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1.
Hum Pathol ; 2022 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34995673

RESUMO

Activating mutations in the MAPK/ERK pathway have been shown in nearly half of cases of Rosai-Dorfman disease (RDD). Cyclin D1, a key cell cycle regulator, constitutes a major downstream target of the MAPK/ERK pathway. In this study, we aim to further understand the pathogenesis of RDD by assessing the lesional histiocytes for cyclin D1, p-ERK, Ki-67 and BCL2 by immunohistochemistry We assessed 35 samples of RDD and a control group of histiocyte-rich reactive lesions. Cyclin D1 was expressed in about 90% of cases of RDD. Cyclin D1 was positive in 25-95% (median, 85%) of lesional histiocytes, was moderately/strongly expressed in 97% of cyclin D1-positive cases, and was significantly higher than in control specimens. p-ERK was positive in 16 of 30 (53%) cases of RDD and was negative in all controls. Whereas all p-ERK-positive RDD cases had concurrent cyclin D1 expression, over a third of cyclin D1-positive cases were negative for p-ERK. Ki-67 was low in RDD (median, 3%). BCL-2 was positive in lesional histiocytes in nine of 10 RDD cases assessed and was negative Overall, these findings point to unexpected, potential roles of these molecules in the pathogenesis of RDD. Overexpression of cyclin D1 in the absence of ERK phosphorylation in a subset of RDD cases opens the possibility of oncogenic mechanisms bypassing ERK, and supports the notion that cyclin D1 overexpression in RDD is multifactorial. Moreover, the observed lack of correlation between cyclin D1 with Ki-67 proliferative index suggests that prosurvival actions of cyclin D1 are, at least in part, cell-cycle independent. Finally, expression of BCL-2 and the low Ki-67 index suggest that RDD might be driven by anti-apoptotic rather than pro-proliferative oncogenic mechanisms.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34992253

RESUMO

The role of WT1 protein in hematopoiesis and leukemogenesisis incompletely elucidated. WT1 overexpression is common in acute myeloid leukemia (AML); however, WT1 mutations occur in only about 10% of cases, with increasing incidence in the setting of relapse. In this study, we investigated the clinical and molecular characteristics of WT1 mutations in NPM1-mutated AML, to enhance our understanding of the biology and potential therapeutic implications of WT1 mutations. Our study cohort included 67 patients with NPM1 mutated AML and a median follow-up of 13.7 months. WT1 mutations were identified in 7% (n = 5) of patients at the time of initial diagnosis. WT1 mutant clones were presumed to be present as co-dominant clones in 3/5 and in subclonal populations in 2/5 cases based on variant allelic frequency (VAF) when compared with NPM1 mutation VAF. All WT1 mutations became undetectable at time of MRD-negative (NPM1-wild type) remission. None of these patients experienced relapse at the time of last follow-up (median, 15 months; range, 4.5-20.2 months). A total of 15/67 (22%) patients relapsed; among these patient, four (27%) relapsed with WT1 mutant AML. Three of four patients had undergone allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). None of these patients had detectable WT1 mutations at the time of initial diagnosis. WT1 mutations were presumed clonal in two cases and subclonal in the other two cases, based on VAF. Our results indicate that WT1 mutations contribute to relapse in NPM1 mutated AML, especially in the setting of HSCT. These findings suggest that emerging WT1 mutations may serve as a conduit for relapse in NPM1-mutated AML, and that sequential molecular profiling to evaluate potential emergent WT1 mutations during surveillance and particularly at relapse likely has prognostic value in patients with NPM1 mutated AML.

5.
Pathology ; 2021 Dec 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34887091

RESUMO

Plasma cell neoplasms are notorious for having diverse morphological presentations, and less frequently, unusual immunophenotypical profiles. This unexpected immunomorphological variability could lead to erroneous impressions upon initial assessment, potentially delaying the generation of a final accurate diagnosis. In this review, we present a concise, yet comprehensive summary of both morphological and immunophenotypical variants of plasma cell neoplasms from the archives of MD Anderson Hematopathology Department, with emphasis on possible diagnostic pitfalls precluding a timely and accurate assessment.

6.
Leuk Lymphoma ; : 1-11, 2021 Dec 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34898335

RESUMO

ATM deletions and/or mutations are recurrent in lymphoid neoplasms while rearrangements are rare. In this study, we used mate pair sequencing (MPseq) technology to characterize two novel ATM rearrangements in one patient with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and one patient with T-prolymphocytic leukemia (T-PLL). Both patients showed chromosome 11q22 aberrations encompassing ATM by conventional karyotype and fluorescence in situ hybridization: isolated t(11;13)(q22;q14) in CLL and a complex karyotype with apparent 11q deletion and unbalanced der(14)t(11;14)(q22;p11.2) in T-PLL. MPseq identified ATM-LINC00371 fusion in CLL and ATM-USP28 in T-PLL, both of which led to ATM inactivation, confirmed by loss of immunohistochemical protein expression. Next-generation sequencing mutation analysis detected concurrent ATM mutation(s) CLL patient, while T-PLL lacked ATM mutation. ATM rearrangements, not apparently detectable using standard laboratory technologies, represent another mechanism of loss-of-function. Recent high-throughput technologies such as MPseq can uncover novel pathogenic gene fusions and resolve complex chromosomal rearrangements in hematologic malignancies.

7.
Arch Pathol Lab Med ; 2021 Dec 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34902854

RESUMO

CONTEXT.­: Drug-induced hypersensitivity syndrome/drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) is a drug-induced, adverse T-cell-mediated hypersensitivity reaction that most often involves skin. The pathologic findings of DRESS-related lymphadenopathy have been described infrequently in the literature. OBJECTIVE.­: To present a case series of DRESS-related lymphadenopathy with an emphasis on the morphologic spectrum. DESIGN.­: We describe detailed clinical and pathologic findings along with the literature review. We focus on the differential diagnosis between DRESS lymphadenopathy and angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma (AITL). RESULTS.­: There were 4 men and 1 woman with a mean age of 41 years (range, 23-59 years). One patient (20%) died. Three lymph node biopsy specimens showed a pattern reminiscent of AITL (AITL-like pattern) and 2 cases showed necrotizing lymphadenitis (Kikuchi-like pattern), associated with vasculitis in 1 case. The AITL-like morphology of DRESS-related lymphadenopathy may be difficult to distinguish from genuine AITL. The clinical information is important for differential diagnosis, including history of drug exposure, age, and the rarity or absence of AITL-associated manifestations such as hemolytic anemia and hypergammaglobulinemia. Molecular analysis of the T-cell receptor genes is helpful, typically revealing a polyclonal pattern in DRESS-related lymphadenopathy. CONCLUSIONS.­: In the literature, 4 histologic patterns of DRESS lymphadenopathy have been described: reactive lymphoid hyperplasia, necrotizing lymphadenitis, Hodgkin lymphoma-like, and AITL-like. These patterns, particularly those that resemble lymphoma, highlight the importance of correct diagnosis to avoid unnecessary therapies.

9.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(24)2021 Dec 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34944936

RESUMO

Patients with anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) rarely develop a leukemic phase of the disease. The reported leukemic ALCL cases are almost all ALK-positive, which are frequently associated with small cell morphology, t(2;5)(p23;q35), and a poorer prognosis. Rare leukemic ALK-negative ALCL cases have been reported. In the present study, we investigated the clinical and pathologic features and outcomes of nine patients with leukemic ALK-negative ALCL and compared these features with 39 patients without leukemic disease. Compared with the non-leukemic ALK-negative ALCL group, patients with leukemic disease more often had absolute lymphocytosis (50% vs. 0%, p = 0.008), thrombocytopenia (60% vs. 11%, p = 0.03), bone marrow involvement (50% vs. 14%, p = 0.04), and CD7 positivity (71% vs. 19%, p = 0.02). Four of five (80%) patients with leukemic ALK-negative ALCL had a complex karyotype, which was significantly higher than that of the patients in the non-leukemic group. A fluorescence in situ hybridization for TP53 was performed on six leukemic ALK-negative ALCL cases and all (100%) had TP53 deletion. There were no significant differences in the other clinicopathologic features, treatment, and complete remission rates between patients in the leukemic versus non-leukemic group (all p > 0.05). The median follow-up of this cohort was 18 months with a range of 0.3-140 months. Eight of nine (90%) patients with leukemic ALK-negative ALCL died, and their overall survival was significantly shorter than that of the patients with non-leukemic disease (median 15.5 vs. 60 months, p = 0.001). In conclusion, we show that the leukemic phase of ALK-negative ALCL is associated with high-risk biologic features and, in particular, a complex karyotype and TP53 deletion. Compared with the non-leukemic ALK-negative ALCL patients, the patients with a leukemic phase of disease have poorer survival and may require more aggressive treatment.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34964255

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) with KMT2A (MLL) rearrangement is known for monocytic or myelomonocytic differentiation, but the full immunophenotypic spectrum and dynamic changes of the immunophenotype in this genetically defined disease have not been systematically studied. METHODS: We reviewed the immunophenotype, karyotype, and mutations at the time of initial diagnosis and relapse of adults with AML with KMT2A rearrangement in our institution between 2007 and 2020. RESULTS: We identified 102 patients: 44 men and 58 women with a median age of 52 years (range, 18-87). Forty-three patients were considered to be therapy-related. Twenty-four out of 64 patients relapsed from complete remission after induction therapy, 34 had persistent/progressive disease, and 58 patients died with a median overall survival of 17 months. We detected five immunophenotypes: immature monocytic (38%); myelomonocytic (22%); myeloblastic (22%); mature monocytic (10%); and acute promyelocytic (APL)-like (8%). By chromosomal breakpoints, we presumed 11 different partners; t(9;11) (p22;q23)/MLLT3-KMT2A was the most common rearrangement (n = 56, 55%), followed by t(6;11) (q27;q23)/AFDN-KMT2A (n = 13,13%). Patients with t(6;11) (q27;q23)/AFDN-KMT2A preferentially showed a myeloblastic phenotype (p = 0.026). Mutations were detected in 39/64 (61%) cases, and RAS pathway (NRAS/KRAS/PTPN11) was involved in 26/64 (41%) cases. None of the APL-like cases had mutations detected. At the time of disease relapse, 10/24 (42%) showed major immunophenotypic change, and 7/10 cases gained additional cytogenetic and/or molecular alterations. CONCLUSION: The immunophenotype of AML with KMT2A rearrangement is more diverse than previously recognized, with a substantial subset showing no evidence of monocytic differentiation. Major immunophenotype change is common at the time of relapse.

11.
Ann Diagn Pathol ; 56: 151860, 2021 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34823075

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) is a curative option for patients with myelofibrosis (MF). Bone marrow (BM) morphologic evaluation of myelofibrosis following allo-HSCT is known to be challenging in this context because resolution of morphologic changes is a gradual process. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We compared BM samples of patients with myelofibrosis who underwent first allo-HSCT and achieved molecular remission by day 100 with BM samples of patients who continued to have persistent molecular evidence of disease following allo-HSCT. RESULTS: The study group included 29 patients: 17 primary MF, 7 post-polycythemia vera (PV) MF, and 5 post-essential thrombocythemia (ET) MF. In this cohort there were 18 JAK2 p.V617F, 8 CALR; 1 MPL, and 2 patients had concurrent JAK2 p.V617F and MPL mutations. The control group included 5 patients with primary MF, one with post-PV MF, one with post-ET MF (5 JAK2 p.V617F; 2 CALR). Following allo-HSCT, both groups showed reduction in BM cellularity and number of megakaryocytes. The study cohort also less commonly had dense megakaryocyte clusters and endosteal located megakaryocytes and showed less fibrosis. There was no statistical difference in BM cellularity, presence of erythroid islands, degree of osteosclerosis, or megakaryocyte number, size, nuclear lobation, presence of clusters or intrasinusoidal location. CONCLUSIONS: Following allo-HSCT at 100 days, morphologic evaluation of BM in patients with MF cannot reliably predict persistence versus clearance of molecular evidence of MF. Disappearance of BM MF, dense megakaryocyte clusters, and endosteal localization of megakaryocytes are suggestive of disease response.

12.
Hum Pathol ; 119: 59-68, 2021 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34767860

RESUMO

Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is a mature B-cell neoplasm characterized by t(11;14) (q13;q32) and cyclin D1 overexpression in >95% of cases. Classic MCL cases are composed of a monotonous population of small- to medium-sized lymphocytes with irregular nuclear contours that are positive for cyclin D1 and SOX11 and negative for CD23 and CD200. By contrast, occasional MCL cases express CD23 and CD200 but lack SOX11 and morphologically and immunophenotypically resemble chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), termed as CLL-like MCL in this study. These neoplasms pose a diagnostic challenge and are easy to be diagnosed as CLL in daily practice. We studied 14 cases of CLL-like MCL to define their clinicopathologic features and compared them with 33 traditional CLL cases. There were 8 men and 6 women with a median age of 62 years (range, 44-80). Compared with CLL, patients with CLL-like MCL have lower levels of peripheral blood and bone marrow involvement and more frequently had mutated IGHV. Immunophenotypically, CLL-like MCL often showed moderate to bright expression of B-cell antigens and surface immunoglobulin light chain, dim and partial expression of CD23 and CD200, infrequent CD43 positivity, and lack of LEF1. The overall survival of patients with CLL-like MCL was similar to that of CLL patients. In conclusion, CD23+, CD200+, and SOX11-negative MCL closely resemble CLL, both clinically and pathologically, including a similar indolent clinical course. They may pose a diagnostic challenge. However, patients with CLL-like MCL also have distinctive immunophenotypic features that are useful to distinguish these neoplasms from CLL.

13.
Hum Pathol ; 2021 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34801601

RESUMO

The syncytial variant of nodular sclerosis Hodgkin lymphoma (SV-NSHL) is uncommon and its clinicopathological features have not been well studied. In this study, we collected 142 cases of SV-NSHL. There were 76 (53.5%) males and 66 (46.5%) females with a median age of 28 years (range, 12-78); 59.9% were younger than 30 years of age. Patients usually presented with a mediastinal mass (97.6%) and often with bulky disease (35.7%) and advanced stages (3 or 4) (39.7%). Follow-up showed 61.1% of patients developed relapse after standard therapy. Morphologically, the neoplasms were composed of sheets or large clusters of pleomorphic neoplastic cells with a cohesive appearance that were frequently associated with necrosis. Neutrophils and eosinophils were frequent in the background while small lymphocytes were decreased. Immunohistochemical analysis showed the following markers frequently to be positive: CD30 (100%), MUM1/IRF4 (96%), PAX5 (95%), PD-L1 (91%), CD15 (80%). CD45 was negative in all cases. Epstein-Barr virus-encoded small RNA (EBER) was detected in 19% of cases. In this cohort, age over 30 years (P = .0430), presence of B-type symptoms (P = .0394), elevated serum LDH level (P = .0004), and disease relapse (P = .0108) were associated with a poorer overall survival. In contrast, patients with EBER positive neoplasms had a better survival (P = .0418). Compared with a control group of non-SV-NSHL patients, patients with SV-NSHL were associated with a poorer overall survival (P = .011). These data suggest that SV morphology is associated with a poorer prognosis in patients treated with traditional standard-of-care therapy for classic Hodgkin lymphoma.

14.
J Clin Oncol ; : JCO2101797, 2021 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34797699

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Most patients with mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) are older. In this study, we investigated the efficacy and safety of a chemotherapy-free combination with ibrutinib and rituximab (IR) in previously untreated older patients with MCL (age ≥ 65 years). METHODS: We enrolled 50 patients with MCL in this single-institution, single-arm, phase II clinical trial (NCT01880567). Patients with Ki-67% ≥ 50% and blastoid morphology were excluded. Ibrutinib was administered with rituximab up to 2 years with continuation of ibrutinib alone. The primary objective was to assess the overall response rate and safety of IR. In evaluable samples, whole-exome sequencing and bulk RNA sequencing from baseline tissue samples were performed. RESULTS: The median age was 71 years (interquartile range 69-76 years). Sixteen percent of patients had high-risk simplified MCL international prognostic index. The Ki-67% was low (< 30%) in 38 (76%) and moderately high (≥ 30%-50%) in 12 (24%) patients. The best overall response rate was 96% (71% complete response). After a median follow-up of 45 months (interquartile range 24-56 months), 28 (56%) patients came off study for various reasons (including four progression, 21 toxicities, and three miscellaneous reasons). The median progression-free survival and overall survival were not reached, and 3-year survival was 87% and 94%, respectively. None of the patients died on study therapy. Notably, 11 (22%) patients had grade 3 atrial fibrillation. Grade 3-4 myelosuppression was seen in < 5% of patients. Differential overexpression of CCND1, BIRC3, BANK1, SETBP1, AXIN2, and IL2RA was noted in partial responders compared with patients with complete response. CONCLUSION: IR combination is effective in older patients with MCL. Baseline evaluation for cardiovascular risks is highly recommended. Randomized trial is needed for definitive conclusions.

15.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(21)2021 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34771519

RESUMO

Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is a confirmatory test to establish a diagnosis of inv(16)/t(16;16) AML. However, incidental findings and their clinical diagnostic implication have not been systemically studied. We studied 1629 CBFB FISH cases performed in our institution, 262 (16.1%), 1234 (75.7%), and 133 (8.2%) were reported as positive, normal, and abnormal, respectively. The last included CBFB copy number changes (n = 120) and atypical findings such as 3'CBFB deletion (n = 11), 5'CBFB deletion (n = 1), and 5'CBFB gain (n = 1). Correlating with CBFB-MYH11 RT-PCR results, totally 271 CBFB rearrangement cases were identified, including five with discrepancies between FISH and RT-PCR due to new partner genes (n = 3), insertion (n = 1), or rare CBFB-MYH11 variant (n = 1) and eight with 3'CBFB deletion. All cases with atypical findings and/or discrepancies presented clinical diagnostic challenges. Correlating FISH signal patterns and karyotypes, additional chromosome 16 aberrations (AC16As) show impacts on the re-definition of a complex karyotype and prognostic prediction. The CBFB rearrangement but not all AC16As will be detected by NGS-based methods. Therefore, FISH testing is currently still needed to provide a quick and straightforward confirmatory inv(16)/t(16;16) AML diagnosis and additional information related to clinical management.

16.
Mod Pathol ; 2021 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34775472

RESUMO

Classification of myeloid neoplasms with isolated isochromosome i(17q) [17p deletion with inherent monoallelic TP53 loss plus 17q duplication] is controversial. Most cases fall within the WHO unclassifiable myelodysplastic/myeloproliferative neoplasms (MDS/MPN-U) category. The uniformly dismal outcomes warrant better understanding of this entity. We undertook a multi-institutional retrospective study of 92 adult MDS/MPN-U cases from eight institutions. Twenty-nine (32%) patients had isolated i(17q) [MDS/MPN-i(17q)]. Compared to MDS/MPN without i(17q), MDS/MPN-i(17q) patients were significantly younger, had lower platelet and absolute neutrophil counts, and higher frequency of splenomegaly and circulating blasts. MDS/MPN-i(17q) cases showed frequent bilobed neutrophils (75% vs. 23%; P = 0.03), hypolobated megakaryocytes (62% vs. 20%; P = 0.06), and a higher frequency of SETBP1 (69% vs. 5%; P = 0.002) and SRSF2 (63% vs. 5%; P = 0.006) mutations that were frequently co-existent (44% vs. 0%; P = 0.01). TP53 mutations were rare. The mutation profile of MDS/MPN-U-i(17q) was similar to other myeloid neoplasms with i(17q) including atypical chronic myeloid leukemia, chronic myelomonocytic leukemia, myelodysplastic/myeloproliferative neoplasm with ring sideroblasts and thrombocytosis, myelodysplastic syndrome and acute myeloid leukemia, with frequent concomitant SETBP1/SRSF2 mutations observed across all the diagnostic entities. Over a median follow-up of 52 months, patients with MDS/MPN-i(17q) showed a shorter median overall survival (11 vs. 28 months; P < 0.001). The presence of i(17q) retained independent poor prognostic value in multivariable Cox-regression analysis [HR 3.686 (1.17-11.6); P = 0.026] along with splenomegaly. We suggest that MDS/MPN-i(17q) warrants recognition as a distinct subtype within the MDS/MPN-U category based on its unique clinico-biologic features and uniformly poor prognosis.

17.
Leuk Res ; 111: 106704, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34735934

RESUMO

Light-chain restricted hematogones (LCR HGs) detected by flow cytometry analysis can mimic bone marrow involvement by B-cell lymphoma. This phenomenon can present a diagnostic pitfall and negatively impact patient management, as misinterpretation may upgrade disease stage. In this study, we characterized the immunophenotype of LCR HGs with an aim to differentiate them from B-cell lymphoma. We analyzed 24 patients with LCR HGs, 12 (50 %) were kappa light chain restricted and 12 (50 %) were lambda light chain restricted. LCR HGs account for 51 % (range, 1.5%-99%) of B cells, and 0.5 % (range, 0.1%-3.7%) of total cells. In 15 patients in whom multiple specimens were analyzed, 10 (67 %) showed persistent LCR HGs in more than 1 specimen, and the duration of the light chain restriction ranged from 4 months to 2 years. Among 24 patients, 4 (16.6 %) cases were concurrently involved by B-cell lymphoma/myeloma in addition to LCR HGs. With the exception of light chain restriction, LCR HGs showed a similar immunophenotype as normal HGs and had a distinct location on the CD45/Side Scatter (SSC) plot. They were also consistently positive for CD10, CD19, CD38 (bright), CD43, and CD200. CD20 expression showed a spectrum from dim/negative to positive.

18.
Histopathology ; 2021 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34637146

RESUMO

AIMS: It is unknown whether Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection can occur in high-grade B-cell lymphoma with MYC and BCL2 and/or BCL6 rearrangements, also known as double-hit or triple-hit lymphoma (DHL/THL). METHODS AND RESULTS: Here we report 16 cases of EBV+ DHL/THL from screening 846 cases of DHL/THL and obtaining additional EBV+ cases through multi-institutional collaboration: 8 MYC/BCL2 DHL, 6 MYC/BCL6 DHL, and 2 THL. There were 8 men and 8 women with a median age of 65 years (range, 32-86). Two patients had a history of follicular lymphoma and one had AIDS. Nine of 14 patients had an International Prognostic Index of ≥3. Half of the cases showed high-grade/Burkitt-like morphology and the other half diffuse large B-cell lymphoma morphology. By immunohistochemistry, the lymphoma cells were positive for MYC (n=14/16), BCL2 (n=12/16), BCL6 (n=14/16), CD10 (n=13/16), and MUM1 (n=6/14). By Hans algorithm, 13 cases were classified as GCB and 3 as non-GCB. The lymphomas frequently showed an EBV latency type I with a median EBV-encoded small RNAs of 80% positive cells (range, 20-100%). After a median follow-up of 36.3 months (range, 2.0-41.6), 7 patients died with a median survival of 15.4 months (range, 3.4-47.3) after diagnosis of EBV+ DHL/THL. Five of 6 patients with MYC/BCL6 DHL were alive including 4 in complete remission. In contrast, only 4/10 patients with MYC/BCL2 DHL or THL were alive including 2 in complete remission. The median survival in patients with MYC/BCL6 DHL was unreached and was 21.6 months in patients with MYC/BCL2 DHL or THL. CONCLUSIONS: EBV infection in DHL/THL is rare (~1.5%). Cases of EBV+ DHL/THL are largely similar to their EBV-negative counterparts clinicopathologically. Our findings expand the spectrum of EBV+ B-cell lymphomas currently recognized in the WHO classification and suggest differences between EBV+ MYC/BCL2 and MYC/BCL6 DHL that may have therapeutic implications.

19.
Mod Pathol ; 2021 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34608246

RESUMO

The 2016 WHO classification introduced the category of high-grade B-cell lymphoma (HGBL), which includes one poorly understood subset, blastoid-HGBL. Establishing the diagnosis and distinguishing blastoid-HGBL from B-acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) in bone marrow can be challenging. We assessed 31 cases of blastoid-HGBL diagnosed initially in bone marrow and compared this group to 36 cases of B-ALL using immunophenotyping, fluorescence in situ hybridization, and targeted next generation sequencing analysis. The 31 blastoid-HGBL cases included 14 HGBL with MYC and BCL2 and/or BCL6 rearrangements (double hit lymphoma, DHL), 13 HGBL, not otherwise specified (NOS), and four cases with TdT expression that were difficult to classify. Compared with B-ALL, blastoid-HGBL cases more often showed increased intensity/bright expression of CD20, CD38, CD45, BCL-6, and MYC, and less frequent bright expression of CD10 and TdT. Cases of blastoid-HGBL also more frequently had MYC rearrangement, a complex karyotype and TP53 mutation (p < 0.01). With the exception of CD34, no other single factor, including TdT, was sensitive or adequately specific to distinguish blastoid-HGBL from B-ALL. We developed a scoring system using six distinctive features between 16 cases of unequivocal blastoid HGBL and 22 cases of CD34-positive B-ALL, with a score of ≥3 defining blastoid-HGBL. The system was further validated by using 15 cases of surface light chain negative, and/or CD45 dim to negative blastoid-HGBL and 14 cases of CD34-negative B-ALL. The sensitivity, specificity, positive, and negative predictive value of this scoring system were 100%, 94%, 94%, and 100%, respectively. Using this system, the four cases with TdT expression were all classified as blastoid-HGBL: three were DHL and one was HGBL-NOS. In conclusion, blastoid-HGBL shows distinctive immunophenotypic, cytogenetic, and molecular features as compared with B-ALL. The proposed scoring system can be helpful for the classification of diagnostically challenging blastoid lymphoid tumors presenting initially in the bone marrow.

20.
Biomark Res ; 9(1): 74, 2021 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34635181

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Earlier studies have shown that lymphomatous effusions in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) are associated with a very poor prognosis, even worse than for non-effusion-associated patients with stage IV disease. We hypothesized that certain genetic abnormalities were associated with lymphomatous effusions, which would help to identify related pathways, oncogenic mechanisms, and therapeutic targets. METHODS: We compared whole-exome sequencing on DLBCL samples involving solid organs (n = 22) and involving effusions (n = 9). We designed a mutational accumulation-based approach to score each gene and used mutation interpreters to identify candidate pathogenic genes associated with lymphomatous effusions. Moreover, we performed gene-set enrichment analysis from a microarray comparison of effusion-associated versus non-effusion-associated DLBCL cases to extract the related pathways. RESULTS: We found that genes involved in identified pathways or with high accumulation scores in the effusion-based DLBCL cases were associated with migration/invasion. We validated expression of 8 selected genes in DLBCL cell lines and clinical samples: MUC4, SLC35G6, TP53BP2, ARAP3, IL13RA1, PDIA4, HDAC1 and MDM2, and validated expression of 3 proteins (MUC4, HDAC1 and MDM2) in an independent cohort of DLBCL cases with (n = 31) and without (n = 20) lymphomatous effusions. We found that overexpression of HDAC1 and MDM2 correlated with the presence of lymphomatous effusions, and HDAC1 overexpression was associated with the poorest prognosis.  CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that DLBCL associated with lymphomatous effusions may be associated mechanistically with TP53-MDM2 pathway and HDAC-related chromatin remodeling mechanisms.

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