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1.
Curr Biol ; 2021 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33548192

RESUMO

The green alga Ostreobium is an important coral holobiont member, playing key roles in skeletal decalcification and providing photosynthate to bleached corals that have lost their dinoflagellate endosymbionts. Ostreobium lives in the coral's skeleton, a low-light environment with variable pH and O2 availability. We present the Ostreobium nuclear genome and a metatranscriptomic analysis of healthy and bleached corals to improve our understanding of Ostreobium's adaptations to its extreme environment and its roles as a coral holobiont member. The Ostreobium genome has 10,663 predicted protein-coding genes and shows adaptations for life in low and variable light conditions and other stressors in the endolithic environment. This alga presents a rich repertoire of light-harvesting complex proteins but lacks many genes for photoprotection and photoreceptors. It also has a large arsenal of genes for oxidative stress response. An expansion of extracellular peptidases suggests that Ostreobium may supplement its energy needs by feeding on the organic skeletal matrix, and a diverse set of fermentation pathways allows it to live in the anoxic skeleton at night. Ostreobium depends on other holobiont members for vitamin B12, and our metatranscriptomes identify potential bacterial sources. Metatranscriptomes showed Ostreobium becoming a dominant agent of photosynthesis in bleached corals and provided evidence for variable responses among coral samples and different Ostreobium genotypes. Our work provides a comprehensive understanding of the adaptations of Ostreobium to its extreme environment and an important genomic resource to improve our comprehension of coral holobiont resilience, bleaching, and recovery.

2.
ISME J ; 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33452473

RESUMO

The symbiosis between scleractinian corals and photosynthetic algae from the family Symbiodiniaceae underpins the health and productivity of tropical coral reef ecosystems. While this photosymbiotic association has been extensively studied in shallow waters (<30 m depth), we do not know how deeper corals, inhabiting large and vastly underexplored mesophotic coral ecosystems, modulate their symbiotic associations to grow in environments that receive less than 1% of surface irradiance. Here we report on the deepest photosymbiotic scleractinian corals collected to date (172 m depth), and use amplicon sequencing to identify the associated symbiotic communities. The corals, identified as Leptoseris hawaiiensis, were confirmed to host Symbiodiniaceae, predominantly of the genus Cladocopium, a single species of endolithic algae from the genus Ostreobium, and diverse communities of prokaryotes. Our results expand the reported depth range of photosynthetic scleractinian corals (0-172 m depth), and provide new insights on their symbiotic associations at the lower depth extremes of tropical coral reefs.

3.
ACS Biomater Sci Eng ; 6(10): 5377-5398, 2020 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33320564

RESUMO

The functions of secreted animal mucuses are remarkably diverse and include lubricants, wet adhesives, protective barriers, and mineralizing agents. Although present in all animals, many open questions related to the hierarchical architectures, material properties, and genetics of mucus remain. Here, we summarize what is known about secreted mucus structure, describe the work of research groups throughout the world who are investigating various animal mucuses, and relate how these studies are revealing new mucus properties and the relationships between mucus hierarchical structure and hydrogel function. Finally, we call for a more systematic approach to studying animal mucuses so that data sets can be compared, omics-style, to address unanswered questions in the emerging field of mucomics. One major result that we anticipate from these efforts is design rules for creating new materials that are inspired by the structures and functions of animal mucuses.

4.
Allergy ; 2020 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33043475

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epinephrine is the first-line treatment for anaphylaxis. Patients at risk should always carry an epinephrine autoinjector (EAI). Several EAI gaps have been identified. We sought to evaluate satisfaction using a medical device (digital technology comprising an EAI smart case connected to a mobile APP) with functions that overcome most of the EAI limitations and to determine whether patient behaviour and anaphylaxis management improve with its use. METHODS: This was a randomized, open-label, crossover clinical trial in a tertiary hospital involving patients with history of anaphylaxis carrying an EAI. The study was conducted in two three-month periods, one with and one without the medical device. The primary endpoint was satisfaction with the medical device. Usability, adherence, anxiety and anaphylaxis episodes were evaluated as secondary endpoints. RESULTS: A total of 100 patients were included (mean age 38.1 years, 74% female), and 95 completed the trial. The satisfaction visual analogue scale (VAS) after using the medical device was higher than before its use (89.1 [95% CI, 60.2-99.1] vs 56.3 [95% CI, 48.1-81.4]; P < .0001). The adherence VAS improved from 59.7 (95% CI, 54.0-65.3) to 88.6 (95% CI, 84.2-92.9) (P < .0001). Overall, 90% patients found the medical device easy to use. Patients' anxiety decreased from 52.2% to 29.3% (P < .001). Seven episodes of anaphylaxis occurred during the study, all in patients without the medical device (P = .025). Eighty-eight per cent of patients felt more involved in the management of anaphylaxis when using the medical device. CONCLUSION: This is the first clinical trial evaluating digital technology for EAIs, showing a change of behaviour in patients at risk of anaphylaxis, increasing satisfaction, improving adherence, and reducing anxiety, with good usability.

5.
Cureus ; 12(7): e9350, 2020 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32850222

RESUMO

Unclassified mixed germ cell-sex cord-stromal tumor (UMGC-SCST) is a rare ovarian neoplasm composed of germ cells and sex cord elements, which occurs in genetically and phenotypically normal women without the usual histological features seen in gonadoblastoma. Few cases have been reported in the literature so far. The age of presentation is more frequent in girls younger than 10 years of age, although it can also occur in adult women. It can be associated with isosexual pseudoprecocity. The preferred management is the resection of the gonad that contains the tumor and the conservation of the opposite ovary and tube. This is a case of a 14-year-old patient, with precocious puberty and normal phenotype, diagnosed with this kind of ovarian tumor. A fertility preserving surgery with the resection of the right ovarian tumor and tube was performed. The patient was classified as stage IA according to the 2014 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO). She received adjuvant chemotherapy with bleomycin-etoposide-cisplatin for three cycles. After a follow-up of 24 months, she was found to be asymptomatic and free of relapse.

6.
Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci ; 375(1808): 20190591, 2020 09 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32772672

RESUMO

This review explores how microbial symbioses may have influenced and continue to influence the evolution of reef-building corals (Cnidaria; Scleractinia). The coral holobiont comprises a diverse microbiome including dinoflagellate algae (Dinophyceae; Symbiodiniaceae), bacteria, archaea, fungi and viruses, but here we focus on the Symbiodiniaceae as knowledge of the impact of other microbial symbionts on coral evolution is scant. Symbiosis with Symbiodiniaceae has extended the coral's metabolic capacity through metabolic handoffs and horizontal gene transfer (HGT) and has contributed to the ecological success of these iconic organisms. It necessitated the prior existence or the evolution of a series of adaptations of the host to attract and select the right symbionts, to provide them with a suitable environment and to remove disfunctional symbionts. Signatures of microbial symbiosis in the coral genome include HGT from Symbiodiniaceae and bacteria, gene family expansions, and a broad repertoire of oxidative stress response and innate immunity genes. Symbiosis with Symbiodiniaceae has permitted corals to occupy oligotrophic waters as the algae provide most corals with the majority of their nutrition. However, the coral-Symbiodiniaceae symbiosis is sensitive to climate warming, which disrupts this intimate relationship, causing coral bleaching, mortality and a worldwide decline of coral reefs. This article is part of the theme issue 'The role of the microbiome in host evolution'.

7.
Rev Fac Cien Med Univ Nac Cordoba ; 77(1): 24-32, 2020 03 17.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32238255

RESUMO

AIM: The objective of this study was to know temporal, socio-demographic and diagnostic features of psychologically assisted patients at the General Emergency Service of the major hospital in Jujuy. METHODS: The study was transversal (01/20/2018 to 09/13/2018). Temporal, socio-demographic and diagnostic variables (according to ICD-10) were analyzed in 657 cases. For data analysis RStudio was used. Frequencies and descriptive statistics were reported. We evaluated differences in age according to sex (women-men) and according to age categories (adolescents-adults) with Wilcoxon Test, and differences in diagnostic clusters according to sex and age with Kruskal-Wallis Test. The type I error was set at ≤ 0.05. RESULTS: Cases assisted during weekends prevailed. From the total, 57.53% were women. The mean age in both sexes was 34.35 years (±15.08; Median = 32). A decreasing pattern of cases from younger to older age groups were found. There were no differences in age according to sex (p-value = 0.22), but they were differences according to age categories (p-value < 0.001). Cases with single marital status and employment were prevalent. The prevalent general diagnostic groups were: Neurotic, stress-related and somatoform disorders (31.51%); Disorders due to psychoactive substance use (12.48%); Intentional self-harm (10.20%); Assault (9.59%). CONCLUSIONS: We present the first diagnostic profile of mental health emergency-assisted casuistry in Jujuy. We highlight the need to design prevention strategies for alcohol and other psychoactive substances related disorders, aimed primarily at adolescents and young people. We discuss further implications of the results.


Assuntos
Serviços de Emergência Psiquiátrica/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Admissão do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Argentina/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/diagnóstico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estações do Ano , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto Jovem
8.
Microbiome ; 7(1): 159, 2019 12 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31831078

RESUMO

Coral microbial ecology is a burgeoning field, driven by the urgency of understanding coral health and slowing reef loss due to climate change. Coral resilience depends on its microbiota, and both the tissue and the underlying skeleton are home to a rich biodiversity of eukaryotic, bacterial and archaeal species that form an integral part of the coral holobiont. New techniques now enable detailed studies of the endolithic habitat, and our knowledge of the skeletal microbial community and its eco-physiology is increasing rapidly, with multiple lines of evidence for the importance of the skeletal microbiota in coral health and functioning. Here, we review the roles these organisms play in the holobiont, including nutritional exchanges with the coral host and decalcification of the host skeleton. Microbial metabolism causes steep physico-chemical gradients in the skeleton, creating micro-niches that, along with dispersal limitation and priority effects, define the fine-scale microbial community assembly. Coral bleaching causes drastic changes in the skeletal microbiome, which can mitigate bleaching effects and promote coral survival during stress periods, but may also have detrimental effects. Finally, we discuss the idea that the skeleton may function as a microbial reservoir that can promote recolonization of the tissue microbiome following dysbiosis and help the coral holobiont return to homeostasis.


Assuntos
Antozoários/microbiologia , Recifes de Corais , Microbiota/fisiologia , Animais , Archaea/classificação , Bactérias/classificação , Biodiversidade
9.
Gigascience ; 8(7)2019 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31257419

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Anthozoa, Endocnidozoa, and Medusozoa are the 3 major clades of Cnidaria. Medusozoa is further divided into 4 clades, Hydrozoa, Staurozoa, Cubozoa, and Scyphozoa-the latter 3 lineages make up the clade Acraspeda. Acraspeda encompasses extraordinary diversity in terms of life history, numerous nuisance species, taxa with complex eyes rivaling other animals, and some of the most venomous organisms on the planet. Genomes have recently become available within Scyphozoa and Cubozoa, but there are currently no published genomes within Staurozoa and Cubozoa. FINDINGS: Here we present 3 new draft genomes of Calvadosia cruxmelitensis (Staurozoa), Alatina alata (Cubozoa), and Cassiopea xamachana (Scyphozoa) for which we provide a preliminary orthology analysis that includes an inventory of their respective venom-related genes. Additionally, we identify synteny between POU and Hox genes that had previously been reported in a hydrozoan, suggesting this linkage is highly conserved, possibly dating back to at least the last common ancestor of Medusozoa, yet likely independent of vertebrate POU-Hox linkages. CONCLUSIONS: These draft genomes provide a valuable resource for studying the evolutionary history and biology of these extraordinary animals, and for identifying genomic features underlying venom, vision, and life history traits in Acraspeda.


Assuntos
Cnidários/genética , Genoma , Animais , Cnidários/classificação , Venenos de Cnidários/genética , Venenos de Cnidários/metabolismo , Filogenia , Sintenia , Transcriptoma
10.
Front Plant Sci ; 10: 216, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30863420

RESUMO

The formation of fruits is an important step in the life cycle of flowering plants. The process of fruit development is highly regulated and involves the interaction of a complex regulatory network of genes in both space and time. To identify regulatory genes involved in fruit initiation in tomato we analyzed the transcriptomic profile of ovaries from the parthenocarpic PsEND1:barnase transgenic line. This line was generated using the cytotoxic gene barnase targeted to the anthers with the PsEND1 anther-specific promoter from pea. Among the differentially expressed genes we identified SlDOF10, a gene coding a DNA-binding with one finger (DOF) transcription factor which is activated in unpollinated ovaries of the parthenocarpic plants. SlDOF10 is preferentially expressed in the vasculature of the cotyledons and young leaves and in the root tip. During floral development, expression is visible in the vascular tissue of the sepals, the flower pedicel and in the ovary connecting the placenta with the developing ovules. The induction of the gene was observed in response to exogenous gibberellins and auxins treatments. To evaluate the gene function during reproductive development, we have generated SlDOF10 overexpressing and silencing stable transgenic lines. In particular, down-regulation of SlDOF10 activity led to a decrease in the area occupied by individual vascular bundles in the flower pedicel. Associated with this phenotype we observed induction of parthenocarpic fruit set. In summary, expression and functional analyses revealed a role for SlDOF10 gene in the development of the vascular tissue specifically during reproductive development highlighting the importance of this tissue in the process of fruit set.

11.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 45(1): 74-82, Jan.-Feb. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-989965

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Purpose: The current first - line treatment for non - seminomatous germ cell tumor (NSGCT) consists of four cycles of cisplatin, etoposide, and bleomycin (BEP), which results in 5 - year overall survival < 60% in patients with poor - risk features. Autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (auto - HSCT) as a method for overcoming high toxicity after high dose chemotherapy (HDC) has been explored in different solid tumors, but has remained standard practice only for NSGCT. Our objective was to describe outcomes of patients with poor - risk NSGCT who underwent first - line autologous HSCT in a tertiary center in Mexico. Patients and Methods: Twenty nine consecutive patients with NSGCT who received first - line, non - cryopreserved autologous HSCT at the National Institute of Medical Sciences and Nutrition Salvador Zubiran in Mexico City, Mexico, from November 1998 to June 2016, were retrospectively analyzed. Results: The median age at transplantation was 23 (15 - 39) years. Most patients (n = 18, 62%) had testicular primary tumor, and 23 had metastases (79%). Complete response after auto - HSCT was observed in 45%. Non - relapse mortality was 0. Five - year relapse / progression free and overall survival were 67% and 69%, respectively. Conclusions: This small single limited - resource institution study demonstrated that patients with poor - risk NSGCT are curable by first - line HDC plus autologous HSCT and that this procedure is feasible and affordable to perform using non - cryopreserved hematopoietic stem cells.

12.
Int Braz J Urol ; 45(1): 74-82, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30325602

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The current first - line treatment for non - seminomatous germ cell tumor (NSGCT) consists of four cycles of cisplatin, etoposide, and bleomycin (BEP), which results in 5 - year overall survival < 60% in patients with poor - risk features. Autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (auto - HSCT) as a method for overcoming high toxicity after high dose chemotherapy (HDC) has been explored in different solid tumors, but has remained standard practice only for NSGCT. Our objective was to describe outcomes of patients with poor - risk NSGCT who underwent first - line autologous HSCT in a tertiary center in Mexico. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Twenty nine consecutive patients with NSGCT who received first - line, non - cryopreserved autologous HSCT at the National Institute of Medical Sciences and Nutrition Salvador Zubiran in Mexico City, Mexico, from November 1998 to June 2016, were retrospectively analyzed. RESULTS: The median age at transplantation was 23 (15 - 39) years. Most patients (n = 18, 62%) had testicular primary tumor, and 23 had metastases (79%). Complete response after auto - HSCT was observed in 45%. Non - relapse mortality was 0. Five - year relapse / progression free and overall survival were 67% and 69%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: This small single limited - resource institution study demonstrated that patients with poor - risk NSGCT are curable by first - line HDC plus autologous HSCT and that this procedure is feasible and affordable to perform using non - cryopreserved hematopoietic stem cells.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Bleomicina/administração & dosagem , Cisplatino/administração & dosagem , Etoposídeo/administração & dosagem , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/métodos , Neoplasias Embrionárias de Células Germinativas/terapia , Neoplasias Testiculares/terapia , Adolescente , Adulto , Terapia Combinada , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
13.
Annu Rev Anim Biosci ; 7: 473-497, 2019 02 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30485758

RESUMO

Conservation genomics aims to preserve the viability of populations and the biodiversity of living organisms. Invertebrate organisms represent 95% of animal biodiversity; however, few genomic resources currently exist for the group. The subset of marine invertebrates includes the most ancient metazoan lineages and possesses codes for unique gene products and possible keys to adaptation. The benefits of supporting invertebrate conservation genomics research (e.g., likely discovery of novel genes, protein regulatory mechanisms, genomic innovations, and transposable elements) outweigh the various hurdles (rare, small, or polymorphic starting materials). Here we review best conservation genomics practices in the laboratory and in silico when applied to marine invertebrates and also showcase unique features in several case studies of acroporid corals, crown-of-thorns starfish, apple snails, and abalone. Marine conservation genomics should also address how diversity can lead to unique marine innovations, the impact of deleterious variation, and how genomic monitoring and profiling could positively affect broader conservation goals (e.g., value of baseline data for in situ/ex situ genomic stocks).


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Invertebrados/genética , Adaptação Fisiológica/genética , Animais , Organismos Aquáticos/genética , Biodiversidade , Genômica , Invertebrados/fisiologia
14.
Mol Ecol ; 28(1): 141-155, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30506836

RESUMO

Theory suggests that the direct transmission of beneficial endosymbionts (mutualists) from parents to offspring (vertical transmission) in animal hosts is advantageous and evolutionarily stable, yet many host species instead acquire their symbionts from the environment (horizontal acquisition). An outstanding question in marine biology is why some scleractinian corals do not provision their eggs and larvae with the endosymbiotic dinoflagellates that are necessary for a juvenile's ultimate survival. We tested whether the acquisition of photosynthetic endosymbionts (family Symbiodiniaceae) during the planktonic larval stage was advantageous, as is widely assumed, in the ecologically important and threatened Caribbean reef-building coral Orbicella faveolata. Following larval acquisition, similar changes occurred in host energetic lipid use and gene expression regardless of whether their symbionts were photosynthesizing, suggesting the symbionts did not provide the energetic benefit characteristic of the mutualism in adults. Larvae that acquired photosymbionts isolated from conspecific adults on their natal reef exhibited a reduction in swimming, which may interfere with their ability to find suitable settlement substrate, and also a decrease in survival. Larvae exposed to two cultured algal species did not exhibit differences in survival, but decreased their swimming activity in response to one species. We conclude that acquiring photosymbionts during the larval stage confers no advantages and can in fact be disadvantageous to this coral host. The timing of symbiont acquisition appears to be a critical component of a host's life history strategy and overall reproductive fitness, and this timing itself appears to be under selective pressure.


Assuntos
Antozoários/fisiologia , Evolução Biológica , Ecologia , Simbiose/genética , Animais , Antozoários/genética , Região do Caribe , Recifes de Corais , Dinoflagelados/genética , Dinoflagelados/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Larva/genética , Fotossíntese/genética
15.
Rev. gerenc. políticas salud ; 17(35): 142-157, jul.-dic. 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1014155

RESUMO

Resumen Introducción: la prevención primaria (PP) del VIH/Sida es una obligación estatal para el control de la epidemia y el cumplimiento de los objetivos sanitarios, pero existe escasa evidencia sobre su funcionamiento. Objetivo: identificar algunas características de contexto, estructura, proceso y resultados de los programas de PP del VIH/Sida en el suroeste antioqueño. Método: estudio transversal, con análisis estadístico descriptivo, utilizando fuentes epidemiológicas y sociodemográficas oficiales y encuestas a 21/23 coordinadores de programa. Resultados: la incidencia, prevalencia y mortalidad del VIH/Sida fue de 10 casos por cada 100.000 habitantes, 73 casos por cada 100.000 habitantes y 22 casos por cada 100.000 habitantes. La disponibilidad de servicios fue limitada. La densidad profesional fue de 3 médicos/enfermeras/10.000 habitantes, coberturas de PP<25%, focalizadas en actividades informativas, dirigidas principalmente a la población general, indígena y materna. Los coordinadores percibieron logros no cuantificados relacionados con disminución de transmisión madre-hijo, mayor uso de condón, pero también limitaciones económicas, de intersectorialidad y estigma. Conclusión: pese al impacto epidemiológico y a factores de riesgo contextuales, la estructura, los procesos y los resultados de PP requieren mejoramiento.


Abstract Introduction: Primary prevention (PP) of HIV/AIDS is a state obligation in the control of the epidemy and to comply with the public health objectives, though there is scarce evidence on how it operates. Objective: To identify some characteristics of the context, structure, process and results of the HIV/AIDS primary prevention programs in the south-western Antioquia Province. Methods: It was a cross-sectional study with descriptive statistical analysis making use of the official sociodemographic and epidemiologic sources as well as surveys to 21/23 program coordinators. Results: the incidence, prevalence and mortality of the HIV/AIDS 10 cases per 100,000, 73 cases per 100,000 and 22 per 100,000 inhabitants. the health services were limited, the density of health professionals was 3 doctors/nurses/10,000 inhabitants and the PP coverage was <25%, focused in informative activities targeting primarily the general population, indigenous populations and mothers. the program coordinators perceived non-quantified achievements related to a decrease in the mother-to-child transmission, a greater use of condoms but also financial restrictions concerning intersectoriality and stigma. Conclusion: Despite the epidemiologic impact and contextualized risk factors, the structure, processes and results of the Prevention Programs require upgrading.


Resumo Introdução: a prevenção primária (PP) da Sida/AIDS/HIV é uma obrigação estatal para o controle da epidemia e o cumprimento dos objetivos sanitários, mas existe escassa evidência sobre seu funcionamento. Objetivo: identificar algunas características de contexto, estrutura, processo e resultados dos programas de PP da Sida/AIDS/VIH no sul-oeste antioquenho. Método: estudo transversal, com análise estatística descritiva a utilizar fontes epidemiológicas e sócio-demográfi cas oficiais e inquéritos a 21/23 coordenadores de programa. Resultados: a incidência, prevalência e mortalidade da Sida/ HIV foi de 10 por 100.000, 73 por 100.000 e 22 por 100.000 habitantes. A disponibilidade de serviços foi limitada. A densidade profissional foi de 3 médicos/enfermeiros/10.000 habitantes, coberturas de PP<25%, focalizadas em atividades informativas, dirigidas principalmente à população geral, indígena e materna. Os coordenadores perceberam êxito não quanti ficado relacionado com diminuição de transmissão mãe-filho, maior uso de camisinha, mas também limitações econômicas, de intersetorialidade e estigmatização. Conclusão: embora o impacto epidemiológico e fatores de risco contextuais, a estrutura, os processos e os resultados de PP precisam de melhoramento.

16.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 4921, 2018 11 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30467310

RESUMO

Scleractinian corals' microbial symbionts influence host health, yet how coral microbiomes assembled over evolution is not well understood. We survey bacterial and archaeal communities in phylogenetically diverse Australian corals representing more than 425 million years of diversification. We show that coral microbiomes are anatomically compartmentalized in both modern microbial ecology and evolutionary assembly. Coral mucus, tissue, and skeleton microbiomes differ in microbial community composition, richness, and response to host vs. environmental drivers. We also find evidence of coral-microbe phylosymbiosis, in which coral microbiome composition and richness reflect coral phylogeny. Surprisingly, the coral skeleton represents the most biodiverse coral microbiome, and also shows the strongest evidence of phylosymbiosis. Interactions between bacterial and coral phylogeny significantly influence the abundance of four groups of bacteria-including Endozoicomonas-like bacteria, which divide into host-generalist and host-specific subclades. Together these results trace microbial symbiosis across anatomy during the evolution of a basal animal lineage.


Assuntos
Antozoários/genética , Antozoários/microbiologia , Archaea/genética , Bactérias/genética , Microbiota/genética , Animais , Antozoários/classificação , Archaea/classificação , Austrália , Bactérias/classificação , Recifes de Corais , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Geografia , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico/genética , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Simbiose
17.
ISME J ; 12(9): 2238-2251, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29884827

RESUMO

Coral reef ecosystems are highly sensitive to microbial activities that result from dissolved organic matter (DOM) enrichment of their surrounding seawater. However, the response to particulate organic matter (POM) enrichment is less studied. In a microcosm experiment, we tested the response of bacterioplankton to a pulse of POM from the mass-spawning of Orbicella franksi coral off the Caribbean coast of Panama. Particulate organic carbon (POC), a proxy measurement for POM, increased by 40-fold in seawater samples collected during spawning; 68% degraded within 66 h. The elevation of multiple hydrolases presumably solubilized the spawn-derived POM into DOM. A carbon budget constructed for the 275 µM of degraded POC showed negligible change to the concentration of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), indicating that the DOM was readily utilized. Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry shows that the DOM pool became enriched with heteroatom-containing molecules, a trend that suggests microbial alteration of organic matter. Our sensitivity analysis demonstrates that bacterial carbon demand could have accounted for a large proportion of the POC degradation. Further, using bromodeoxyuridine immunocapture in combination with 454 pyrosequencing of the 16S ribosomal RNA gene, we surmise that actively growing bacterial groups were the primary degraders. We conclude that coral gametes are highly labile to bacteria and that such large capacity for bacterial degradation and alteration of organic matter has implications for coral reef health and coastal marine biogeochemistry.


Assuntos
Antozoários/fisiologia , Bactérias/metabolismo , Plâncton/metabolismo , Água do Mar/química , Animais , Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Carbono/análise , Recifes de Corais , Material Particulado/análise , Plâncton/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plâncton/isolamento & purificação
18.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 27(2): 432-437, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29097057

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hypoplasia of the transverse sinus (TS) is a common anatomical variation. However, the relationship between TS hypoplasia and venous thrombosis has not been studied. We analyzed the hypothesis that TS hypoplasia is a predisposing factor for ipsilateral thrombosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated 20 confirmed cases with isolated TS thrombosis and 43 age- and sex-matched controls. TS thrombosis and hypoplasia were diagnosed using both computed tomography and magnetic resonance venography. Hypoplasia was defined as a TS diameter less than 50% of the cross-sectional diameter of the lumen of the distal superior sagittal sinus and by a bony groove ratio less than 1.02. Univariate analysis was performed to evaluate the association between TS hypoplasia and thrombosis. RESULTS: There were a total of 45 hypoplastic TS: 31 (49%) left hypoplastic TS (12 (60%) cases vs 19 (44%) controls (P = .24), and 14 (22%) right hypoplastic TS (9 (45%) cases vs 5 (12%) controls (P = .003). TS hypoplasia was more frequently found in cases (n = 18, 90.0%) than in controls (n = 22, 51.2%; relative risk 1.7, confidence interval [CI] 95% 1.3-2.4, P = .003). Hypoplastic TS and ipsilateral TS thrombosis showed a significant association (P = .002 for right and P = .008 for left TS hypoplasia) with relative risk of 3.8 (95% CI 1.3-10) for right and 7.5 (95% CI 1.1-48) for left hypoplasia. No significant association was found between hypoplastic TS and functional outcome at 30- or 90-day follow-up. CONCLUSION: TS hypoplasia might be a predisposing factor for ipsilateral TS thrombosis, but not for functional outcome.


Assuntos
Trombose Intracraniana/etiologia , Seios Transversos/anormalidades , Trombose Venosa/etiologia , Adulto , Angiografia Cerebral/métodos , Angiografia por Tomografia Computadorizada , Feminino , Humanos , Trombose Intracraniana/diagnóstico por imagem , Angiografia por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Razão de Chances , Flebografia/métodos , Sistema de Registros , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Seios Transversos/diagnóstico por imagem , Trombose Venosa/diagnóstico por imagem
19.
Ecol Evol ; 7(22): 9234-9246, 2017 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29187964

RESUMO

As coral reefs continue to decline worldwide, it becomes ever more necessary to understand the connectivity between coral populations to develop efficient management strategies facilitating survival and adaptation of coral reefs in the future. Orbicella faveolata is one of the most important reef-building corals in the Caribbean and has recently experienced severe population reductions. Here, we utilize a panel of nine microsatellite loci to evaluate the genetic structure of O. faveolata and to infer connectivity across ten sites spanning the wider Caribbean region. Populations are generally well-mixed throughout the basin (FST = 0.038), although notable patterns of substructure arise at local and regional scales. Eastern and western populations appear segregated with a genetic break around the Mona Passage in the north, as has been shown previously in other species; however, we find evidence for significant connectivity between Curaçao and Mexico, suggesting that the southern margin of this barrier is permeable to dispersal. Our results also identify a strong genetic break within the Mesoamerican Barrier Reef System associated with complex oceanographic patterns that promote larval retention in southern Belize. Additionally, the diverse genetic signature at Flower Garden Banks suggests its possible function as a downstream genetic sink. The findings reported here are relevant to the ongoing conservation efforts for this important and threatened species, and contribute to the growing understanding of large-scale coral reef connectivity throughout the wider Caribbean.

20.
PeerJ ; 5: e4119, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29259841

RESUMO

Coral reefs are commonly associated with oligotrophic, well-illuminated waters. In 2013, a healthy coral reef was discovered in one of the least expected places within the Colombian Caribbean: at the entrance of Cartagena Bay, a highly-polluted system that receives industrial and sewage waste, as well as high sediment and freshwater loads from an outlet of the Magdalena River (the longest and most populated river basin in Colombia). Here we provide the first characterization of Varadero Reef's geomorphology and biological diversity. We also compare these characteristics with those of a nearby reference reef, Barú Reef, located in an area much less influenced by the described polluted system. Below the murky waters, we found high coral cover of 45.1% (±3.9; up to 80% in some sectors), high species diversity, including 42 species of scleractinian coral, 38 of sponge, three of lobster, and eight of sea urchin; a fish community composed of 61 species belonging to 24 families, and the typical zonation of a Caribbean fringing reef. All attributes found correspond to a reef that, according to current standards should be considered in "good condition". Current plans to dredge part of Varadero threaten the survival of this reef. There is, therefore, an urgent need to describe the location and characteristics of Varadero as a first step towards gaining acknowledgement of its existence and garnering inherent legal and environmental protections.

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