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1.
Nat Ecol Evol ; 4(1): 40-45, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31844189

RESUMO

According to the competitive exclusion principle, species with low competitive abilities should be excluded by more efficient competitors; yet, they generally remain as rare species. Here, we describe the positive and negative spatial association networks of 326 disparate assemblages, showing a general organization pattern that simultaneously supports the primacy of competition and the persistence of rare species. Abundant species monopolize negative associations in about 90% of the assemblages. On the other hand, rare species are mostly involved in positive associations, forming small network modules. Simulations suggest that positive interactions among rare species and microhabitat preferences are the most probable mechanisms underpinning this pattern and rare species persistence. The consistent results across taxa and geography suggest a general explanation for the maintenance of biodiversity in competitive environments.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Ecologia , Geografia
2.
J Vis Exp ; (145)2019 03 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30958472

RESUMO

Communities of nonvascular cryptogams, such as mosses or lichens, are an important part of the Earth's biodiversity, contributing to the regulation of the carbon and nitrogen cycles in many ecosystems. Being poikilohydric organisms, they do not actively control their internal water content and need a humid environment to activate their metabolism. Therefore, studying water relationships of nonvascular cryptogams is crucial to understand both their diversity patterns and their functions in the ecosystems. We present the BtM datalogger, a low-cost open-source platform for the study of the water content of nonvascular cryptogams. The datalogger is designed to measure ambient temperature, humidity, and conductance from up to eight samples simultaneously. We provide a design for a printed circuit board (PCB), a detailed protocol to assemble the components, and the required source code. All this makes the assembly of the BtM datalogger accessible to any research group, even to those without previous specialized knowledge. Therefore, the design presented here has the potential to help popularize the use of this type of device among ecologists and field biologists.


Assuntos
Briófitas/metabolismo , Custos e Análise de Custo , Equipamentos e Provisões Elétricas/economia , Monitoramento Ambiental/instrumentação , Líquens/metabolismo , Água/metabolismo , Monitoramento Ambiental/economia , Umidade , Temperatura
3.
New Phytol ; 221(1): 169-179, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30067290

RESUMO

What causes individual tree death in tropical forests remains a major gap in our understanding of the biology of tropical trees and leads to significant uncertainty in predicting global carbon cycle dynamics. We measured individual characteristics (diameter at breast height, wood density, growth rate, crown illumination and crown form) and environmental conditions (soil fertility and habitat suitability) for 26 425 trees ≥ 10 cm diameter at breast height belonging to 416 species in a 52-ha plot in Lambir Hills National Park, Malaysia. We used structural equation models to investigate the relationships among the different factors and tree mortality. Crown form (a proxy for mechanical damage and other stresses) and prior growth were the two most important factors related to mortality. The effect of all variables on mortality (except habitat suitability) was substantially greater than expected by chance. Tree death is the result of interactions between factors, including direct and indirect effects. Crown form/damage and prior growth mediated most of the effect of tree size, wood density, fertility and habitat suitability on mortality. Large-scale assessment of crown form or status may result in improved prediction of individual tree death at the landscape scale.


Assuntos
Florestas , Árvores/fisiologia , Ecossistema , Malásia , Modelos Biológicos , Estresse Fisiológico , Clima Tropical , Madeira/química
4.
Am J Bot ; 105(6): 996-1008, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29985543

RESUMO

PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Ultraviolet (UV) radiation influences the viability of algal spores and seed-plant pollen depending on the species, the dose, and the wavelength. In bryophytes, one of the dominant groups of plants in many habitats, UV radiation could determine their spore dispersal strategy, and such data are critical for reconstructing the ancestral state in plants and for determining the distribution range and persistence of bryophyte species. METHODS: Spores of four bryophyte species of the moss genus Orthotrichum that were either hygrochastic or xerochastic (spores dispersed under wet or dry conditions, respectively) were exposed to realistic doses of UV radiation under laboratory conditions. Spore viability was evaluated through germination experiments and, for the first time in bryophytes, ultrastructural observations. Given that the UV-B doses used were relatively higher than the UV-A doses, the UV effect was probably due more to UV-B than UV-A wavelengths. KEY RESULTS: All four species reduced their spore germination capacity in a UV dose-dependent manner, concomitantly increasing spore ultrastructural damage (cytoplasmic and plastid alterations). Most spores eventually died when exposed to the highest UV dose. Interestingly, spores of hygrochastic species were much more UV-sensitive than those of xerochastic species. CONCLUSIONS: UV tolerance determines moss spore viability, as indicated by germination capacity and ultrastructural damage, and differs between spores of species with different dispersal strategies. Specifically, the higher UV tolerance of xerochastic spores may enable them to be dispersed to longer distances than hygrochastic spores, thus extending more efficiently the distribution range of the corresponding species.


Assuntos
Bryopsida/efeitos da radiação , Dispersão Vegetal , Esporos/efeitos da radiação , Bryopsida/ultraestrutura , Esporos/ultraestrutura , Raios Ultravioleta
5.
Oecologia ; 186(3): 805-816, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29349719

RESUMO

Species richness is influenced by a nested set of environmental factors, but how do these factors interact across several scales? Our main aim is to disentangle the relative importance of environmental filters and the species pool on the richness of epiphytic bryophytes across spatial scales. To do so, we sampled epiphytic bryophytes in 43 oak forests across the northwest of the Iberian Peninsula. As predictors we used climate, descriptors of forest structure and micro-environment. We applied structural equation modeling to relate these variables with richness and cover at three scales: locality (forest), stand (three stands per forest), and sample (a quadrate in a tree). We assumed top-down relationships, so that large-scale variables influenced lower scale variables, and in which cover directly influenced richness. Richness at the next larger scale (locality to stand and stand to sample) is considered a surrogate of the species pool and included as a predictor of richness at the next smaller scale. Environmental variables explain locality richness, but as we decrease the spatial scale, its importance decreases and the dependence on species pool increases. In addition, we found unexpected bottom-up relationships (between micro-scale environment to locality richness). Our results point to the scale dependence of niche vs. neutral processes: niche processes are important at the locality (forest) scale, while neutral processes are significant at the small (sample) scale. We propose a modified conceptualization of the factors influencing biodiversity at different spatial scales by adding links across different scales (between micro-environment and locality-scale richness in our study).


Assuntos
Briófitas , Ecossistema , Biodiversidade , Europa (Continente) , Árvores
6.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 24(34): 26194-26205, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28527144

RESUMO

We assess here, through an experimental simulation using lead nitrate, the response to lead deposition of three common Mediterranean bryophyte species in the family Pottiaceae. Five concentrations of lead nitrate (from 0 to 10-3 M) were sprayed for 4 months on plants belonging to Tortula muralis (reported as toxitolerant), Syntrichia ruralis (medium-tolerant), and Tortula subulata (less tolerant). The three species showed a remarkably high tolerance to lead nitrate, with a low incidence of damage even at concentrations as high as 10-4 M. The maximum concentration (10-3 M), although resulting eventually in serious damages in the gametophyte of the three species (high mortality rates in S. ruralis and T. subulata, or a significant percentage of damaged tissue in T. muralis), did not prevent the production of sporophytes in the two species with fertile samples (T. muralis and T. subulata). Growth parameters show limited value as bioindicators of lead deposition, as they only show clear effects at very high concentrations. Besides, we identified the existence of a lead exclusion strategy mediated by mucilage using histochemical analyses and scanning electron microscopy combined with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. This mechanism can hamper the usefulness of these mosses in quantitative estimation of lead deposition.


Assuntos
Briófitas/efeitos dos fármacos , Chumbo/toxicidade , Nitratos/toxicidade , Células Germinativas Vegetais/efeitos dos fármacos
7.
PLoS One ; 9(11): e112867, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25412450

RESUMO

Most mosses have xerochastic dispersal (i.e., they open their capsules when conditions are dry), which is thought to favor long-distance dispersal. However, there are several species that use a hygrochastic strategy: spores are dispersed when conditions are wet. The significance of this strategy in the Mediterranean region is unknown. In this study, we explored whether ultrastructural features related to differences in spore resistance may explain these different strategies of spore dispersal. To this end, we examined the ultrastructural features of the spores of seven closely related species in the moss genus Orthotrichum. These species all grow as epiphytes in sub-Mediterranean forests, and the group includes both xerochastic and hygrochastic members. First, we found that the spore wall layers exhibit several features previously undescribed in mosses. Second, we discovered that there are only subtle differences in spore ultrastructure with regards to spore wall thickness, the degree of plastid development, or the storage substances used. We suggest that the hygrochastic dispersal in mosses from Mediterranean environments might be related to a safe-site strategy, rather than to drought avoidance, and we underscore the necessity of conducting spore ultrastructural studies on a greater number of bryophyte species.


Assuntos
Briófitas/fisiologia , Componentes Aéreos da Planta/fisiologia , Adaptação Fisiológica , Mar Mediterrâneo , Modelos Biológicos , Espanha
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