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1.
BMC Womens Health ; 22(1): 360, 2022 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36050660

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In order to meet the WHO 2030 cervical cancer elimination program, evaluation and utilization of sensitive testing method, and feasible sampling technique is a paradigm for enhancing cervical cancer screening coverage. Self-sampling for screening of HPV DNA testing is one of the easiest and sensitive techniques, though the evidence was limited in the Ethiopian context. This study aimed to compare the performance of self-collected vaginal specimen versus clinician collected cervical specimen for detection of HPV among HIV positive women in Ethiopia. METHODS: We conducted a comparative cross-sectional study design to collect cervicovaginal specimens among HIV positive women of age older than 24 years. Data were collected from six government hospitals from January to October 2021. A total of 994 cervicovaginal specimens was collected by clinicians and HIV positive women themselves in the cervical cancer screening unit using Abbott Cervi-Collect Specimen Collection Kit, and molecular HPV testing was conducted. Data were entered into an Excel spreadsheet and analyzed using SPSS version 25. Sensitivity, specificity and kappa were reported with p < 0.05 considered as statistically significant. RESULTS: The prevalence of high-risk HPV was 29.4% among self-sampled specimen and 23.9% among clinician collected specimens. The overall concordance of the test result was 87.3%. Oncogenic HPV types, other than HPV16&18 were predominant in both sampling techniques, 19.9% from vaginal self-collected specimen and 16.7% of clinician collected cervical specimens. The sensitivity and specificity of self-sampled HPV test was 84.0% and 88.4%, respectively. The level of agreement was good (k = 0.68) and statistically significant (p < 0.001). The discriminatory power of the test as true positive and negative was excellent with an area under the curve of 0.86. CONCLUSION: The magnitude of oncogenic HPV was higher in self-collected samples than the clinician collected specimen with good agreement between the two sampling methods. Thus, we recommend the Ministry of Health in Ethiopia to expand utilization of the self-sampled technique and enhance the coverage of screening in the country.


Assuntos
Alphapapillomavirus , Infecções por HIV , Infecções por Papillomavirus , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/métodos , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Papillomaviridae/genética , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Manejo de Espécimes/métodos , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/prevenção & controle , Esfregaço Vaginal/métodos , Adulto Jovem
2.
BMJ Open ; 12(9): e056639, 2022 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36130743

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Little is known about the extent to which Health Extension Programme (HEP) has played its role to increase service uptake among young girls. This study aims to estimate the status of young girls' sexual and reproductive health (SRH) services utilisation in rural Ethiopia and to examine the role of health extension workers (HEWs) in this regard. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study. SETTING: A community-based study among all nine regions of Ethiopia. PARTICIPANTS: Nine hundred and two young girls aged 15-24 years were included in this study. METHOD: We used data from the national HEP assessment, collected from March to May 2019. Multilevel binary logistic regression was used to investigate the association between exposure to HEP and SRH services utilisation of young girls and we reported an adjusted OR with a corresponding 95% CI as measure of the degree of associations. RESULT: Only 19.18% (95% CI 16.74% to 21.89%) of young girls used SRH services with significant regional variability (intraclass correlation coefficien=17.16%; 95% CI 6.30% to 39.99%). Exposure to HEP (adjusted OR, aOR 3.13, 95% CI 2.03 to 4.85), knowing about the availability of HEP services (aOR 3.06, 95% CI 1.75 to 5.33) and having good trust in HEWs (aOR 1.82, 95% CI 1.07 to 3.10) and other sociodemographic factors were significantly associated with increased SRH services utilisation. OUTCOME: SRH service utilisation. CONCLUSION: Although the overall SRH service utilization of young girls in rural Ethiopia was very low, HEWs have a great contribution to improving service utilization of young girls through strong health education provided during home visits, school visits and at health posts. More investment along this line has the potential to improve service uptake among young girls. Encouraging HEWs to build trust among this segment of the population and creating awareness of SRH-related services is crucial to improv service uptake.


Assuntos
Agentes Comunitários de Saúde , Serviços de Saúde Reprodutiva , Agentes Comunitários de Saúde/educação , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia , Feminino , Humanos , Saúde Reprodutiva , População Rural
3.
Cancer Control ; 29: 10732748221129708, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36151596

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Early testing and treatment is among the successful strategies for the prevention and control of cervical precancerous and invasive cancer, and a paramount for women with HIV. In Ethiopia, visual inspection with acetic acid for screening and cryotherapy treatment is commonly practiced, though the recurrence of the precancerous lesion after treatment has not been well documented. OBJECTIVE: This study was aimed to estimate the association of HIV status and the recurrence of cervical precancerous lesion after cryotherapy among Ethiopian women. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study from January to April 2021. The time to the incidence of recurrence was compared between HIV positive and HIV negative women. Cox regression models were used to adjust the analyses for potential confounders, and only women treated with cryotherapy after a positive Visual Inspection with Acetic acid (VIA) screening test were included. RESULTS: A total of 140 eligible patient cards were included in the analysis with the median follow-up of 15.5 months. The overall recurrence rate was 15.7% (22/140), with a greater proportion among HIV negative women, 19.0% (4/21) than HIV positive 15.1% (18/119). Prolonged use of corticosteroid and higher age were the major significant predictors of a higher likelihood of recurrence. The recurrence of screening positive lesion was higher among women aged above 39 years (hazard ratio (HR) of 11.94 (95% CI, 1.07-133.04; P = .04), and women with prolonged use of corticosteroid (HR = 7.82, 95% CI = 1.04-58.75; P = .046) than their counterparts. CONCLUSION: The recurrence of cervical precancerous lesion after cryotherapy was higher than the expert panel report by WHO with a higher proportion among women of old age and prolonged corticosteroid use. Cryotherapy showed a satisfying performance against the recurrence of cervical disease diagnosed through VIA. To substantiate, our findings, further prospective cohort study is also recommended.

4.
Cancer Control ; 29: 10732748221114980, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35829643

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of visual inspection with acetic acid compared with Human papillomavirus Deoxyribonucleic acid (HPV DNA) testing among women with HIV in Ethiopia. METHODS: A comparative cross-sectional study was conducted to address the aforementioned objective. Data were collected from January to October 2021, to compare the performance of these two screening modalities. Trained clinicians collected cervical specimens and immediately applied acetic acid for visual inspection. The HPV DNA testing was done using Abbott m2000rt/SP by trained laboratory professionals in accredited laboratories. A total of 578 women with HIV aged 25-49 years were included. RESULTS: Test positivity was 8.9% using visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) and 23.3% using HPV DNA test. The sensitivity and specificity of the VIA test were 19.2% and 95.1%, respectively. The strength of agreement between the two screening methods was poor (k = .184). The burden of genetic distribution of high risk HPV16 was 6.1%, and HPV18 was 1.1%. Other high risk HPV types (ie non-HPV 16/18 high risk HPV genotypes) were predominant in this study (18.6%). CONCLUSION: The higher positivity result using HPV DNA testing compared with VIA, and low sensitivity of VIA are indicating that the implementation of HPV DNA testing as the primary screening strategy is likely to reduce cervical cancer cases and deaths of women in the country.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Infecções por Papillomavirus , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero , Ácido Acético , Estudos Transversais , DNA Viral/genética , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/métodos , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Papillomavirus Humano 16 , Humanos , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Papillomaviridae/genética , Infecções por Papillomavirus/diagnóstico , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/diagnóstico
5.
PLoS One ; 17(6): e0268696, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35679258

RESUMO

Tuberculosis (TB) is an important cause of morbidity and mortality among refugees and migrant populations. These groups are among the most vulnerable populations at increased risk of developing TB. However, there is no systematic review that attempts to summarize TB among refugees and migrant populations. This study aimed to summarize evidence on the magnitude of TB among refugees and migrant populations. The findings of this review will provide evidence to improve TB prevention and control policies in refugees and migrants in refugee camps and in migrant-hosting countries. A systematic search was done to retrieve the articles published from 2014 to 2021 in English language from electronic databases. Key searching terms were used in both free text and Medical Subject Heading (MeSH). Articles which had reported the magnitude of TB among refugees and migrant populations were included in the review. We assessed the risk of bias, and quality of the included studies with a modified version of the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS). Included studies which had reported incidence or prevalence data were eligible for data synthesis. The results were shown as summary tables. In the present review, more than 3 million refugees and migrants were screened for TB with the data collection period between 1991 and 2017 among the included studies. The incidence and prevalence of TB ranged from 19 to 754 cases per 100,000 population and 18.7 to 535 cases per 100,000 population respectively among the included studies. The current findings show that the most reported countries of origin in TB cases among refugees and migrants were from Asia and Africa; and the incidence and prevalence of TB among refugees and migrant populations is higher than in the host countries. This implies the need to implement and improve TB prevention and control in refugees and migrant populations globally. Trial registration: The protocol of this review was registered on PROSPERO (International prospective register of systematic reviews) with ID number, CRD42020157619.


Assuntos
Refugiados , Migrantes , Tuberculose , Humanos , Incidência , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto , Tuberculose/epidemiologia , Tuberculose/prevenção & controle
6.
Heliyon ; 8(5): e09478, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35647341

RESUMO

Background: Majority of people in Ethiopia heavily rely on traditional medicinal plants to treat a number of diseases including tuberculosis (TB). However, there has been lack of comprehensive evidences on taxonomic distribution of medicinal plant species, methods of preparation of remedies from these plants and how the remedies are administered. This systematic review is designed to examine and synthesize available evidences focusing on medicinal plants that have been used for TB treatment in Ethiopia. Methods: Research findings related to ethno-botanical and pharmacological approaches of TB remedies were retrieved from databases. Electronic libraries of Ethiopian Universities and relevant church-based religious books were also reviewed as additional sources. Evidences are searched and organized in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guideline. Result: From a total of 68 research documents that reported use of plants for treatment of TB 98 plants species belonging to 82 genera and 49 families were identified. The most frequently reported plant species belonged to family Lamiaceae (n = 8), Euphorbiaceae (n = 7), Cucurbitaceae (n = 6) and Fabaceae (n = 6). Croton macrostachyus, Allium sativum, and Myrsine Africana were the most often mentioned anti-TB medicinal plants. Shrubs (35.7%) and trees (29.6%) were reported as dominant growth forms while plant roots (31.6%) and leaves (28.6%) were frequently used plant parts for the preparations of the treatment. The most favored administration route was oral (59.1%). About 87% of the preparations were made from fresh plant materials. No experimental/clinical evidence was presented for 79.6%(78/98) of the reported plants to support their anti-mycobacterial activities. Conclusion: In Ethiopia, the number of herbal remedies is enormous and their use for TB treatment is a common practice. However, majority of them are not yet backed up by evidence generated through scientific experimentation and this warrants further experimental and clinical validations. Moreover, the efficacy, toxicity and safety tests should be initiated and this would help in the rapid identification of new anti-TB regimens, and possibly it would lead to developing more effective new plant-based drugs. This systematic review will serve as a reference for the selection of plants for developing new anti-TB regimens.

7.
BMC Prim Care ; 23(1): 138, 2022 06 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35655164

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Much of the research about the validity of depression screening questionnaires is on criterion validity. Evidence is scarce on the concurrent, convergent and construct validity of these measures, particularly from low-income countries. This study aimed to evaluate the psychometric properties of depression screening questionnaires in primary healthcare (PHC) in rural Ethiopia. METHODS: A facility-based cross-sectional study was conducted with 587 participants recruited from patients attending three PHC facilities and two 'Holy water sites' (places where religious treatment is being provided). The psychometric properties of five mental health screening questionnaires were evaluated: the nine item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9), the two item version of PHQ-9 (PHQ-2), a version of PHQ-9 with two added items of irritability and noise intolerance (PHQ-11), the Patient Health Questionnaire-15 (PHQ-15), and the World Health Organization-Five Well-being Index (WHO-5). Clinical diagnosis of depression was ascertained by psychiatrists. We analyzed data using exploratory factor analysis, Spearman's rank order correlation coefficient (Rho), the Mann Whitney test of the equality of medians, univariate logistic regression and Cronbach's alpha. RESULTS: PHQ-9, PHQ-11 and WHO-5 were found to be unidimensional, with items in each scale highly loading onto one factor (factor loadings ranging from 0.64 to 0.87). The items of each instrument were internally consistent, with Cronbach's alpha ranging from 0.72 (PHQ-2) to 0.89 (PHQ-11). Scores for all screening scales were moderately or highly correlated with each other (Rho = 0.58 to 0.98) and moderately correlated with anxiety and disability scores. Median scores of all screening scales were significantly higher in those diagnosed with depression. The association of items measuring emotional and cognitive symptoms with the diagnosis of depression was stronger than the association with items measuring somatic symptoms. Irritability and noise intolerance had higher association with depression diagnosis than PHQ-9 items. CONCLUSION: Emotional and cognitive symptoms are more useful than somatic symptoms to predict the diagnosis of depression in the PHC context in Ethiopia. Future research should focus on testing the unidimensionality of PHQ-9, PHQ-11 and WHO-5 using confirmatory factor analysis; establishing the criterion validity of PHQ-11 and WHO-5; and on assessing test-retest reliability of all the measures.


Assuntos
Sintomas Inexplicáveis , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/diagnóstico , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Humor Irritável , Questionário de Saúde do Paciente , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
8.
Lancet Glob Health ; 10(4): e530-e542, 2022 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35303462

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Community-based rehabilitation (CBR) is recommended to address the social and clinical needs of people with schizophrenia in resource-poor settings. We evaluated the effectiveness of CBR at reducing disability at 12 months in people with schizophrenia who had disabling illness after having had the opportunity to access facility-based care for 6 months METHODS: This cluster-randomised controlled trial was conducted in a rural district of Ethiopia. Eligible clusters were subdistricts in Sodo district that had not participated in the pilot study. Available subdistricts were randomised (in a 1:1 ratio) to either the intervention group (CBR plus facility-based care) or to the control group (facility-based care alone). An optimisation procedure (accounting for the subdistrict mean WHO Disability Assessment Schedule (WHODAS) score and the potential number of participants per subdistrict) was applied for each of the eight health facilities in the district. An independent statistician, masked to the intervention or control label, used a computer programme to randomly choose the allocation sequence from the set of optimal ones. We recruited adults with disabling illness as a result of schizophrenia. The subdistricts were eligible for inclusion if they included participants that met the eligibility criteria. Researchers recruiting and assessing participants were masked to allocation status. Facility-based care was a task-shared model of mental health care integrated within primary care. CBR was delivered by lay workers over a 12-month period, comprising of home visits (psychoeducation, adherence support, family intervention, and crisis management) and community mobilisation. The primary outcome was disability, measured with the proxy-rated 36-item WHODAS score at 12 months. The subdistricts that had primary outcome data available were included in the primary analysis. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02160249. FINDINGS: Enrolment took place between Sept 16, 2015 and Mar 11, 2016. 54 subdistricts were randomised (27 to the CBR plus facility-based care group and 27 to the facility-based care group). After exclusion of subdistricts without eligible participants, we enrolled 79 participants (66% men and 34% women) from 24 subdistricts assigned to CBR plus facility-based care and 87 participants (59% men and 41% women) from 24 subdistricts assigned to facility-based care only. The primary analysis included 149 (90%) participants in 46 subdistricts (73 participants in 22 subdistricts in the CBR plus facility-based care group and 76 participants in 24 subdistricts in the facility-based care group). At 12 months, the mean WHODAS scores were 46·1 (SD 23·3) in the facility-based care group and 40·6 (22·5) in the CBR plus facility-based care group, indicating a favourable intervention effect (adjusted mean difference -8·13 [95% CI -15·85 to -0·40]; p=0·039; effect size 0·35). Four (5%) CBR plus facility-based care group participants and nine (10%) facility-based care group participants had one or more serious adverse events (death, suicide attempt, and hospitalisation). INTERPRETATION: CBR delivered by lay workers combined with task-shared facility-based care, was effective in reducing disability among people with schizophrenia. The RISE study CBR model is particularly relevant to low-income countries with few mental health specialists. FUNDING: Wellcome Trust.


Assuntos
Pessoas com Deficiência , Esquizofrenia , Adulto , Etiópia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde Mental , Projetos Piloto , Esquizofrenia/reabilitação
9.
Hum Resour Health ; 20(1): 20, 2022 02 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35183209

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Health Extension Program (HEP) is Ethiopia's flagship community health program, launched in 2003. Health Extension Workers (HEWs) are key vehicles for the delivery of the HEP. While it is believed that there is high attrition among HEWs, the magnitude of or reasons for attrition is unknown. Their intention to leave their jobs in the next 5 years has also never been investigated on a national scale. This study aimed to assess the magnitude of, and factors affecting HEWs' attrition and intention to leave in Ethiopia. METHODS: The study used mixed methods to address the research objectives. Using stratified random sampling and regions as strata, 85 districts from nine regions were randomly selected in Ethiopia. Within each study district, six kebeles (village clusters) were randomly selected, and all HEWs working in these kebeles were interviewed to capture their 5-year intention to leave. The study team developed a data-extraction tool for a rapid review of district-level documents covering the period June 30, 2004 through June 30, 2019 to gather their attrition figures. We used survival analysis to model attrition data and checked model goodness-of-fit using the Cox-Snell residual test. We additionally collected qualitative data from HEWs who had left their positions. RESULTS: The attrition of HEWS over the lifespan of the HEP was 21.1% (95% CI 17.5-25.3%), and the median time to exit from HEWs workforce was 5.8 years. The incidence rate was 3.1% [95% CI 2.8-3.4]. The risk of attrition was lower amongst HEWs with level four certifications, with children, and among those working in urban settings. By contrast, HEWs who were not certified with a certificate of competency (COC), who were deployed after 2008, and those who were diploma/degree holders were more likely to exit the HEWs workforce. The magnitude of intention to leave was 39.5% (95% CI 32.5-47%) and the primary reasons to leave were low incentives, dearth of career development opportunities (50.8%), high workload (24.2%), and other psychosocial factors (25%). CONCLUSION: Although the magnitude of attrition is not worryingly high, we see high magnitude in HEWs' intention to leave, indicating a dissatisfied workforce. Multiple factors have contributed to attrition and intention to leave, the prevalence of many of which can be reduced to fit the needs of this workforce and to retain them for the sustained delivery of primary healthcare in the country. Ensuring HEWs' job satisfaction is important and linked with their career development and potentially higher rates of retention.


Assuntos
Agentes Comunitários de Saúde , Intenção , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia , Mão de Obra em Saúde , Humanos
10.
BMJ Open ; 12(2): e050419, 2022 02 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35131819

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Globally, interest in excellence has grown exponentially, with public and private institutions shifting their attention from meeting targets to achieving excellence. Centres of Excellence (CoEs) are standing at the forefront of healthcare, research and innovations responding to the world's most complex problems. However, their potential is hindered by conceptual ambiguity. We conducted a global synthesis of the evidence to conceptualise CoEs. DESIGN: Scoping review, following Arksey and O'Malley's framework and methodological enhancement by Levac et al and the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses extension for Scoping Reviews. DATA SOURCES: PubMed, Scopus, CINAHL, Google Scholar and the Google engine until 1 January 2021. ELIGIBILITY: Articles that describe CoE as the main theme. RESULTS: The search resulted in 52 161 potential publications, with 78 articles met the eligibility criteria. The 78 articles were from 33 countries, of which 35 were from the USA, 3 each from Nigeria, South Africa, Spain and India, and 2 each from Ethiopia, Canada, Russia, Colombia, Sweden, Greece and Peru. The rest 17 were from various countries. The articles involved six thematic areas-healthcare, education, research, industry, information technology and general concepts on CoE. The analysis documented success stories of using the brand 'CoE'-an influential brand to stimulate best practices. We identified 12 essential foundations of CoE-specialised expertise; infrastructure; innovation; high-impact research; quality service; accreditation or standards; leadership; organisational structure; strategy; collaboration and partnership; sustainable funding or financial mechanisms; and entrepreneurship. CONCLUSIONS: CoEs have significant scientific, political, economic and social impacts. However, there are inconsistent use and self-designation of the brand without approval by an independent, external process of evaluation and with high ambiguity between 'CoEs' and the ordinary 'institutions' or 'centres'. A comprehensive framework is needed to guide and inspire an institution as a CoE and to help government and funding institutions shape and oversee CoEs.


Assuntos
Atenção à Saúde , Instalações de Saúde , Etiópia , Humanos , Liderança , Nigéria
11.
Syst Rev ; 11(1): 21, 2022 02 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35123556

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Depression is one of the commonest mental disorders in primary care but is poorly identified. The objective of this review was to determine the level of detection of depression by primary care clinicians and its determinants in studies from low- to middle-income countries (LMICs). METHODS: A systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted using PubMed, PsycINFO, MEDLINE, EMBASE, LILAC, and AJOL with no restriction of year of publication. Risk of bias within studies was evaluated with the Effective Public Health Practice Project (EPHPP). "Gold standard" diagnosis for the purposes of this review was based on the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9; cutoff scores of 5 and 10), other standard questionnaires and interview scales or expert diagnosis. Meta-analysis was conducted excluding studies on special populations. Analyses of pooled data were stratified by diagnostic approaches. RESULTS: A total of 3159 non-duplicate publications were screened. Nine publications, 2 multi-country studies, and 7 single-country studies, making 12 country-level reports, were included. Overall methodological quality of the studies was good. Depression detection was 0.0% in four of the twelve reports and < 12% in another five. PHQ-9 was the main tool used: the pooled detection in two reports that used PHQ-9 at a cutoff point of 5 (combined sample size = 1426) was 3.9% (95% CI = 2.3%, 5.5%); in four reports that used PHQ-9 cutoff score of 10 (combined sample size = 5481), the pooled detection was 7.0% (95% CI = 3.9%, 10.2%). Severity of depression and suicidality were significantly associated with detection. CONCLUSIONS: While the use of screening tools is an important limitation, the extremely low detection of depression by primary care clinicians poses a serious threat to scaling up mental healthcare in LMICs. Interventions to improve detection should be prioritized. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO CRD42016039704 .


Assuntos
Depressão , Países em Desenvolvimento , Depressão/diagnóstico , Humanos , Renda , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Inquéritos e Questionários
12.
Reprod Health ; 19(1): 15, 2022 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35062951

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ethiopia is striving to reduce unmet need for family planning (FP) and implementation of the health extension program (HEP) is one of the major actions that the country took to address health issues of rural communities including FP. However, there is limited published evidence demonstrating the role of HEP in reducing the unmet need of married rural women for FP. The aim of this study is to estimate the role of HEP in reducing unmet need for FP in rural Ethiopia. METHODS: This paper is based on data extracted from a national rural HEP assessment that covered all regions of Ethiopia. We identified 4991 eligible married women both from agrarian and pastoralist settings. The role of HEP was measured by the exposure of eligible women to FP services through the implementation of HEP packages. We used descriptive statistics to summarize different variables and used logistic regression to model the unmet need for FP. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of unmet need for FP among married rural Ethiopian women was 22.41%, contraceptive prevalence rate (CPR) was 44.60%, and the total demand for FP was 60.86%. Women exposed to HEP had a lower level of unmet need (4.82%), a higher demand for FP (37.78%) and a higher CPR (24.93%) compared to women unexposed to HEP. Having exposure to FP services (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 0.46, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.37-0.59), having level IV Health Extension Workers (HEWs) in the catchment health post (AOR = 0.80, 95% CI 0.67-0.95) and older age are significantly associated with lower levels of unmet need for FP. Having more children (AOR = 2.11, 95% CI 1.67-2.65) and better awareness of the husband about the availability of FP services (AOR = 1.22, 95% CI 1.01-1.48) were associated with a higher likelihood of an unmet need for FP. CONCLUSION: The unmet need for family planning is high in rural Ethiopia in general and among women who do not have exposure to HEP packages in particular. Assigning a better-qualified health worker at the health post, reaching out to pastoralist women, maximizing opportunities to counsel rural women about FP during any contact with HEWs, and increasing positive attitudes of husbands towards FP use are likely to have positive impacts in reducing the unmet need for FP of rural women.


Family planning is a method that couples can use to limit the number of child or space the gap. Unmet need for family planning is defined as the percentage of reproductive age women who wants to space or limit the number of children but not currently using any family planning method. There is a huge proportion of eligible women have an unmet need for family planning in Ethiopia. The health extension program is one of the strategies to reach rural women to improve the health of the community. Although, family planning service is one of the packages in a health extension program and this study aimed to estimate the role of health extension program in reducing unmet need for family planning. About 4991 married women were asked about the family planning use, need and the place where they get the services. During the assessment the role of health extension program was assessed by different question. Some of the major assessment areas were women exposer to service, service availability, awareness and mode of service delivery. One fourth of the women have unmet need for family planning. The family planning utilization is still low. The contribution of the health extension program in family planning service is significant. Women exposed to HEP through level 4 health extension worker and older age are significantly associated with low level of unmet need FP. The unmet need for family planning is high in rural Ethiopia. This will inform the improvement and sustainability of the program.


Assuntos
Serviços de Planejamento Familiar , População Rural , Idoso , Criança , Comportamento Contraceptivo , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia , Feminino , Humanos
13.
Trop Med Int Health ; 27(3): 251-261, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35080279

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether maternal common mental disorders (CMD) in the postnatal period are prospectively associated with child development at 2.5 and 3.5 years in a rural low-income African setting. METHODS: This study was nested within the C-MaMiE (Child outcomes in relation to Maternal Mental health in Ethiopia) population-based cohort in Butajira, Ethiopia, and conducted from 2005 to 2006. The sample comprised of 496 women who had recently given birth to living, singleton babies with recorded birth weight measurements, who were 15 to 44 years of age, and residing in six rural sub-districts. Postnatal CMD measurements were ascertained 2 months after delivery. Language, cognitive, and motor development were obtained from the child 2.5 and 3.5 years after birth using a locally adapted version of the Bayley Scales of Infant Development (3rd Ed). Maternal CMD symptoms were measured using a locally validated WHO Self-Reporting Questionnaire. A linear mixed-effects regression model was used to analyze the relationship between postnatal CMD and child development. RESULTS: After adjusting for confounders, there was no evidence for an association between postnatal CMD and overall child development or the cognitive sub-domain in the preschool period. There was no evidence of effect modification by levels of social support, socioeconomic status, stunting, or sex of the child. CONCLUSIONS: Previous studies from predominantly urban and peri-urban settings in middle-income countries have established a relationship between maternal CMD and child development, which contrasts with the findings from this study. The risk and protective factors for child development may differ in areas characterized by high social adversity and food insecurity. More studies are needed to investigate maternal CMD's impact on child development in low-resource and rural areas.


Assuntos
Doenças do Recém-Nascido , Transtornos Mentais , Criança , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Transtornos Mentais/etiologia , Gravidez , População Rural
14.
J Subst Abuse Treat ; 132: 108636, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34716037

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite global recommendations that brief, task-shared interventions are effective for addressing problematic alcohol use in primary health care (PHC), low-income countries have made few attempts to implement and scale-up these interventions. AIM: To explore perspectives and experiences of service users and providers on a brief intervention (BI) for alcohol use disorders (AUDs) delivered by nonspecialist health workers who are health officers and clinical nurses in PHC in a rural Ethiopian district. METHODS: The study team conducted a qualitative study, comprising in-depth interviews with 26 purposively selected participants. The participants were 14 people who had been screened for probable AUD and were receiving the brief intervention; four caregivers without any intervention; and eight nonspecialist health workers who provided a single session brief intervention at four primary care health centers in Sodo district, south Ethiopia. The study used framework analysis. We grouped findings into five themes: acceptability, engagement in and barriers to care, implementation of the service, perceived impact of the BI, and unmet needs and expectations. RESULTS: Participants perceived the intervention to be useful, and it was well-accepted by most service users and relatives. Participants reported reductions in alcohol consumption and benefits in terms of their capacity to work, increased earnings, less money wasted, and ability to provide for their families. However, most did not attend follow-up visits, often influenced by the belief that they did not have a serious problem and could handle it alone. Some did not believe AUDs to be treatable; others did not attend because of lack of money for transportation and stigma from peers. Providing BI did not affect PHC workers' routine work. However, they noticed a reluctance from people with probable AUD to speak openly about their drinking, and they were constrained by a shortage of space. They recommended training and involvement from community members, leaders, and health extension workers to raise awareness, increase acceptability, refer cases, and reduce stigma. CONCLUSION: The brief intervention that nonspecialist health workers in PHC delivered was acceptable, feasible, and perceived to have positive benefits. To extend the impact of the intervention, the community needs to be involved to address low awareness and to tackle stigma.


Assuntos
Alcoolismo , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Alcoolismo/terapia , Intervenção na Crise , Humanos , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Estigma Social
15.
Lancet Psychiatry ; 9(1): 59-71, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34921796

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There have been no trials of task-shared care (TSC) using WHO's mental health Gap Action Programme for people with severe mental disorders (psychosis or affective disorder) in low-income or middle-income countries. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of TSC compared with enhanced specialist mental health care in rural Ethiopia. METHODS: In this single-blind, phase 3, randomised, controlled, non-inferiority trial, participants had a confirmed diagnosis of a severe mental disorder, recruited from either the community or a local outpatient psychiatric clinic. The intervention was TSC, delivered by supervised, non-physician primary health care workers trained in the mental health Gap Action Programme and working with community health workers. The active comparison group was outpatient psychiatric nurse care augmented with community lay workers (PSY). Our primary endpoint was whether TSC would be non-inferior to PSY at 12 months for the primary outcome of clinical symptom severity using the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale, Expanded version (BPRS-E; non-inferiority margin of 6 points). Randomisation was stratified by health facility using random permuted blocks. Independent clinicians allocated groups using sealed envelopes with concealment and outcome assessors and investigators were masked. We analysed the primary outcome in the modified intention-to-treat group and safety in the per-protocol group. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02308956. FINDINGS: We recruited participants between March 13, 2015 and May 21, 2016. We randomly assigned 329 participants (111 female and 218 male) who were aged 25-72 years and were predominantly of Gurage (198 [60%]), Silte (58 [18%]), and Mareko (53 [16%]) ethnicity. Five participants were found to be ineligible after randomisation, giving a modified intention-to-treat sample of 324. Of these, 12-month assessments were completed in 155 (98%) of 158 in the TSC group and in 158 (95%) of 166 in the PSY group. For the primary outcome, there was no evidence of inferiority of TSC compared with PSY. The mean BPRS-E score was 27·7 (SD 4·7) for TSC and 27·8 (SD 4·6) for PSY, with an adjusted mean difference of 0·06 (90% CI -0·80 to 0·89). Per-protocol analyses (n=291) were similar. There were 47 serious adverse events (18 in the TSC group, 29 in the PSY group), affecting 28 participants. These included 17 episodes of perpetrated violence and seven episodes of violent victimisation leading to injury, ten suicide attempts, six hospital admissions for physical health conditions, four psychiatric admissions, and three deaths (one in the TSC group, two in the PSY group). The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio for TSC indicated lower cost of -US$299·82 (95% CI -454·95 to -144·69) per unit increase in BPRS-E scores from a health care sector perspective at 12 months. INTERPRETATION: WHO's mental health Gap Action Programme for people with severe mental disorders is as cost-effective as existing specialist models of care and can be implemented effectively and safely by supervised non-specialists in resource-poor settings. FUNDING: US National Institute of Mental Health.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais/economia , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Serviços de Saúde Mental/economia , Serviços de Saúde Mental/organização & administração , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Adulto , Idoso , Análise Custo-Benefício , Etiópia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Desenvolvimento de Programas , População Rural , Método Simples-Cego , Organização Mundial da Saúde
16.
Psychol Res Behav Manag ; 14: 1901-1913, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34866943

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Socio-culturally determined processes account for how individuals give meanings to health, illness, causal attributions, expectations from treatment, and related outcomes. There is limited evidence of explanatory models for mental distress among higher education institutions in Ethiopia. The objective of this study was to explore the explanatory models for mental distress among Wolaita Sodo University. METHODS: The current study used a phenomenological research approach, and we collected data from 21 students. The participants were purposively recruited based on eligibility criteria. Semi-structured interviews were conducted from December 2017 to January 2018 using the Short Explanatory Models Interview. The interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed into the Amharic language and translated into English. Data were analyzed using framework analysis with the assistance of open code software 4.02. RESULTS: Most students experienced symptoms of being anxious, fatigue, headaches and feelings of hopelessness. They labeled these symptoms like anxiety or stress. The most commonly reported causal explanations were psychosocial factors. Students perceived that their anxiety or stress was severe that mainly affected their mind, which in turn impacted their interactions with others, academic result, emotions and motivation to study. Almost all the students received care from informal sources, although they wanted to receive care from mental health professionals. They managed their mental distress using positive as well as negative coping strategies. CONCLUSION: The policy implication of our findings is that mental health interventions in higher education institutions in Ethiopia should take into account the explanatory models of students' psychological distress.

17.
J Multidiscip Healthc ; 14: 3369-3383, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34916799

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the current study area, the burden of morbidities associated with S. mansoni, soil-transmitted helminths (STHs), asymptomatic malaria, and hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections and co-infection has not been known for the last 20 years. This necessitated a systematic investigation of the status of these infections and their associated morbidities in the lowland areas of the Abbey and Didessa Valleys in Western Ethiopia. METHODS: We used a cross-sectional study design in three schistosomiasis endemic areas. Systematic random sampling and simple random sampling techniques were used to select households and one study participant from each household. Each selected and consented participants were give stool sample for S. mansoni and soil-transmitted helminths screening using duplicate kato-Katz technique; blood sample for screen of asymptomatic malaria using malaria rapid diagnostic test and microscopy and hepatitis B virus using hepatitis B surface antigen kit and anthropometric measurement to assess nutritional status and digital hemoglobin meter to measure hemoglobin and interviewed using structured questionnaire to assess factors associated with infections. A descriptive statistic to summarize the data and a chi-square test, Fisher's exact test, and binary logistic regression models were used to see the associations. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of studied infections was 74.5%. It was highest for Schistosoma mansoni (53.9%), followed by asymptomatic Plasmodium falciparum infection (23.6%). The prevalence of Schistosoma mansoni co-infection with asymptomatic malaria was 8.6%, Schistosoma mansoni and soil-transmitted helminths co-infection was 6.2%, and the seroprevalence of hepatitis B virus was 2.9%. About half (49.9%) of the study participants were undernourished and about a quarter (24.4%) were anemic. Age group, the younger age group and infection status, those with multiple infections were more anemic and commonly undernourished. CONCLUSION: There was a high prevalence of infections in the study area. Morbidities such as undernutrition and anemia were still prominent public health problems. There was a significant association between infection status and undernutrition and anemia.

18.
BMC Psychiatry ; 21(1): 620, 2021 12 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34895175

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Globally, the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) is higher among patients with schizophrenia than the general population, and this leads to higher morbidity and mortality in this population. The aim of this study was to investigate the MetS prevalence among patients with schizophrenia in Ethiopia. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of baseline data of 200 patients with schizophrenia recruited from Amanuel Mental Specialized Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Lipid profile and blood glucose levels were measured using Roche Cobas 6000 clinical chemistry analyzer. The prevalence of MetS was assessed based on National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III criteria. Patients' demographic information, clinical and laboratory data, lifestyle habits, particularly smoking and Khat chewing, were evaluated vis-à-vis MetS. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of MetS in patients with schizophrenia was 21.5% (17.1% male, 29.6% female) where Low HDL-cholesterol value was the most common metabolic disorders components in both males and females subgroups. In the multivariate analysis, the positive and negative symptoms score (PANSS, AOR = 1.03, 95% CI 1.001-1.054) was associated factors with MetS. CONCLUSION: In Ethiopia, patients with schizophrenia were found to have higher prevalence of MetS than the general population. Physicians/health care providers should routinely screen patients with schizophrenia for MetS and initiate timely management of those who develop the syndrome to reduce the health cost from caring for NCDs, improve the patients' quality of life, and prevent premature mortality.


Assuntos
Síndrome Metabólica , Esquizofrenia , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Qualidade de Vida , Fatores de Risco , Esquizofrenia/epidemiologia
19.
Infect Ecol Epidemiol ; 11(1): 1988453, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34745448

RESUMO

In this study, we assessed community awareness and experiences of health workers about mosquito-borne viral diseases in selected districts of the Gambella Region, South Western Ethiopia. A community and health facility-based qualitative study involving 11 focus group discussions (FGDs) with community dmembers and two FGDs with health workers was conducted between November 2017 to January 2018. A total of 122 community members and 16 health workers participated in the study. All the discussants mentioned malaria, typhoid fever, unknown causes of diarrhea and skin diseases as the major public health problems in the area. Using pictures of Anopheles and Aedes mosquitoes, participants confirmed that both mosquitoes are present in the area. They identified Anopheles as the vector of malaria. However, community discussants could not mention the name of a disease that can be transmitted by Aedes mosquito though they mentioned that Aedes mosquito bites both humans and animals during the day time in forest areas and causes skin itching to humans. Meanwhile, community participants from Pakag, a village bordering South Sudan, expressed concern that Aedes mosquito can cause a malaria-like disease which can kill within a few days. Health workers from Itang health center described that in 2016, an outbreak of an unknown disease that causes fever and jaundice occurred and killed seven individuals in a village called Akula, which is closer to a South Sudan refugee camp. Overall, the findings showed that community members and health workers in the area do not have adequate information on mosquito-borne viral diseases. Creating awareness, improving laboratory services and further epidemiological studies would be important for early warning and preparedness for outbreaks in the area.

20.
Reprod Health ; 18(1): 220, 2021 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34742315

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The ministry of health (MOH) of Ethiopia recommends 4 or more focused antenatal care (ANC) visits at health centre (HC) or at a higher level of health facility (HF). In Ethiopia, few studies investigated time dimension of maternal health continuum of care but lack data regarding place dimension and its effect on continuum of care. The aim of this study is to estimate effect of place of ANC-1 visit and adherence to MOH's recommendations of MOH for ANC visits on continuum of care rural in Ethiopia. METHODS: We used data collected from 1431 eligible women included in the National Health Extension Program (HEP) assessment survey that covered 6324 households from 62 woredas in nine regions. The main outcome variable is continuum of care (CoC), which is the uptake of all recommended ANC visits, institutional delivery and postnatal care services. Following descriptive analysis, Propensity Score Matching was used to estimate the effect of place of ANC-1 visit on completion of CoC. Zero inflated Poisson regression was used to model the effect of adherence to MOH recommendation of ANC visits on intensity of maternal health continuum of care. RESULT: Only 13.9% of eligible women completed the continuum of care, and place of first antenatal care (ANC) visit was not significantly associated with the completion of continuum of care (ß = 0.04, 95% CI = -0.02, 0.09). Adherence of ANC visit to the MOH recommendation (at least 4 ANC visits at higher HFs than health posts (HPs)) increased the likelihood of higher intensity of continuum of care (aIRR = 1.29, 95% CI: 1.26, 1.33). Moreover, the intensity of continuum of care was positively associated with being in agrarian areas (aIRR = 1.17, 95% CI: 1.06, 1.29), exposed to HEP (IRR = 1.22, 95% CI: 1.16, 1.28), being informed about danger signs (aIRR = 1.14, 95% CI: 1.11, 1.18) and delivery of second youngest child at HF (IRR = 1.16, 95% CI: 1.13, 1.20). Increasing age of women was negatively associated with use of services (IRR = 0.90, 95% CI: 0.87, 0.94). CONCLUSION: Completion of maternal health continuum of care is very low in Ethiopia, however most of the women use at least one of the services. Completion of continuum of care was not affected by place of first ANC visit. Adherence to MOH recommendation of ANC visit increased the intensity of continuum of care. Intensity of continuum of care was positively associated with residing in agrarian areas, HEP exposure, danger sign told, delivery of second youngest child at health facility. To boost the uptake of all maternal health services, it is crucial to work on quality of health facilities, upgrading the infrastructures of HPs and promoting adherence to MOH recommendations of ANC visit.


Maternal health continuum of care is an integrated service delivery of antenatal care, facility delivery and postnatal care on appropriate time and place. Continuum of care averts more maternal mortality than individual service provision. In Ethiopia a small percent of women complete continuum of care. Previous studies in Ethiopia explored the effect of time on CoC, however the effect of place of service delivery on subsequent continuum of care were not addressed. This study, therefore, assessed the effect of place of service delivery on completion of subsequent continuum of care using data from 1431 fixed cohort of women during the National HEP assessment survey.The proportion of women who took all essential maternal health services was very low. Whether first antenatal care is at health post or at health centre did not have a significant effect on the completion of maternal health continuum of care. Adherence to the existing recommendations of Ministry of Health for antenatal care visit increases the uptake of maternal health continuum of care. Better completion of maternal health services was observed in agrarian than pastoralist areas, among those who have exposure to health extension program, who have information about danger signs, and who deliver their previous child at health facility. We can conclude that good implementation of the health extension program, and improving service quality at health facilities increase the uptakes of maternal health service. Moreover, promoting adherence of women to the ministry of health ANC recommendations increase uptakes.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde Materna , Cuidado Pré-Natal , Etiópia , Feminino , Instalações de Saúde , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , População Rural
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