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1.
JAMA ; 322(3): 216-228, 2019 07 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31310297

RESUMO

Importance: The effects of intensive care unit (ICU) visiting hours remain uncertain. Objective: To determine whether a flexible family visitation policy in the ICU reduces the incidence of delirium. Design, Setting and Participants: Cluster-crossover randomized clinical trial involving patients, family members, and clinicians from 36 adult ICUs with restricted visiting hours (<4.5 hours per day) in Brazil. Participants were recruited from April 2017 to June 2018, with follow-up until July 2018. Interventions: Flexible visitation (up to 12 hours per day) supported by family education (n = 837 patients, 652 family members, and 435 clinicians) or usual restricted visitation (median, 1.5 hours per day; n = 848 patients, 643 family members, and 391 clinicians). Nineteen ICUs started with flexible visitation, and 17 started with restricted visitation. Main Outcomes and Measures: Primary outcome was incidence of delirium during ICU stay, assessed using the CAM-ICU. Secondary outcomes included ICU-acquired infections for patients; symptoms of anxiety and depression assessed using the HADS (range, 0 [best] to 21 [worst]) for family members; and burnout for ICU staff (Maslach Burnout Inventory). Results: Among 1685 patients, 1295 family members, and 826 clinicians enrolled, 1685 patients (100%) (mean age, 58.5 years; 47.2% women), 1060 family members (81.8%) (mean age, 45.2 years; 70.3% women), and 737 clinicians (89.2%) (mean age, 35.5 years; 72.9% women) completed the trial. The mean daily duration of visits was significantly higher with flexible visitation (4.8 vs 1.4 hours; adjusted difference, 3.4 hours [95% CI, 2.8 to 3.9]; P < .001). The incidence of delirium during ICU stay was not significantly different between flexible and restricted visitation (18.9% vs 20.1%; adjusted difference, -1.7% [95% CI, -6.1% to 2.7%]; P = .44). Among 9 prespecified secondary outcomes, 6 did not differ significantly between flexible and restricted visitation, including ICU-acquired infections (3.7% vs 4.5%; adjusted difference, -0.8% [95% CI, -2.1% to 1.0%]; P = .38) and staff burnout (22.0% vs 24.8%; adjusted difference, -3.8% [95% CI, -4.8% to 12.5%]; P = .36). For family members, median anxiety (6.0 vs 7.0; adjusted difference, -1.6 [95% CI, -2.3 to -0.9]; P < .001) and depression scores (4.0 vs 5.0; adjusted difference, -1.2 [95% CI, -2.0 to -0.4]; P = .003) were significantly better with flexible visitation. Conclusions and Relevance: Among patients in the ICU, a flexible family visitation policy, vs standard restricted visiting hours, did not significantly reduce the incidence of delirium. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02932358.


Assuntos
Delírio/prevenção & controle , Família/psicologia , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/organização & administração , Visitas a Pacientes , Ansiedade , Brasil , Esgotamento Profissional , Cuidados Críticos/psicologia , Estudos Cross-Over , Depressão , Feminino , Educação em Saúde , Hospitalização , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Tempo
2.
Int J Antimicrob Agents ; 53(2): 152-157, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30722960

RESUMO

Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase-producing K. pneumoniae (KPC-KP) bloodstream infections (BSIs) are related to high mortality rates, and combination therapy has been associated with lower mortality in patients treated mostly with colistin. There is a paucity of studies addressing polymyxin B (PMB) treatment for KPC-KP infections. This was a retrospective cohort study of patients with monomicrobial KPC-KP BSIs. The primary outcome was 30-day mortality. Antimicrobial therapy was defined as empirical (started within the first 48 h) or definitive (initiated after >48 h) and was evaluated as follows: monotherapy (only one in vitro active agent or combination therapy of one in vitro active agent plus one or more in vitro non-active agents); and combination therapy with two or more in vitro active agents. A total of 82 KPC-KP BSIs were included; 40 patients (48.8%) died in the first 30 days. Mortality of patients treated with the combination of two in vitro active antimicrobial agents, mostly PMB plus amikacin, was significantly lower (37.5%) compared with monotherapy (64.7%) (P= 0.01). Combination therapy [adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) = 0.40, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.22-0.83; P = 0.01] was independently associated with lower 30-day survival when controlled for non-surgical admission (aHR = 2.33, 95% CI 1.14-4.80; P = 0.02) and use of vasoactive drugs (aHR = 7.37, 95% CI 3.01-18.02; P < 0.01). In conclusion, combination therapy with two in vitro active agents, mostly PMB plus amikacin, showed a survival benefit compared with other regimens.


Assuntos
Amicacina/uso terapêutico , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Bacteriemia/tratamento farmacológico , Enterobacteriáceas Resistentes a Carbapenêmicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Klebsiella/tratamento farmacológico , Klebsiella pneumoniae/efeitos dos fármacos , Polimixina B/uso terapêutico , Bacteriemia/microbiologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Quimioterapia Combinada , Infecções por Klebsiella/mortalidade , Klebsiella pneumoniae/genética , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Estudos Retrospectivos , beta-Lactamases/genética
3.
J Neurosurg Pediatr ; 14(1): 94-100, 2014 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24766306

RESUMO

UNLABELLED: OBJECT.: A previous study published by the authors showed that a single intervention could not change the baseline attitudes toward neurotrauma prevention. The present study was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of multiple interventions in modifying knowledge and attitudes for the prevention of neurotrauma in Brazilian preteens and adolescents. METHODS: In a randomized controlled trial, fifth-year primary school (PS) and second-year high school (HS) students were divided into a control and 2 intervention (single/multiple) groups. The study was conducted in the following 8 stages: T1, questionnaire to measure baseline characteristics; T2, lecture on trauma prevention; T3, reapplying the questionnaire used in T1; T4, Traffic Department intervention; T5, a play about trauma and its consequences; T6, Fire Department intervention; T7, Emergency Medical Service intervention; and T8, reapplying the questionnaire used in T1 and T3. Positive answers were considered those affirming the use of safety devices "always or sometimes" and negative as "never" using safety devices. RESULTS: The sample consisted of 535 students. Regarding attitudes, students in all groups at any stage of measurement showed protective behavior more than 95% of the time about seat belt use. There were only differences between attitudes in PS and HS students on T8 assessment concerning the use of safety equipment on bikes in the multiple-intervention group and concerning the use of safety equipment on skateboards and rollerblades in single- and multiple-intervention groups. These differences were caused mainly by the reduction in positive answers by the HS group, rather than by the increase in positive or protective answers by the PS group. However, there was no difference when the control and intervention groups were compared, independent of the attitudes or the student groups studied. The most important reason for not using protective devices was the belief that they would not get hurt. CONCLUSIONS: Multiple and different types of educational interventions, such as lectures, scenes from plays about trauma and its consequences, traffic and fire department intervention, and medical emergency intervention directed to preteens and adolescents from public and private schools did not modify most students' attitudes toward injury prevention. Clinical trial registration no: U1111-1121-0192 (National System of Ethics and Research in Brazil).


Assuntos
Prevenção de Acidentes/métodos , Acidentes de Trânsito/prevenção & controle , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Traumatismos do Sistema Nervoso/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Atitude , Brasil , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Prevenção Primária/métodos , Estudos Prospectivos , Segurança , Instituições Acadêmicas , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Traumatismos do Sistema Nervoso/etiologia , Falha de Tratamento
4.
Curr Pharm Biotechnol ; 14(11): 951-9, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24372247

RESUMO

Pseudomonas aeruginosa is one of the major pathogens responsible for a wide variety of severe nosocomial and community acquired infections. Numerous vaccine candidates and several monoclonal antibodies have been developed over the past 40 years but only a few have reached clinical trials and none of these vaccine candidates has obtained market authorization. The understanding of P. aeruginosa pathogenesis and its virulence factors is essential in the identification of immunogens that can be used for a P. aeruginosa vaccine. This review summarizes the present status of vaccine development for this important pathogen.


Assuntos
Vacinas Bacterianas/imunologia , Vacinas Bacterianas/uso terapêutico , Composição de Medicamentos/métodos , Desenho de Drogas , Infecções por Pseudomonas/imunologia , Infecções por Pseudomonas/terapia , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/imunologia , Vacinas Bacterianas/química , Humanos , Infecções por Pseudomonas/microbiologia , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/efeitos dos fármacos , Resultado do Tratamento
6.
J Neurosurg Pediatr ; 9(5): 562-8, 2012 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22546036

RESUMO

OBJECT: Trauma is the leading cause of mortality and morbidity in children, young people, and working-age adults. Because of the high incidence of intentional and unintentional injuries in young people, it is necessary to implement injury-prevention programs and measure the efficacy of these initiatives. The authors evaluated the effectiveness of an injury-prevention program in high school students in a city in southern Brazil. METHODS: In a randomized controlled study, 1049 high school students were divided into a control group and intervention group. The study was conducted in the following 3 stages: a questionnaire was applied 1 week before the educational intervention (P0), shortly after the intervention (P1), and 5 months later (P3). In the control group, a questionnaire based on the Pense Bem Project was applied at the 3 time stages, without any intervention between the stages. RESULTS: The postintervention analysis evidenced a slight change in knowledge about unintentional spinal cord and brain injuries. Regarding attitudes, the only significant improvement after the intervention lecture was in the use of helmets, which remained high 5 months later. A substantial number of students only partially agreed with using safety behaviors. The only significant postintervention change was the major agreement to check swimming pool depth before entering the water (P0 89% and P1 97.8%, p < 0.001; P2 92.8%, p = 0.005). CONCLUSIONS: An educational intervention based on a single lecture improved students' knowledge of traumatic brain and spinal cord injuries, but this type of intervention did not modify most attitudes toward injury prevention. Clinical trial registration no.: U1111-1121-0192.


Assuntos
Educação em Saúde , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Ferimentos e Lesões/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/psicologia , Recursos Audiovisuais , Automóveis , Ciclismo/lesões , Lesões Encefálicas/patologia , Lesões Encefálicas/prevenção & controle , Brasil/epidemiologia , Avaliação Educacional , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Masculino , Motocicletas , Patinação/lesões , Inquéritos e Questionários , Ferimentos e Lesões/epidemiologia
7.
Rev. AMRIGS ; 55(4): 333-338, out.-dez. 2011. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-835383

RESUMO

A depressão é uma condição presente em 20% dos portadores de doenças crônicas, estando associada à incapacitação funcional e comprometimento da saúde física. A doença renal crônica faz parte desse escopo, com prevalência de 405 pacientes por milhão de habitantes submetidos a hemodiálise no Brasil. Objetiva-se avaliar prevalência de sintomatologia depressiva e suas características em pacientes sob tratamento dialítico. Métodos: Estudo transversal, realizado entre junho e agosto de 2010, incluindo os pacientes submetidos a hemodiálise no Hospital Geral de Caxias do Sul, que preencheram os critérios de inclusão. Procedeu-se a aplicação de instrumentos de coleta de dados. O ponto de corte para depressão foi de 16 pontos no Inventário de Depressão de Beck. O estudo foi aprovado por Comitê de Ética em Pesquisa. Resultados: A amostra foi constituída por 64 pacientes. A média de idade foi de 53,66 ± 15,82 anos; 51,7% eram do sexo feminino. A prevalência de depressão foi de 44,8%. Os pacientes com IDB < 16 apresentaram escore médio de 7,23 ± 3,5; já aqueles com IDB > 16 apresentaram média de 26,43 ± 9,35 (p < 0,001). Os pacientes que necessitavam cuidador apresentaram maiores índices de depressão (p< 0,001). Nos pacientes com IDB > 16 os fatores mais influentes foram sono, cansaço e incapacidade de tomar decisões. Conclusão: A prevalência de depressão nos pacientes em hemodiálise é alta. Os pacientes que necessitam de cuidadores apresentam maior escore no IDB. Alterações do sono, cansaço e incapacidade de tomar decisões são os principais fatores para o humor depressivo.


Depression is a condition present in 20% of patients with chronic diseases and is associated with functional disability and impaired physical health. Chronic kidney disease is part of this scope, with an estimated prevalence of 405 patients per million undergoing hemodialysis in Brazil. The objective of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of depressive symptoms and their characteristics in patients on dialysis. Methods: A cross-sectional study conducted between June and August 2010, including patients undergoing hemodialysis at the General Hospital of Caxias do Sul, who met the inclusion criteria. The data collection instruments (questionnaire, Mini Mental State Examination and the Beck Depression Inventory–BDI) were administered individually during a hemodialysis session. The cut-off point for depression was 16 points in the BDI. Results: We studied 64 patients. The mean age was 53.66 ± 15.82 years, 51.7% were females. The prevalence of depression was 44.8. Patients with BDI<16 had a mean score of 7.23 ± 3.5, whereas those with BDI>16 had an average of 26.43 ± 9.35 (p <0.001). Patients who needed caregivers had higher levels of depression (p <0.001). In patients with BDI>16, the most influent factors were sleep, fatigue and inability to make decisions. Conclusion: The prevalence of depression in hemodialysis patients is high. Patients who need caregivers had higher scores on the BDI. Sleep disorders, fatigue and inability to make decisions are the main factors for depressed mood.


Assuntos
Humanos , Depressão , Transtorno Depressivo , Insuficiência Renal Crônica
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