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1.
J Endocrinol ; 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32217808

RESUMO

The negative aspects of unhealthy eating on obesity and hepatic health are well described. The axis between the adipose tissue and the liver participates in most of the damage caused to this tissue regarding obesogenic diets (OD). At the same time that the effects of consuming simple carbohydrates and saturated fatty acids are known, the effects of the cessation of its intake are scarce. Withdrawing from OD is thought to improve health; despite some studies had shown improvement in hepatic conditions in the long-term, short-term studies were not found. Therefore, we aimed to determine how OD intake and withdrawal would influence visceral and hepatic fat accumulation and inflammation. To this end, male 60-day-old wistar rats received standard chow (n=16) or a high-sugar/high-fat diet (HSHF) for 30 days (n=32), a cohort of the HSHF-fed animals was then kept 48h on standard chow (n=16). In opposition to the generally reported, the results indicate that hepatic inflammation preceded hepatic steatosis. Additionally, inflammatory markers on the liver positively correlated visceral adipokines and visceral fat accumulation mediated them in a deposit-dependent manner. At the same time, a 48h withdrawal as capable of reverting most of the risen inflammatory mediators, although, MyD88 and TNFα persisted, and serum non-HDL cholesterol was higher than control levels.

3.
J Hypertens ; 38(1): 73-81, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31335510

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND METHOD: This study evaluated the effects of a linear block strength training programme on the parameters of cardiac remodelling in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Thirty-nine rats were equally distributed in four groups: normotensive sedentary, normotensive trained, hypertensive sedentary and hypertensive trained. The strength training protocol was organized in three mesocycles of 4 weeks, with an increase in the training load organized in a linear fashion for each block, considering the weight established in the maximum loaded load test. The following parameters were evaluated: ventricular function assessed by echocardiogram, caudal blood pressure, ventricular haemodynamics and cardiac masses. Two-way analysis of variance was used to determine the differences between the group and time. RESULTS: After 12 weeks of training, the hypertensive trained group presented the following results: increased muscle strength, reduced blood pressure, reduced heart rate, isovolumetric relaxation time and total collagen content, with increased cardiac function, without promoting changes in the mass and nuclear volume of cardiomyocytes. Also, blood pressure reduction seems to be associated with both muscle strength adjustments and total load progress. CONCLUSION: The findings of this study showed that the training programme carried out attenuated systemic arterial pressure and preserved the ventricular function of spontaneously hypertensive rats without cardiac mass change.

4.
Rev. Soc. Cardiol. Estado de Säo Paulo ; 29(4 (Supl)): 400-407, out.-dez. 2019.
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1047333

RESUMO

O coração é um órgão que se adapta frente aos diferentes estímulos ou desafios a que é exposto. No entanto, o tipo de adaptação e a magnitude da mesma dependem do tipo, da magnitude e do tempo de duração do estímulo. Logo, a adaptação cardíaca observada após um período de treinamento físico é diferente da adaptação cardíaca observada nas doenças cardiovasculares. Além disso, as variáveis inerentes ao exercício físico como tipo, intensidade, volume e frequência semanal também apresentam uma relação direta quanto ao tipo de adaptação cardíaca. No presente artigo revisaremos os efeitos dos diferentes tipos treinamento físico na estrutura e função cardíaca, abordando os diferentes tipos de hipertrofia cardíaca (excêntrica e concêntrica), bem como as principais vias de sinalização intracelular responsáveis por essa hipertrofia. Além disso, abordaremos como alguns dos principais fatores (massa corporal, sexo, etnia e fatores genéticos) influenciam na magnitude da hipertrofia cardíaca e discutiremos se o treinamento físico praticado em grandes volumes pode ser prejudicial à saúde cardíaca


The heart is an organ that adapts to the different stimuli or challenges to which it is exposed. However, the type of adaptation and its magnitude depend on the stimulus type, magnitude and duration. Therefore, the cardiac adaptation observed after a period of exercise training is different from the cardiac adaptation observed in cardiovascular diseases. In addition, the variables inherent in exercise training such as type, intensity, volume and weekly frequency also have a direct relation to the type of cardiac adaptation. In this article we will review the effects of different types of exercise training on cardiac structure and function, addressing the different types of cardiac hypertrophy (eccentric and concentric), as well as the main intracellular signaling pathways responsible for this hypertrophy. In addition, we will discuss how some of the major factors (body mass, gender, ethnicity, and genetic factors) influence the magnitude of cardiac hypertrophy and will discuss whether high-volume of exercise training can be detrimental to heart health


Assuntos
Exercício , Coração , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Sistema Cardiovascular , Transdução de Sinais , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Etários , MicroRNAs , Hipertensão , Hipertrofia
5.
J Food Sci ; 84(10): 2973-2982, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31546291

RESUMO

The study developed traditional and light chocolate-flavor frozen dessert formulations, aimed at the general public, lactose intolerants, and vegans, and evaluated influences on quantitative sensory profiles and consumer acceptance with the replacement of sucrose by sweeteners in low-calorie versions. Twelve samples with different matrices were studied, sweetened with sucrose, sucralose, and stevia. The ideal concentration of sucrose (9%: dairy samples and 15%: vegan samples) was determined by the JAR scale. The sweetness equivalence was determined by the magnitude estimation method. The physical-chemical parameters were evaluated: pH, overrun, melting, and texture. The sensory profile evaluated through Quantitative Descriptive Analysis (QDA). The QDA data were correlated with acceptance data by partial least squares regression (PLS). The results showed that the substitution of traditional milk by lactose-free milk in the formulation did not change the characteristics of the chocolate ice cream. The use of sweeteners presented differences for milk flavor, bitter taste, bitter residual, and melting. The use of stevia extract was characterized by the presence of bitter taste, residual sweet and bitter that inhibited the perception of milk flavor, but not directly impacting the acceptance by consumers. The sucralose presented a profile closer to the sucrose, presenting lower intensity for the undesirable attributes such as bitter taste and residual bitter. There was no significant difference in the use of soy or rice protein in vegan versions, however, the use of sweeteners and body agents negatively impacted consumers' acceptance by attenuating the flavor of vegetable protein and raising gummy coating during the melting. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: This study shows the development and sensory profile of frozen chocolate desserts. Traditional and modified samples have also been produced for consumers with dietary restrictions such as vegans, vegetarians, lactose intolerants, and diabetics. Throughout the sensory and statistical analysis, it was identified how to replace sucrose by the natural glycoside sweetener of steviol, as well as the impact on the sensory profile and the acceptance of the different formulations. The results found may provide important information for researchers in food industries who need to produce frozen chocolate desserts for vegans, vegetarians, lactose intolerant, and diabetic consumers. Stevia and sucralose were good substitutes for sucrose in the formulation of frozen desserts without lactose, but not in vegan versions (with rice and soy protein).


Assuntos
Chocolate/análise , Comportamento do Consumidor , Aditivos Alimentares/análise , Alimentos Congelados/análise , Lactose/análise , Edulcorantes/análise , Adulto , Animais , Doces/análise , Diterpenos de Caurano/análise , Feminino , Aromatizantes/análise , Análise de Alimentos , Humanos , Sorvetes/análise , Masculino , Stevia/química , Sacarose/análogos & derivados , Sacarose/análise , Paladar , Veganos , Adulto Jovem
6.
J Strength Cond Res ; 33(4): 1119-1129, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30908459

RESUMO

Montrezol, FT, Marinho, R, Mota, GdFAd, D'almeida, V, de Oliveira, EM, Gomes, RJ, and Medeiros, A. ACE gene plays a key role in reducing blood pressure in the hyperintensive elderly after resistance training. J Strength Cond Res 33(4): 1119-1129, 2019-Hypertension is a difficult disease to control and exercise training plays a key role in hypertension control. Some individuals are not responsive to exercise training; so, we highlight the polymorphism of I allele of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) as a factor responsible for this lack of responsiveness. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of ACE insertion/deletion genotypes on effects of resistance training on blood pressure (BP) and chronic inflammation. Eighty-six hypertensive volunteers, aged between 60 and 80, were evaluated. They performed 16 weeks of resistance training at 50% of 1 maximal repetition. The greatest benefits were seen on homozygous of the Insertion allele, whom presented reduction of systolic blood pressure (SBP: 129.31 ± 13.34 vs. 122.56 ± 9.68 mm Hg, p < 0.001) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP: 79.18 ± 8.05 vs. 70.12 ± 7.71 mm Hg, p < 0.01) during daytime period, and in 24-hour period (SBP: 127.12 ± 13.65 vs. 121.06± 9.68 mm Hg, p < 0.001 and DBP: 71.87 ± 8.39 vs. 68.75 ± 8.72 mm Hg, p < 0.05) and also increased circulating adiponectin levels (4.04 ± 1.79 vs. 6.00 ± 2.81 ng·ml, p < 0.01). Other genotypes showed no changes in BP and biochemical parameters. Our results suggest a cardio protective factor of I allele because only those homozygous showed reductions in BP and increases in adiponectin.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea/genética , Hipertensão/genética , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/genética , Treinamento de Resistência , Adiponectina/sangue , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Alelos , Doença Crônica , Exercício/fisiologia , Feminino , Homozigoto , Humanos , Hipertensão/sangue , Mutação INDEL , Inflamação/sangue , Inflamação/genética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo Genético
7.
Eur J Appl Physiol ; 119(5): 1235-1243, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30848358

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Physical exercise is associated with reduced blood pressure (BP). Moderate-intensity continuous exercise (MCE) promotes post-exercise hypotension (PEH), which is highly recommended to hypertensive patients. However, recent studies with high-intensity interval exercise (HIIE) have shown significant results in cardiovascular disease. Thus, this study aimed to analyze PEH in hypertensive subjects submitted to HIIE and compare it to post MCE hypotension. METHODS: 20 hypertensive adults (51 ± 8 years), treated with antihypertensive medications, were submitted to two different exercise protocols and a control session. The MCE was performed at 60-70% of VO2 reserve, while HIIE was composed of five bouts of 3 min at 85-95% VO2 reserve with 2 min at 50% of VO2 reserve. The following variables were evaluated during exercise, pre- and post-session: clinical BP, heart rate (HR), double product, perception of effort, body mass, height and body mass index. RESULTS: Systolic BP decreased after exercise in both sessions, showing greater decrease after HIIE (- 7 ± 10 and - 11 ± 12 mmHg, after MCE and HIIE, respectively, p ≤ 0.01). Diastolic BP also decreased after both sessions, but there were no significant differences between the two sessions (- 4 ± 8 and - 7 ± 8 mmHg, after MCE and HIIE, respectively). CONCLUSION: Both exercise sessions produced PEH, but HIIE generated a greater magnitude of hypotension. The HIIE protocol performed in this study caused a greater cardiovascular stress during exercise; however, it was safe for the studied population and efficient for reducing BP after exercise.


Assuntos
Treinamento Intervalado de Alta Intensidade/efeitos adversos , Hipotensão Pós-Exercício/etiologia , Adulto , Pressão Sanguínea , Feminino , Frequência Cardíaca , Treinamento Intervalado de Alta Intensidade/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Consumo de Oxigênio , Hipotensão Pós-Exercício/fisiopatologia
8.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 17772, 2018 12 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30538258

RESUMO

Given the association between high aerobic capacity and the prevention of metabolic diseases, elucidating the mechanisms by which high aerobic capacity regulates whole-body metabolic homeostasis is a major research challenge. Oxidative post-translational modifications (Ox-PTMs) of proteins can regulate cellular homeostasis in skeletal and cardiac muscles, but the relationship between Ox-PTMs and intrinsic components of oxidative energy metabolism is still unclear. Here, we evaluated the Ox-PTM profile in cardiac and skeletal muscles of rats bred for low (LCR) and high (HCR) intrinsic aerobic capacity. Redox proteomics screening revealed different cysteine (Cys) Ox-PTM profile between HCR and LCR rats. HCR showed a higher number of oxidized Cys residues in skeletal muscle compared to LCR, while the opposite was observed in the heart. Most proteins with differentially oxidized Cys residues in the skeletal muscle are important regulators of oxidative metabolism. The most oxidized protein in the skeletal muscle of HCR rats was malate dehydrogenase (MDH1). HCR showed higher MDH1 activity compared to LCR in skeletal, but not cardiac muscle. These novel findings indicate a clear association between Cys Ox-PTMs and aerobic capacity, leading to novel insights into the role of Ox-PTMs as an essential signal to maintain metabolic homeostasis.


Assuntos
Cisteína/metabolismo , Metabolismo Energético/fisiologia , Estresse Oxidativo/fisiologia , Animais , Respiração Celular , Tolerância ao Exercício/fisiologia , Malato Desidrogenase/metabolismo , Masculino , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Oxirredução , Condicionamento Físico Animal/fisiologia , Resistência Física/fisiologia , Processamento de Proteína Pós-Traducional/fisiologia , Ratos , Corrida/fisiologia
9.
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 31(6): 610-618, nov.- dez. 2018. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-979902

RESUMO

Background: Type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM1) can cause damage to several physiological systems.Objectives: To compare and characterize the effects of aerobic exercise training (ET) performed by swimming with those of ET performed on a treadmill on the skeletal muscle and heart of rats with DM1. Methods: 41 male Wistar rats were randomized into four groups: nondiabetic control (CTR), diabetic control (DMC), diabetic trained on the treadmill (DMT), and diabetic trained by swimming (DMS). The trained groups performed aerobic exercise training for 8 weeks, 5 times a week, 60 min per day. Exercise tolerance, blood glucose, body weight, wet weight of the skeletal muscles and left ventricle (LV), muscle glycogen, cross-sectional area of skeletal muscles, and cross-sectional diameter and collagen volume fraction of the LV were evaluated.Results: The results were expressed as mean ± standard deviation of the mean and submitted to two-way ANOVA with post-hoc Bonferroni test. Aerobic ET protocols applied to animals with DM1, regardless of the ergometer, showed satisfactory results (p < 0.05) when compared to the control groups: improved exercise tolerance, increased glycogen content of the soleus and extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles and increased cross-sectional diameter of the left ventricular cardiomyocytes. In some variables, such as exercise tolerance and cross-sectional area of the soleus and EDL muscles, DMT showed better results than DMS (p < 0.05). On the other hand, DMS showed increased cross-sectional diameter of cardiomyocytes when compared with the DMT group. Conclusion: Both aerobic ET protocols offered benefits to animals with diabetes; however, due to the specific characteristics of each modality, different physiological adaptations were observed between the trained groups


Assuntos
Animais , Ratos , Natação , Exercício , Ratos Wistar , Diabetes Mellitus , Teste de Esforço , Peso Corporal , Análise Estatística , Músculo Esquelético , Protocolos , Modelos Animais , Miócitos Cardíacos/fisiologia , Índice Glicêmico , Esforço Físico
10.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 34(3): 703-708, mai/jun. 2018. tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-966974

RESUMO

This study evaluated the prevalence of cervicitis and endometritis and their interrelations in crossbred dairy cows that were more than 60 days in milk (DIM), and the efficiency of the cytology technique (cytobrush) and histology as diagnostic methods for these diseases. The reproductive tracts (n=149) derived from cows were collected from a slaughterhouse and grossly evaluated to determine uterine involution and the phase of the estrous cycle. Subsequently, cervical and uterine cytological evaluations were done to characterize the inflammatory response as cervicitis (with a neutrophilic count greater than 5%) or endometritis (with more than 6% neutrophils). Additionally, randomly obtained samples from the cervix and uterus were collected for histological evaluation. Cytological evaluation revealed that the frequency of cervicitis was 6% (9/149), and endometritis was diagnosed in 8.1% (12/149) of the samples; both inflammatory reactions were diagnosed 2.1% (3/149) in three of these. Histological evaluation revealed that of the cows diagnosed with cervicitis by cytology, 66.6% (6/9) had no inflammatory reaction in the cervical mucosa, and 33.3% (3/9) had mild inflammation in this region. Histological evaluation of the uterine horn revealed that of the 12 cows diagnosed with endometritis by cytology, 50% (6/12) of these had a histological diagnosis of mild and moderate inflammatory responses, 8.3% (1/12) of these demonstrated a severe inflammatory response, while no inflammatory reaction was identified in 41.7% (5/12) of the endometrial biopsies evaluated. In conclusion, the endometrial and cervical inflammatory response diagnosed by the cytobrush technique persisted in 12.1% of the cows. Comparatively, the frequency of the inflammatory responses at the cervix and uterus was reduced by histological analysis relative to cytological evaluation with the cytobrush technique.


O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar a prevalência de cervicite e endometrite citológicas e suas inter-relações em vacas leiteiras mestiças com mais de 60 dias pós-parto (DPP), bem como avaliar as técnicas de citologia (cytobrush) e histologia como métodos diagnósticos para estas doenças. Foram utilizados 149 tratos reprodutivos de vacas com mais de 60 DPP de abatedouro e avaliados macroscopicamente para determinar a involução uterina e a fase do ciclo estral. Posteriormente, realizou-se citologia cervical e uterina para o diagnóstico de inflamação utilizando como ponto de corte, contagem de polimorfonucleares (PMN) superior a 5% e 6%, respectivamente, para cervicite e endometrite citológica. Também foram coletadas amostras de cérvix e útero para histologia. Do total de vacas, identificaram-se 6% (9/149) com cervicite e 8,1% (12/149) com endometrite citológica, sendo três destes animais (2,1%) com ambas as inflamações. Histologicamente, dos animais com cervicite citológica, 66,6% (6/9) não apresentaram infiltrado inflamatório na mucosa cervical e 33,3% (3/9) apresentaram inflamação leve. A histologia uterina mostrou que de 12 vacas com endometrite citológica, 50% (6/12) apresentaram infiltrados inflamatórios leves a moderados, 8,3% (1/12) grave e 41,7% (5/12) não tinham Inflamação endometrial. Concluiu-se que a inflamação endometrial e cervical, por meio da técnica de citologia, persistiu em 12,1% das vacas com mais de 60 DPP. Quando se utiliza a histologia como método de diagnóstico, a detecção de inflamação cervical e uterina é inferior ao detectado pela técnica de citologia por meio do esfregaço endometrial (cytobrush).


Assuntos
Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos , Cervicite Uterina , Biologia Celular , Endometrite , Histologia
11.
J Cell Mol Med ; 22(3): 1452-1463, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29265674

RESUMO

We tested whether aerobic exercise training (AET) would modulate the skeletal muscle protein quality control (PQC) in a model of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in rats. Adult Wistar rats were evaluated in four groups: control (CS) or trained (CE), and 5/6 nephrectomy sedentary (5/6NxS) or trained (5/6NxE). Exercised rats were submitted to treadmill exercise (60 min., five times/wk for 2 months). We evaluated motor performance (tolerance to exercise on the treadmill and rotarod), cross-sectional area (CSA), gene and protein levels related to the unfolded protein response (UPR), protein synthesis/survive and apoptosis signalling, accumulated misfolded proteins, chymotrypsin-like proteasome activity (UPS activity), redox balance and heat-shock protein (HSP) levels in the tibialis anterior. 5/6NxS presented a trend towards to atrophy, with a reduction in motor performance, down-regulation of protein synthesis and up-regulation of apoptosis signalling; increases in UPS activity, misfolded proteins, GRP78, derlin, HSP27 and HSP70 protein levels, ATF4 and GRP78 genes; and increase in oxidative damage compared to CS group. In 5/6NxE, we observed a restoration in exercise tolerance, accumulated misfolded proteins, UPS activity, protein synthesis/apoptosis signalling, derlin, HSPs protein levels as well as increase in ATF4, GRP78 genes and ATF6α protein levels accompanied by a decrease in oxidative damage and increased catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities. The results suggest a disruption of PQC in white muscle fibres of CKD rats previous to the atrophy. AET can rescue this disruption for the UPR, prevent accumulated misfolded proteins and reduce oxidative damage, HSPs protein levels and exercise tolerance.


Assuntos
Atividade Motora/fisiologia , Atrofia Muscular/prevenção & controle , Condicionamento Físico Animal , Biossíntese de Proteínas , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/terapia , Fator 4 Ativador da Transcrição/genética , Fator 4 Ativador da Transcrição/metabolismo , Fator 6 Ativador da Transcrição/genética , Fator 6 Ativador da Transcrição/metabolismo , Animais , Catalase/genética , Catalase/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Glutationa Peroxidase/genética , Glutationa Peroxidase/metabolismo , Proteínas de Choque Térmico/genética , Proteínas de Choque Térmico/metabolismo , Testes de Função Renal , Masculino , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Músculo Esquelético/fisiopatologia , Atrofia Muscular/genética , Atrofia Muscular/metabolismo , Atrofia Muscular/fisiopatologia , Nefrectomia/métodos , Complexo de Endopeptidases do Proteassoma/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/genética , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/fisiopatologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/cirurgia , Teste de Desempenho do Rota-Rod , Comportamento Sedentário , Transdução de Sinais
12.
J Strength Cond Res ; 2017 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29200093

RESUMO

Hypertension is a difficult disease to control and exercise training plays a key role in hypertension control. Some individuals are not responsive to exercise training, so we highlight the polymorphism of angiotensin I converting enzyme, as a factor responsible for this lack of responsiveness. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of ACE (I/D) genotypes on effects of resistance training on blood pressure and chronic inflammation. Eighty-six hypertensive volunteers, aged between 60 and 80, were evaluated. They performed 16 weeks of resistance training at 50% of 1 maximal repetition. The greatest benefits were seen on homozygous of the Insertion allele, whom presented reduction of systolic blood pressure (SBP: 129.31±13.34 vs. 122.56±9.68 mmHg, p<0.001) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP: 79.18±8.05 vs. 70.12±7.71 mmHg, p<0.01) during daytime period, and in 24h period (SBP: 127.12±13.65 vs. 121.06±9.68 mmHg, p<0.001 and DBP: 71.87±8.39 vs. 68.75±8.72 mmHg, p<0.05) and also increased circulating adiponectin levels (4.04±1.79 vs. 6.00±2.81 ng/mL, p<0.01). Other genotypes showed no changes in blood pressure and biochemical parameters. Our results suggest a cardio protective factor of I allele, since only those homozygous showed reductions in blood pressure and increases in adiponectin.

13.
Arq Bras Cardiol ; 108(6): 539-545, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28562833

RESUMO

Background:: Baroreceptors act as regulators of blood pressure (BP); however, its sensitivity is impaired in hypertensive patients. Among the recommendations for BP reduction, exercise training has become an important adjuvant therapy in this population. However, there are many doubts about the effects of resistance exercise training in this population. Objective:: To evaluate the effect of resistance exercise training on BP and baroreceptor sensitivity in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Method:: Rats SHR (n = 16) and Wistar (n = 16) at 8 weeks of age, at the beginning of the experiment, were randomly divided into 4 groups: sedentary control (CS, n = 8); trained control (CT, n = 8); sedentary SHR (HS, n = 8) and trained SHR (HT, n = 8). Resistance exercise training was performed in a stairmaster-type equipment (1.1 × 0.18 m, 2 cm between the steps, 80° incline) with weights attached to their tails, (5 days/week, 8 weeks). Baroreceptor reflex control of heart rate (HR) was tested by loading/unloading of baroreceptors with phenylephrine and sodium nitroprusside. Results:: Resistance exercise training increased the soleus muscle mass in SHR when compared to HS (HS 0.027 ± 0.002 g/mm and HT 0.056 ± 0.003 g/mm). Resistance exercise training did not alter BP. On the other hand, in relation to baroreflex sensitivity, bradycardic response was improved in the TH group when compared to HS (HS -1.3 ± 0.1 bpm/mmHg and HT -2.6 ± 0.2 bpm/mmHg) although tachycardia response was not altered by resistance exercise (CS -3.3 ± 0.2 bpm/mmHg, CT -3.3 ± 0.1 bpm/mmHg, HS -1.47 ± 0.06 bpm/mmHg and HT -1.6 ± 0.1 bpm/mmHg). Conclusion:: Resistance exercise training was able to promote improvements on baroreflex sensitivity of SHR rats, through the improvement of bradycardic response, despite not having reduced BP. Fundamento:: Os barorreceptores atuam como reguladores da pressão arterial (PA); no entanto, sua sensibilidade encontra-se prejudicada em pacientes hipertensos. Dentre as recomendações para a redução da PA, o treinamento físico tem se tornado um importante adjunto na terapia dessa população. Porém, ainda há diversos questionamentos sobre os efeitos de treinamento físico resistido nessa população. Objetivo:: Avaliar o efeito do treinamento físico resistido na PA e na sensibilidade de barorreceptores em ratos espontaneamente hipertensos (SHR). Método:: Ratos SHR (n = 16) e Wistar (n = 16) com 08 semanas de idade foram aleatoriamente divididos em 4 grupos: controle sedentário (CS, n = 8); controle treinado (CT, n = 8); SHR sedentário (HS, n = 8) e SHR treinado (HT, n = 8). O treinamento físico foi realizado em aparato com degraus (1,1 × 0,18 m, 2 cm entre os degraus, 80° inclinação) com peso fixado na cauda, (5 vezes por semana durante 8 semanas). O controle barorreflexo da frequência cardíaca (FC) foi testado com estímulos de fenilefrina e nitroprussiato de sódio. Resultados:: O treinamento resistido foi capaz de aumentar a massa muscular do sóleo em ratos SHR (HS 0,027 ± 0,002 g/mm e HT 0,056 ± 0,003 g/mm). Não houve alteração da PA com o treinamento. Por outro lado, houve melhora na resposta bradicárdica da sensibilidade barorreflexa no grupo HT (HS -1,3 ± 0,1 bpm/mmHg e HT -2,6 ± 0,2 bpm/mmHg), no entanto, a resposta taquicárdica não foi alterada pelo exercício resistido (CS -3,3 ± 0,2 bpm/mmHg, CT -3,3 ± 0,1 bpm/mmHg, HS -1,47 ± 0,06 e HT -1,6 ± 0,1). Conclusão:: O exercício físico resistido foi capaz de otimizar a sensibilidade barorreflexa dos ratos SHR por meio da melhora à resposta bradicárdica, apesar de não alterar a PA.


Assuntos
Barorreflexo/fisiologia , Hipertensão/reabilitação , Condicionamento Físico Animal/fisiologia , Treinamento de Resistência , Animais , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Endogâmicos SHR , Ratos Wistar
14.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 108(6): 539-545, June 2017. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-887887

RESUMO

Abstract Background: Baroreceptors act as regulators of blood pressure (BP); however, its sensitivity is impaired in hypertensive patients. Among the recommendations for BP reduction, exercise training has become an important adjuvant therapy in this population. However, there are many doubts about the effects of resistance exercise training in this population. Objective: To evaluate the effect of resistance exercise training on BP and baroreceptor sensitivity in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Method: Rats SHR (n = 16) and Wistar (n = 16) at 8 weeks of age, at the beginning of the experiment, were randomly divided into 4 groups: sedentary control (CS, n = 8); trained control (CT, n = 8); sedentary SHR (HS, n = 8) and trained SHR (HT, n = 8). Resistance exercise training was performed in a stairmaster-type equipment (1.1 × 0.18 m, 2 cm between the steps, 80° incline) with weights attached to their tails, (5 days/week, 8 weeks). Baroreceptor reflex control of heart rate (HR) was tested by loading/unloading of baroreceptors with phenylephrine and sodium nitroprusside. Results: Resistance exercise training increased the soleus muscle mass in SHR when compared to HS (HS 0.027 ± 0.002 g/mm and HT 0.056 ± 0.003 g/mm). Resistance exercise training did not alter BP. On the other hand, in relation to baroreflex sensitivity, bradycardic response was improved in the TH group when compared to HS (HS -1.3 ± 0.1 bpm/mmHg and HT -2.6 ± 0.2 bpm/mmHg) although tachycardia response was not altered by resistance exercise (CS -3.3 ± 0.2 bpm/mmHg, CT -3.3 ± 0.1 bpm/mmHg, HS -1.47 ± 0.06 bpm/mmHg and HT -1.6 ± 0.1 bpm/mmHg). Conclusion: Resistance exercise training was able to promote improvements on baroreflex sensitivity of SHR rats, through the improvement of bradycardic response, despite not having reduced BP.


Resumo Fundamento: Os barorreceptores atuam como reguladores da pressão arterial (PA); no entanto, sua sensibilidade encontra-se prejudicada em pacientes hipertensos. Dentre as recomendações para a redução da PA, o treinamento físico tem se tornado um importante adjunto na terapia dessa população. Porém, ainda há diversos questionamentos sobre os efeitos de treinamento físico resistido nessa população. Objetivo: Avaliar o efeito do treinamento físico resistido na PA e na sensibilidade de barorreceptores em ratos espontaneamente hipertensos (SHR). Método: Ratos SHR (n = 16) e Wistar (n = 16) com 08 semanas de idade foram aleatoriamente divididos em 4 grupos: controle sedentário (CS, n = 8); controle treinado (CT, n = 8); SHR sedentário (HS, n = 8) e SHR treinado (HT, n = 8). O treinamento físico foi realizado em aparato com degraus (1,1 × 0,18 m, 2 cm entre os degraus, 80° inclinação) com peso fixado na cauda, (5 vezes por semana durante 8 semanas). O controle barorreflexo da frequência cardíaca (FC) foi testado com estímulos de fenilefrina e nitroprussiato de sódio. Resultados: O treinamento resistido foi capaz de aumentar a massa muscular do sóleo em ratos SHR (HS 0,027 ± 0,002 g/mm e HT 0,056 ± 0,003 g/mm). Não houve alteração da PA com o treinamento. Por outro lado, houve melhora na resposta bradicárdica da sensibilidade barorreflexa no grupo HT (HS -1,3 ± 0,1 bpm/mmHg e HT -2,6 ± 0,2 bpm/mmHg), no entanto, a resposta taquicárdica não foi alterada pelo exercício resistido (CS -3,3 ± 0,2 bpm/mmHg, CT -3,3 ± 0,1 bpm/mmHg, HS -1,47 ± 0,06 e HT -1,6 ± 0,1). Conclusão: O exercício físico resistido foi capaz de otimizar a sensibilidade barorreflexa dos ratos SHR por meio da melhora à resposta bradicárdica, apesar de não alterar a PA.

15.
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 30(2): f:128-l:135, mar.-abr. 2017. tab, graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-833913

RESUMO

Fundamentos: Associação entre obesidade, terapia interdisciplinar e exercício físico intenso foi descrita para obesos. Contudo o estudo das atividades físicas representando as tarefas do dia a dia e o risco cardiovascular nas atividades do cotidiano torna-se necessário para verificar a ocorrência dessa associação. Objetivo: Investigar se um período de 18 semanas de terapia interdisciplinar é capaz de promover benefícios nos parâmetros cardiovasculares no repouso e durante o exercício físico em adultos obesos. Métodos: Amostra de 32 indivíduos de ambos os sexos com índice de massa corporal de 30 a 39,9 kg/m2 e idade entre 30 e 50 anos. Intervenção com terapia interdisciplinar (educação física, psicologia, nutrição e fisioterapia), duração de 18 semanas e mensuração de dados antropométricos de massa corporal, estatura, circunferências de cintura e quadril, avaliação de esforço máximo em ergômetro antes e após o período de terapia. Resultados: A terapia interdisciplinar diminuiu pressão arterial sistólica (PAS): 125,83±9,86 (basal) vs 120,28±16,82(final), frequência cardíaca (FC): 74,75 ± 11,02 (basal) vs 72,77 ± 10,72 (final), e duplo-produto (DP) em repouso. Reduziu também durante o esforço submáximo PAS estágios 1: 143,44 ± 9,28 (basal) vs 131,56 ± 15,26; estágio 2: 152,23 ± 21,91 (basal) vs 141,56 ± 17,43 (final), PAD estágio 2: 89,89 ± 9,58 (basal) vs 83,13 ± 9,65 (final), FC estágio 1: 118,40 ± 12,90 (basal) vs 110,87 ± 7,66 (final); estágio 2: 137,09 ± 16,54 (basal) vs 130,37 ± 11,51 (final) e o DP referentes aos estágios iniciais. Conclusão: A terapia interdisciplinar reduziu a sobrecarga do sistema cardiovascular em repouso e no esforço submáximo em adultos obesos otimizando o repouso e atividades do cotidiano


Background: Association between obesity, interdisciplinary therapy and intense physical exercise was described for obese patients. However, the study of physical activities representing daily tasks and cardiovascular risk in everyday activities becomes necessary to verify the occurrence of this association. Objective: To investigate whether a period of 18 weeks of interdisciplinary therapy is capable of promoting benefits in cardiovascular parameters at rest and during exercise in obese adults. Methods: Sample of 32 individuals of both sexes with body mass index of 30 to 39.9 kg/m2 and age between 30 and 50 years. Intervention with interdisciplinary therapy (physical education, psychology, nutrition and physiotherapy), duration of 18 weeks and measurement of anthropometric data of body mass, height, waist and hip circumferences, maximum exercise ergometer evaluation before and after the therapy period. Results: Interdisciplinary therapy decreased systolic blood pressure (SBP): 125.83 ± 9.86 (baseline) vs 120.28 ± 16.82 (final), heart rate (HR): 74.75 ± 11.02 (baseline) ) Vs 72.77 ± 10.72 (final), and double-product (DP) at rest. Reduced also during the submaximal PAS stress stages 1:143.44 ± 9.28 (baseline) vs 131.56 ± 15.26; Stage 2: 152.23 ± 21.91 (baseline) vs. 141.56 ± 17.43 (final), PAD stage 2: 89.89 ± 9.58 (baseline) vs 83.13 ± 9.65 (final) , FC stage 1: 118.40 ± 12.90 (baseline) vs 110.87 ± 7.66 (final); Stage 2: 137.09 ± 16.54 (baseline) vs 130.37 ± 11.51 (final) and the PD referring to the initial stages. Conclusion: Interdisciplinary therapy reduced the overload of the cardiovascular system at rest and submaximal effort in obese adults, optimizing rest and daily activities


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Adulto , Pressão Arterial , Frequência Cardíaca , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/terapia , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente/tendências , Índice de Massa Corporal , Doenças Cardiovasculares/fisiopatologia , Doença Crônica , Exercício , Teste de Esforço/métodos , Protocolos/métodos , Fatores de Risco , Análise Estatística , Resultado do Tratamento , Circunferência da Cintura
16.
Rev. bras. ciênc. mov ; 25(3): 53-60, mar.-abr.2017. ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-880649

RESUMO

Aerobic and resistance exercise have been prescript to prevention and non pharmacological treatment of hypertension. However, there is a lack of studies investigating the effects of concurrent training in hypertensive women. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of concurrent training program on rest blood pressure, biochemical variables (blood glucose and total cholesterol), anthropometric (body mass index and waist circumference) and functional fitness in hypertensive women. Eighteen hypertensive postmenopausal and untrained women (59±12 years old) started in the intervention, but only ten subjects finished. The voluntaries were enrolled in concurrent training, 60 min/day, 3 times a week, during 6 months. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure, blood glucose, total cholesterol, body mass index, waist circumference and functional fitness (AAPHERD) were measured pre and post experimental period. Data were analyzed using the Student's t test with significance level set at 5% (P≤0.05) and Cohen's Effect Size (ES). The results showed significant improvement in systolic and diastolic blood pressure at rest. The other variables did not show significantly changes, but the ES was medium and large for several variables (body mass index, blood glucose, total cholesterol, agility, coordination, aerobic fitness, strength endurance and general functional fitness index). In conclusion, this study confirms that 6 month of concurrent training program improved systolic and diastolic blood pressure in hypertensive women. In addition, the protocol suggests an improvement in anthropometric, biochemical and functional variables related to health...(AU)


O treinamento aeróbio e resistido têm sido prescritos para prevenção e tratamento não farmacológico da hipertensão arterial. No entanto, há escassez de trabalhos investigando os efeitos do treinamento concorrente em mulheres hipertensas. Assim, o objetivo desse trabalho foi investigar os efeitos de um programa de treinamento concorrente sobre pressão arterial de repouso, variáveis bioquímicas (glicose sanguínea e colesterol total), antropométricas (índice de massa corporal e perímetro de cintura) e aptidão funcional em mulheres hipertensas. Dezoito mulheres menopausadas, hipertensas e destreinadas iniciaram o programa, mas somente 10 terminaram. As voluntárias foram submetidas a programa de treinamento concorrente, com frequência de 3 vezes por semana (60 minutos/sessão) e duração de 6 meses. Pressão arterial sistólica e diastólica de repouso, glicemia de jejum, colesterol total, índice de massa corporal, perímetro de cintura e aptidão funcional (AAPHERD) foram mensurados nos períodos pré e pós intervenção. Após confirmação da normalidade, os dados foram analisados usando o test t para amostras em pares, adotando nível de significância de 5% (P≤0,05), além do cálculo do tamanho do efeito de Cohen (ES). Os resultados permitiram observar melhora significativa na pressão sistólica e diastólica de repouso. As outras variáveis não se alteraram significativamente, mas o ES foi médio a grande em diversas variáveis analisadas (índice de massa corporal, glicemia, colesterol total, agilidade, coordenação, aptidão aeróbia, resistência de força e índice geral de aptidão funcional). Em conclusão, esse estudo confirma que um programa de treinamento concorrente de 6 meses diminui os níveis de pressão arterial sistólica e diastólica de repouso em mulheres hipertensas. Além disso, o protocolo sugere melhora em variáveis antropométricas, bioquímicas e funcionais relacionadas à saúde...(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Exercício , Hipertensão , Mulheres , Treinamento de Resistência
17.
Rev. bras. ciênc. vet ; 24(1): 27-30, jan.-mar.2017. il.
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-966958

RESUMO

Com os avanços na Medicina Veterinária, houve um aumento na expectativa de vida dos animais de companhia, e em contrapartida, a incidência de doenças crônicas como o câncer tem aumentado nestes animais. O linfoma é uma neoplasia maligna de linfócitos comumente encontrada nos caninos e sua incidência é progressiva, em torno de 24 a 33 casos por ano para cada 100.000 cães. Foram consultadas as fichas do Setor de Patologia Animal da Universidade Federal de Uberlândia (UFU), no período compreendido entre janeiro de 2003 e dezembro de 2013, para avaliar a frequência de linfoma nos cães assistidos no Hospital Veterinário (UFU) neste período. Informações como o tipo de exame realizado, sexo, idade, raça e tipo de amostra foram coletadas. Também foi avaliada a frequência do linfoma entre os tumores de células redondas. Posteriormente, os dados foram comparados utilizandose estatística descritiva e porcentual. De todos os 6403 registros, 70,3% dos diagnósticos de linfoma foram observados por meio de citologia e 29,6% por histopatologia. O linfoma foi o segundo tumor de células redondas mais frequente em 23,1%. Não houve predileção sexual e os cães adultos e idosos representaram as faixas etárias mais afetadas. A raça Pit Bull foi a mais frequente em 28,2% dos casos. Em 53,3% dos diagnósticos citológicos conclusivos sem necessidade de biópsia, os cães apresentaram linfadenomegalia na avaliação clínica. A citologia pode ser uma boa ferramenta no diagnóstico de linfomas, auxiliado pela avaliação física dos linfonodos superficiais.


With advances in veterinary medicine, there was an increase in life expectancy of pets, and on the other hand, the incidence of chronic diseases such as cancer has increased in these animals. Lymphoma is a malignant neoplasm of lymphocytes commonly found in canine and its incidence is progressive, around 24-33 cases per year for each 100.000 dogs. The reports of the Sector of Animal Pathology, Federal University of Uberlândia (UFU), were consulted in the period between January 2003 and December 2013 to assess the frequency of lymphoma in dogs assisted at the Veterinary Hospital (UFU) in this period. Information such as the type of examination, gender, age, and type of sample was collected. We also evaluated the frequency of lymphoma between the round cell tumors. Later, the data were compared using descriptive statistics and percentage. Of all 6403 records, 70.3% of lymphoma diagnoses were observed by cytology and 29.6% by histopathology. Lymphoma was the second most frequent round cell tumor in 23.1%. There was no sexual predilection and the adult and elderly dogs represented the most affected age groups. The Pit Bull breed was the most frequent in 28.2% of the cases. In 53.3% of the conclusive cytologic diagnoses without biopsy, the dogs presented lymphadenomegaly in the clinical evaluation. Cytology can be a good tool in the diagnosis of lymphomas, aided by the physical evaluation of superficial lymph nodes


Assuntos
Cães , Doenças do Cão , Biologia Celular
18.
Mol Cell Biochem ; 424(1-2): 87-98, 2017 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27761848

RESUMO

Dexamethasone is a potent and widely used anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive drug. However, recent evidences suggest that dexamethasone cause pathologic cardiac remodeling, which later impairs cardiac function. The mechanism behind the cardiotoxic effect of dexamethasone is elusive. The present study aimed to verify if dexamethasone-induced cardiotoxicity would be associated with changes in the cardiac net balance of calcium handling protein and calcineurin signaling pathway activation. Wistar rats (~400 g) were treated with dexamethasone (35 µg/g) in drinking water for 15 days. After dexamethasone treatment, we analyzed cardiac function, cardiomyocyte diameter, cardiac fibrosis, and the expression of proteins involved in calcium handling and calcineurin signaling pathway. Dexamethasone-treated rats showed several cardiovascular abnormalities, including elevated blood pressure, diastolic dysfunction, cardiac fibrosis, and cardiomyocyte apoptosis. Regarding the expression of proteins involved in calcium handling, dexamethasone increased phosphorylation of phospholamban at threonine 17, reduced protein levels of Na+/Ca2+ exchanger, and had no effect on protein expression of Serca2a. Protein levels of NFAT and GATA-4 were increased in both cytoplasmic and nuclear faction. In addition, dexamethasone increased nuclear protein levels of calcineurin. Altogether our findings suggest that dexamethasone causes pathologic cardiac remodeling and diastolic dysfunction, which is associated with impaired calcium handling and calcineurin signaling pathway activation.


Assuntos
Calcineurina/metabolismo , Sinalização do Cálcio/efeitos dos fármacos , Cardiomegalia/metabolismo , Dexametasona/efeitos adversos , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Miócitos Cardíacos/metabolismo , Animais , Cardiomegalia/induzido quimicamente , Cardiomegalia/patologia , Dexametasona/farmacologia , Masculino , Miocárdio/patologia , Miócitos Cardíacos/patologia , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
19.
Neurosci Lett ; 639: 157-161, 2017 02 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28034783

RESUMO

The Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is a chronic disease associated with loss of brain regions such as the cerebellum, increasing the risk of developing neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease (PD). In the brain of diabetic and PD organisms the insulin/IGF-1 signaling is altered. Exercise training is an effective intervention for the prevention of neurodegerative diseases since it release neurotrophic factors and regulating insulin/IGF-1 signaling in the brain. This study aimed to evaluate the proteins involved in the insulin/IGF-1 pathway in the cerebellum of diabetic rats subjected to exercise training protocol. Wistar rats were distributed in four groups: sedentary control (SC), trained control (TC), sedentary diabetic (SD) and trained diabetic (TD). Diabetes was induced by Alloxan (ALX) (32mg/kgb.w.). The training program consisted in swimming 5days/week, 1h/day, during 6 weeks, supporting an overload corresponding to 90% of the anaerobic threshold. At the end, cerebellum was extracted to determinate the protein expression of GSK-3ß, IRß and IGF-1R and the phosphorylation of ß-amyloid, Tau, ERK1+ERK2 by Western Blot analysis. All dependent variables were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance with significance level of 5%. Diabetes causes hyperglycemia in both diabetic groups; however, in TD, there was a reduction in hyperglycemia compared to SD. Diabetes increased Tau and ß-amyloid phosphorylation in both SD and TD groups. Furthermore, aerobic exercise increased ERK1+ERK2 expression in TC. The data showed that in cerebellum of diabetic rats induced by alloxan there are some proteins expression like Parkinson cerebellum increased, and the exercise training was not able to modulate the expression of these proteins.


Assuntos
Cerebelo/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/metabolismo , Hiperglicemia/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Animais , Glicemia/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Tecido Nervoso/metabolismo , Condicionamento Físico Animal , Ratos Wistar , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia
20.
Can J Vet Res ; 80(4): 318-322, 2016 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27733787

RESUMO

Breast tumors are the most common tumors in dogs and the study of disease prognostic factors is important for establishing the appropriate treatment protocols. The purpose of this study was to clinically stage mammary tumors of bitches and correlate the stages with histological type and grade. The tumors of 63 dogs were clinically staged based on the findings of tumor sizing, lymph node evaluation, and radiographic examination. After surgical excision, the tumors were classified histologically and graded. The relationship between the tumor grade, stage, and histological type was evaluated using a binomial test. Stage I tumors were the most numerous (31.75%), followed by tumors at stages II, III, IV, and V. Animals with histological grade I carcinomas presented stage I, II, or III tumors more frequently and stage IV and V tumors less frequently. The number of animals with simple carcinomas that were at stage I of the disease was greater than that at stage V. Carcinomas in the mixed tumors were less aggressive; however, the small number of animals in stage V of the disease made any statistical association impossible. The complex carcinomas presented with the invasion of the lymph nodes and less cellular differentiation in a larger number of animals than did simple carcinomas. Histological grading proved to be the best parameter for the prognostic evaluation of the breast carcinomas.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/patologia , Neoplasias Mamárias Animais/patologia , Animais , Cães , Feminino , Neoplasias Mamárias Animais/classificação , Gradação de Tumores/veterinária , Estadiamento de Neoplasias/veterinária , Radiografia Torácica/veterinária
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