce meningococcal meningitis burden. MACV was scheduled to be co-administered with the second dose of measles-containing vaccine (MCV2), a vaccine already in the national schedule. One year following the introduction of MACV, an assessment was conducted to qualitatively examine health workers' perceptions of MACV introduction, identify barriers to uptake, and explore opportunities to improve coverage. METHODS: Twelve in-depth interviews were conducted with different cadres of health workers in four purposively selected districts in Burkina Faso. Districts were selected to include urban and rural areas as well as high and low MCV2 coverage areas. Respondents included health workers at the following levels: regional health managers (n = 4), district health managers (n = 4), and frontline healthcare providers (n = 4). All interviews were recorded, transcribed, and thematically analyzed using qualitative content analysis. RESULTS: Four themes emerged around supply and health systems barriers, demand-related barriers, specific challenges related to MACV and MCV2 co-administration, and motivations and efforts to improve vaccination coverage. Supply and health systems barriers included aging cold chain equipment, staff shortages, overworked and poorly trained staff, insufficient supplies and financial resources, and challenges with implementing community outreach activities. Health workers largely viewed MACV introduction as a source of motivation for caregivers to bring their children for the 15- to 18-month visit. However, they also pointed to demand barriers, including cultural practices that sometimes discourage vaccination, misconceptions about vaccines, and religious beliefs. Challenges in co-administering MACV and MCV2 were mainly related to reluctance among health workers to open multi-dose vials unless enough children were present to avoid wastage. CONCLUSIONS: To improve effective administration of vaccines in the second-year of life, adequate operational and programmatic planning, training, communication, and monitoring are necessary. Moreover, clear policy communication is needed to help ensure that health workers do not refrain from opening multi-dose vials for small numbers of children.


Assuntos
Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Programas de Imunização/organização & administração , Meningite Meningocócica/prevenção & controle , Vacinas Meningocócicas/administração & dosagem , Neisseria meningitidis Sorogrupo A , Burkina Faso , Humanos , Esquemas de Imunização , Lactente , Vacinas Conjugadas
6.
Vaccine ; 38(13): 2808-2815, 2020 03 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32089461

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Accurate and timely vaccination data are important to the Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) to assess individual vaccination status and to monitor performance and vaccine coverage (VC). Since 2013, Burkina Faso introduced several new vaccines into the routine childhood immunization schedule. However, sustained efforts for a timely update and alignment of immunization home-based (HBRs) and health facility-based records (FBRs) with the evolving schedule were not implemented. METHODS: In 2016-17, we conducted a 6-week cross-sectional survey in 30 health facilities (HFs) across 10 health districts (HDs), targeting children aged < 24 months and their caregivers. Data collected included sociodemographics, availability of vaccination recording fields in HBRs, and vaccination dates. We evaluated the characteristics, completion patterns, and concordance of HBRs and FBRs to determine their reliability as data sources in estimating VC. A standard HBR was defined as one that had recording fields for all recommended 17 vaccine doses of the schedule, and discordance between HBR and FBR as having different vaccination dates recorded, or vaccination information missing in one of the records. We computed proportions and concordance statistics, and used logistic regression to explore predictors of discordance. RESULTS: We recruited 619 children, including 74% (n = 458) aged 0-11 months. Half (50.6%) of HBRs were non-standard. About two-thirds (64.6%) of children were concerned with discordant information. Compared to HBRs, FBRs were generally associated with low negative predictive values (median: 0.41; IQR: 0.16-0.70). Multivariate logistic regression model showed that standard HBR was protectively associated with discordant information (OR = 0.46, 95% CI: 0.26-0.81, p = 0.010). CONCLUSION: We documented a lack of standardization of HBRs and frequent information discordance with FBRs. There is a pressing need to update and standardize vaccination recording tools and ensure their continuous availability in HFs to improve data quality in Burkina Faso.

7.
Health Secur ; 18(S1): S98-S104, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32004130

RESUMO

Efficient specimen transport systems are critical for early disease detection and reporting by laboratory networks. In Burkina Faso, centralized reference laboratories receive specimens from multiple surveillance sites for testing, but transport methods vary, resulting in potential delays and risk to specimen quality. The ministry of health and partners, under the Global Health Security Agenda implementation, piloted a specimen transport system for severe acute respiratory illness (SARI) surveillance in 4 Burkina Faso districts. A baseline assessment was conducted of the current specimen transport network structure and key stakeholders. Assessment results and guidelines for processing SARI specimens informed the pilot specimen transport system design and implementation. Monitoring and evaluation performance indicators included: proportion of packages delivered, timeliness, and quality of courier services (missed or damaged packages). Our baseline assessment found that laboratorians routinely carried specimens from the health center to reference laboratories, resulting in time away from laboratory duties and potential specimen delays or loss of quality. The pilot specimen transport system design engaged Sonapost, the national postal service, to transport specimens from SARI sites to the influenza national reference laboratory. From May 2017 to December 2018, the specimen transport system transported 557 packages containing 1,158 SARI specimens; 95% (529/557) were delivered within 24 hours of pick-up and 77% (892/1,158) within 48 hours of collection. No packages were lost. This article highlights lessons learned that may be useful for other countries considering establishment of a specimen transport system to strengthen laboratory system infrastructure in global health security implementation.


Assuntos
Manejo de Espécimes/métodos , Transportes/métodos , Burkina Faso , Monitoramento Epidemiológico , Humanos , Serviços Postais , Infecções Respiratórias , Fatores de Tempo
8.
J Infect Dis ; 220(220 Suppl 4): S233-S243, 2019 10 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31671442

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: After successful meningococcal serogroup A conjugate vaccine (MACV) campaigns since 2010, Burkina Faso introduced MACV in March 2017 into the routine Expanded Programme for Immunization schedule at age 15-18 months, concomitantly with second-dose measles-containing vaccine (MCV2). We examined MCV2 coverage in pre- and post-MACV introduction cohorts to describe observed changes regionally and nationally. METHODS: A nationwide household cluster survey of children 18-41 months of age was conducted 1 year after MACV introduction. Coverage was assessed by verification of vaccination cards or recall. Two age groups were included to compare MCV2 coverage pre-MACV introduction (30-41 months) versus post-MACV introduction (18-26 months). RESULTS: In total, 15 925 households were surveyed; 7796 children were enrolled, including 3684 30-41 months of age and 3091 18-26 months of age. Vaccination documentation was observed for 86% of children. The MACV routine coverage was 58% (95% confidence interval [CI], 56%-61%) with variation by region (41%-76%). The MCV2 coverage was 62% (95% CI, 59%-65%) pre-MACV introduction and 67% (95% CI, 64%-69%) post-MACV introduction, an increase of 4.5% (95% CI, 1.3%-7.7%). Among children who received routine MACV and MCV2, 93% (95% CI, 91%-94%) received both at the same visit. Lack of caregiver awareness about the 15- to 18-month visit and vaccine unavailability were common reported barriers to vaccination. CONCLUSIONS: A small yet significant increase in national MCV2 coverage was observed 1 year post-MACV introduction. The MACV/MCV2 coadministration was common. Findings will help inform strategies to strengthen second-year-of-life immunization coverage, including to address the communication and vaccine availability barriers identified.


Assuntos
Meningite Meningocócica/epidemiologia , Meningite Meningocócica/prevenção & controle , Vacinas Meningocócicas/administração & dosagem , Neisseria meningitidis Sorogrupo A/imunologia , Vacinas Conjugadas/administração & dosagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Programas de Imunização , Esquemas de Imunização , Lactente , Masculino , Vacinação em Massa , Meningite Meningocócica/microbiologia , Vacinas Meningocócicas/imunologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Cobertura Vacinal , Vacinas Conjugadas/imunologia , Adulto Jovem
9.
J Infect Dis ; 220(220 Suppl 4): S198-S205, 2019 10 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31671443

RESUMO

Nationwide case-based meningitis surveillance was established in Burkina Faso following the introduction of meningococcal serogroup A conjugate vaccine in 2010. However, timely tracking and arrival of cerebrospinal fluid specimens for confirmation at national reference laboratories remained suboptimal. To better understand this gap and identify bottlenecks, the Burkina Faso Ministry of Health, along with key partners, developed and implemented a cloud-based System for Tracking Epidemiological Data and Laboratory Specimens (STELAB), allowing for timely nationwide data reporting and specimen tracking using barcodes. STELAB was adapted to Burkina Faso's infrastructure to ensure suitability, functionality, flexibility, and sustainability. We describe the design, development, and implementation of STELAB. In addition, we discuss strategies used to promote sustainability, lessons learned during the first year of implementation, and future directions. STELAB's novel design and country-driven approach has the potential to achieve sustainable real-time data reporting and specimen tracking for the first time in sub-Saharan Africa.


Assuntos
Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos , Computação em Nuvem , Meningite Meningocócica/epidemiologia , Sistemas de Identificação de Pacientes , Vigilância da População , Adolescente , Adulto , Burkina Faso/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Geografia Médica , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Lactente , Meningite Meningocócica/história , Meningite Meningocócica/microbiologia , Vigilância da População/métodos , Adulto Jovem
10.
J Infect Dis ; 220(220 Suppl 4): S253-S262, 2019 10 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31671444

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In 2013, Burkina Faso introduced 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) into the routine childhood immunization program, to be administered to children at 8, 12, and 16 weeks of age. We evaluated the impact of PCV13 on pneumococcal meningitis. METHODS: Using nationwide surveillance, we gathered demographic/clinical information and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) results for meningitis cases. Pneumococcal cases were confirmed by culture, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), or latex agglutination; strains were serotyped using PCR. We compared annual incidence (cases per 100 000) 4 years after PCV13's introduction (2017) to average pre-PCV13 incidence (2011-2013). We adjusted incidence for age and proportion of cases with CSF tested at national laboratories. RESULTS: In 2017, pneumococcal meningitis incidence was 2.7 overall and 10.5 (<1 year), 3.8 (1-4 years), 3.5 (5-14 years), and 1.4 (≥15 years) by age group. Compared to 2011-2013, PCV13-serotype incidence was significantly lower among all age groups, with the greatest decline among children aged <1 year (77%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 65%-84%). Among all ages, the drop in incidence was larger for PCV13 serotypes excluding serotype 1 (79%; 95% CI, 72%-84%) than for serotype 1 (52%; 95% CI, 44%-59%); incidence of non-PCV13 serotypes also declined (53%; 95% CI, 37%-65%). In 2017, 45% of serotyped cases among all ages were serotype 1 and 12% were other PCV13 serotypes. CONCLUSIONS: In Burkina Faso, meningitis caused by PCV13 serotypes continues to decrease, especially among young children. However, the concurrent decline in non-PCV13 serotypes and short pre-PCV13 observation period complicate evaluation of PCV13's impact. Efforts to improve control of serotype 1, such as switching from a 3 + 0 schedule to a 2 + 1 schedule, may improve overall control of pneumococcal meningitis in this setting.


Assuntos
Meningite Pneumocócica/epidemiologia , Meningite Pneumocócica/prevenção & controle , Vacinas Pneumocócicas/imunologia , Streptococcus pneumoniae/imunologia , Adolescente , Burkina Faso/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Programas de Imunização , Incidência , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Meningite Pneumocócica/história , Vigilância em Saúde Pública , Sorogrupo , Streptococcus pneumoniae/classificação , Vacinação , Vacinas Conjugadas
11.
Viruses ; 11(6)2019 06 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31207982

RESUMO

Hepatitis E virus infection is a significant public health problem in many parts of the world including Africa. We tested serum samples from 900 patients in Burkina Faso presenting with febrile icterus. They all tested negative for yellow fever, but those from 23/900 (2.6%) patients contained markers of acute HEV infection (anti-HEV IgM and HEV RNA positive). Genotyping indicated that 14 of the strains were HEV genotype 2b. There was an overall HEV IgG seroprevalence of 18.2% (164/900). In a bivariate analysis, the factors linked to HEV exposure were climate and patient age. Older patients and those living in arid regions were more likely to have HEV infection. HEV genotype 2b circulating only in humans can be involved in some acute febrile icterus cases in Burkina Faso. Better access to safe water, sanitation, and improved personal hygiene should improve control of HEV infection in this country.


Assuntos
Hepatite E/epidemiologia , Hepatite E/patologia , Icterícia/epidemiologia , Icterícia/etiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Burkina Faso/epidemiologia , Feminino , Genótipo , Anticorpos Anti-Hepatite/sangue , Vírus da Hepatite E/classificação , Vírus da Hepatite E/genética , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Imunoglobulina M/sangue , Masculino , Prevalência , RNA Viral/sangue , Adulto Jovem
12.
Bull World Health Organ ; 96(11): 750-759, 2018 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30455530

RESUMO

Objective: To estimate population-wide hepatitis B and C seroprevalence using dried blood spot samples acquired for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) surveillance as part of the 2010-2011 Demographic and Health Survey in Burkina Faso. Methods: We used the database acquired during the multistage, clustered, population-based survey, in which 15 377 participants completed questionnaires and provided dried blood spot samples for HIV testing. We extracted sociodemographic and geographic data including age, sex, ethnicity, education, wealth, marital status and region for each participant. We performed hepatitis B and C assays on 14 886 HIV-negative samples between March to October 2015, and calculated weighted percentages of hepatitis seroprevalence for each variable. Findings: We estimated seroprevalence as 9.1% (95% confidence interval, CI: 8.5-9.7) for the hepatitis B surface antigen and 3.6% (95% CI: 3.3-3.8) for hepatitis C virus antibodies, classifying Burkina Faso as highly endemic for hepatitis B and low-intermediate for hepatitis C. The seroprevalence of hepatitis was higher in men than in women, and varied significantly for both with age, education, ethnicity and region. Extremely high HCV-Ab seroprevalence (13.2%; 95% CI: 10.6-15.7) was identified in the Sud-Ouest region, in particular within the youngest age group (15-20 years), indicating an ongoing epidemic. Conclusion: Our population-representative hepatitis seroprevalence estimates in Burkina Faso advocate for the inclusion of hepatitis serological tests and risk factor questionnaire items in future surveys, the results of which are crucial for the development of appropriate health policies and infection control programmes.


Assuntos
Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Burkina Faso/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gravidez , Características de Residência , Fatores de Risco , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Distribuição por Sexo , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto Jovem
13.
PLoS One ; 13(10): e0206117, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30359419

RESUMO

We previously developed a mathematical simulation of serogroup A Neisseria meningitidis (NmA) transmission in Burkina Faso, with the goal of forecasting the relative benefit of different vaccination programs. Here, we revisit key structural assumptions of the model by comparing how accurately the different assumptions reproduce observed NmA trends following vaccine introduction. A priori, we updated several of the model's parameters based on recently published studies. We simulated NmA disease under different assumptions about duration of vaccine-induced protection (including the possibility that vaccine-induced protection may last longer than natural immunity). We compared simulated and observed case counts from 2011-2017. We then used the best-fit model to forecast the impact of different vaccination strategies. Our updated model, with the assumption that vaccine-induced immunity lasts longer than immunity following NmA colonization, was able to reproduce observed trends in NmA disease. The updated model predicts that, following a mass campaign among persons 1-29 years of age, either routine immunization of 9 month-old children or periodic mini-campaigns among children 1-4 years of age will lead to sustained control of epidemic NmA in Burkina Faso. This validated model can help public health officials set policies for meningococcal vaccination in Africa.


Assuntos
Simulação por Computador , Meningite Meningocócica/prevenção & controle , Vacinas Meningocócicas/uso terapêutico , Neisseria meningitidis Sorogrupo A/imunologia , Estatística como Assunto/métodos , Vacinação , Adolescente , Adulto , Burkina Faso/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Programas de Imunização/normas , Lactente , Masculino , Meningite Meningocócica/epidemiologia , Sorogrupo , Vacinação/métodos , Vacinação/normas , Adulto Jovem
14.
J Med Virol ; 90(9): 1453-1460, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29718582

RESUMO

Burkina Faso introduced rotavirus vaccine (RotaTeq) to the national immunization program in November 2013. This study describes the detection rates, clinical profiles, and molecular epidemiology of rotavirus and norovirus (NoV) infections among children <5 years hospitalized (n = 154) because of acute diarrhea in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso, from December 2012 to November 2013, just before the start of vaccination. Overall, 44% and 23% of fecal samples were positive for rotavirus and NoV, respectively, most of them detected during the cold dry season (December-March). The predominant G/P combinations were G12P[8] (47%) and G6P[6] (30%). G2P[4] (n = 3), G12P[6] (n = 3), and G6P[8] (n = 1) were also detected. Nearly all (94%) successfully genotyped NoV strains belonged to genotype GII.4. The predominance of rotavirus and NoV was noteworthy in the age group ≤6 months, with 67% rotavirus and 22% NoV, respectively. Vomiting was significantly more common among rotavirus-infected children. To conclude, this study shows high detection rates of both rotavirus and NoV in children with severe diarrhea in Burkina Faso just before the introduction of rotavirus group A vaccination. The results can be used for estimating the impact of rotavirus group A vaccination, which started in the end of 2013. Furthermore, this study shows that the G6P[6] rotavirus strains emerging in Burkina Faso in 2010 is now established as a regionally important genotype.


Assuntos
Infecções por Caliciviridae/epidemiologia , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Norovirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Rotavirus/epidemiologia , Rotavirus/isolamento & purificação , Fatores Etários , Burkina Faso/epidemiologia , Infecções por Caliciviridae/patologia , Pré-Escolar , Diarreia/patologia , Feminino , Genótipo , Técnicas de Genotipagem , Humanos , Programas de Imunização , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Prevalência , Infecções por Rotavirus/patologia , Vacinas contra Rotavirus/administração & dosagem
15.
BMC Public Health ; 18(1): 350, 2018 03 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29534705

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) is reportedly growing fast in sub-Saharan Africa. There is however a scarcity of epidemiologic data on DM in Burkina Faso. We carried out a secondary analysis of the first survey conducted in Burkina Faso on a nationally representative sample following the World Health Organization (WHO) Stepwise approach to risk factors Surveillance (STEPS) for non-communicable diseases (NCDs) with the aims of identifying the prevalence of NCDs and the prevalence of common risk factors for NCDs. We report here on the prevalence of diabetes and overall abnormal glucose regulation (AGR) and their associated risk factors. METHODS: In the primary study 4800 individuals were randomly sampled using a stratified multistage clusters sampling process. We used fasting capillary whole blood glucose level to define three glucose regulation statuses using WHO's cut-off levels: normal, diabetes and overall abnormal glucose regulation (impaired fasting glucose and diabetes). Appropriate statistical techniques for the analysis of survey data were used to identify the factors associated with diabetes and abnormal glucose regulation fitting a logistic regression model. Analyses were carried out using Stata Version 14 software. RESULTS: The prevalence of DM and AGR were respectively 5.8% (95% CI: 5-6.7) and 9% (95% CI: 8-10.1). Significant risk factors for DM include age (OR = 1.9; P = 0.009 for the age group of 55-64), obesity (OR: 2.6; P = 0.001), former smoke (OR:2; P = 0.03), second-hand smoke (OR = 1.7; P = 0.006) and total cholesterol level (OR: 2.1; P = 0.024). The same predictors were also found significantly associated with AGR. In addition, having an history family diabetes was protective against AGR (OR = 0.5; P = 0.032). CONCLUSION: Diabetes is no longer a rare disease in the adult active population of Burkina Faso. Its burden is significant in both rural and urban areas. Health policies that promote healthy life style are needed to give precedence to the prevention in a context of an under-resourced country.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Estado Pré-Diabético/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Burkina Faso/epidemiologia , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco
16.
Vaccine ; 36(47): 7170-7178, 2018 11 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29290478

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Burkina Faso was one of the first African nations to introduce pentavalent rotavirus vaccine (RV5, RotaTeq) into its national immunization program in October 2013. We describe the impact and effectiveness of rotavirus vaccine on acute gastroenteritis (AGE) hospitalizations among Burkinabe children. METHODS: Sentinel hospital-based surveillance for AGE was conducted at four hospitals during December 2013 - February 2017. Demographic, clinical, and vaccination information was collected and stool specimens were tested by EIA. Trends in rotavirus AGE hospitalizations and changes in the proportion of AGE hospitalizations due to rotavirus were examined at two sentinel sites from January 2014 - December 2016. Unconditional logistic regression models using data from all 4 surveillance sites were used to calculate vaccine effectiveness (VE, defined as 1-odds ratio) by comparing the odds of vaccination among rotavirus AGE (cases) and non-rotavirus AGE (controls) patients, controlling for age, season, hospital site and socioeconomic factors. RESULTS: The proportion of AGE hospitalizations that tested positive for rotavirus declined significantly among children <5 years of age, from 36% (154/422) in 2014 to 22% (71/323, 40% reduction, p < .01) in 2015 and 20% (61/298, 44% reduction, p < .01) in 2016. Among infants, the percentage of AGE admissions due to rotavirus fell significantly from 38% (94/250) in 2014 to 21% (32/153, 44% reduction, p < .01) in 2015 and 17% (26/149, 54% reduction, p < .01) in 2016. The adjusted VE for full 3-dose series of RV5 against rotavirus hospitalization was 58% (95% [CI], 10%, 81%) in children 6-11 months of age and 19% (-78%, 63%) in children ≥12 months. CONCLUSION: Rotavirus hospitalizations declined after introduction of pentavalent rotavirus vaccine in children, particularly among infants. RV5 significantly protected against severe rotavirus gastroenteritis in infants, but effectiveness decreased in older children.


Assuntos
Gastroenterite/prevenção & controle , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Programas de Imunização , Infecções por Rotavirus/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra Rotavirus/uso terapêutico , Doença Aguda/epidemiologia , Burkina Faso/epidemiologia , Pré-Escolar , Fezes/virologia , Gastroenterite/epidemiologia , Gastroenterite/virologia , Genótipo , Hospitalização/tendências , Humanos , Lactente , Rotavirus/genética , Infecções por Rotavirus/epidemiologia , Estações do Ano , Vigilância de Evento Sentinela , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Vacinação , Vacinas Atenuadas/uso terapêutico
17.
J Infect ; 76(3): 270-279, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29253559

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We evaluate early impact of 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) on pneumococcal meningitis in Burkina Faso. METHODS: Nationwide surveillance gathered demographic/clinical information and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) results for meningitis cases. Pneumococcal cases were confirmed by culture, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), or latex agglutination, and strains serotyped using PCR. We compared incidence (cases per 100,000) in the early post-PCV13 period (2014 and 2015) to average pre-PCV13 incidence (2011-2013). RESULTS: In 2015, age-specific pneumococcal meningitis incidences were 8.7 (<1 year), 2.4 (1-4 years), 6.5 (5-14 years), and 2.6 (≥15 years). Compared to 2011-2013, PCV13-serotype incidence among all ages decreased by 32% (95%CI: 23%-39%), with significant decreases among children aged <1 year (76%; 95%CI: 64%-84%) and 1-4 years (58%, 95%CI: 40%-71%). Among all ages, incidence of PCV13 serotypes besides serotype 1 decreased (68%; 95%CI: 59%-75%), but serotype 1 incidence did not. Incidence of non-PCV13 serotypes also decreased (47%; 95%CI: 29%-60%). Among children aged <1 year, serotypes 12F/12A/12B/44/46 (17%), 1 (12%), and 5 (10%) predominated. CONCLUSIONS: Following PCV13 introduction, PCV13-serotype meningitis incidence in young children significantly decreased. PCV13 impact on serotype 1 and disease in older children and adults requires continued monitoring.


Assuntos
Meningite Pneumocócica/prevenção & controle , Vacinas Pneumocócicas/administração & dosagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Burkina Faso/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Monitoramento Epidemiológico , Humanos , Programas de Imunização , Incidência , Lactente , Meningite Pneumocócica/epidemiologia , Meningite Pneumocócica/imunologia , Vacinas Pneumocócicas/imunologia , Vacinas Conjugadas/administração & dosagem , Adulto Jovem
19.
PLoS One ; 12(11): e0187466, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29095907

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Historically, Neisseria meningitidis serogroup A (NmA) caused large meningitis epidemics in sub-Saharan Africa. In 2010, Burkina Faso became the first country to implement a national meningococcal serogroup A conjugate vaccine (MACV) campaign. We analyzed nationwide meningitis surveillance data from Burkina Faso for the 5 years following MACV introduction. METHODS: We examined Burkina Faso's aggregate reporting and national laboratory-confirmed case-based meningitis surveillance data from 2011-2015. We calculated incidence (cases per 100,000 persons), and described reported NmA cases. RESULTS: In 2011-2015, Burkina Faso reported 20,389 cases of suspected meningitis. A quarter (4,503) of suspected meningitis cases with cerebrospinal fluid specimens were laboratory-confirmed as either S. pneumoniae (57%), N. meningitidis (40%), or H. influenzae (2%). Average adjusted annual national incidence of meningococcal meningitis was 3.8 (range: 2.0-10.2 annually) and was highest among infants aged <1 year (8.4). N. meningitidis serogroup W caused the majority (64%) of meningococcal meningitis among all age groups. Only six confirmed NmA cases were reported in 2011-2015. Five cases were in children who were too young (n = 2) or otherwise not vaccinated (n = 3) during the 2010 MACV mass vaccination campaign; one case had documented MACV receipt, representing the first documented MACV failure. CONCLUSIONS: Meningococcal meningitis incidence in Burkina Faso remains relatively low following MACV introduction. However, a substantial burden remains and NmA transmission has persisted. MACV integration into routine childhood immunization programs is essential to ensure continued protection.


Assuntos
Haemophilus influenzae/isolamento & purificação , Programas de Imunização/métodos , Meningite Meningocócica/prevenção & controle , Neisseria meningitidis Sorogrupo A/isolamento & purificação , Adolescente , Burkina Faso/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Meningite Meningocócica/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Meningite Meningocócica/epidemiologia , Meningite Meningocócica/microbiologia , Vacinas Meningocócicas
20.
PLoS One ; 11(11): e0166384, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27832151

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Following introduction of Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine in 2006 and serogroup A meningococcal conjugate vaccine in 2010, Streptococcus pneumoniae (Sp) became the leading cause of bacterial meningitis in Burkina Faso. We describe bacterial meningitis epidemiology, focusing on pneumococcal meningitis, before 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) introduction in the pediatric routine immunization program in October 2013. METHODS: Nationwide population-based meningitis surveillance collects case-level demographic and clinical information and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) laboratory results. Sp infections are confirmed by culture, real-time polymerase chain reaction (rt-PCR), or latex agglutination, and CSF serotyped using real-time and conventional PCR. We calculated incidence rates in cases per 100,000 persons, adjusting for age and proportion of cases with CSF tested at national reference laboratories, and case fatality ratios (CFR). RESULTS: During 2011-2013, 1,528 pneumococcal meningitis cases were reported. Average annual adjusted incidence rates were 26.9 (<1 year), 5.4 (1-4 years), 7.2 (5-14 years), and 3.0 (≥15 years). Overall CFR was 23% and highest among children aged <1 year (32%) and adults ≥30 years (30%). Of 1,528 cases, 1,036 (68%) were serotyped: 71% were PCV13-associated serotypes, 14% were non-PCV13-associated serotypes, and 15% were non-typeable by PCR. Serotypes 1 (45%) and 12F/12A/12B/44/46 (8%) were most common. Among children aged <1 year, serotypes 5 (15%), 6A/6B (13%) and 1 (12%) predominated. CONCLUSIONS: In Burkina Faso, the highest morbidity and mortality due to pneumococcal meningitis occurred among children aged <1 year. The majority of cases were due to PCV13-associated serotypes; introduction of PCV13 should substantially decrease this burden.


Assuntos
Meningites Bacterianas/epidemiologia , Meningite Pneumocócica/epidemiologia , Vacinas Pneumocócicas/uso terapêutico , Vacinas Conjugadas/uso terapêutico , Adolescente , Adulto , Burkina Faso/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Masculino , Meningites Bacterianas/diagnóstico , Meningites Bacterianas/prevenção & controle , Meningite Pneumocócica/diagnóstico , Meningite Pneumocócica/prevenção & controle , Sorotipagem , Streptococcus pneumoniae/classificação , Adulto Jovem
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...