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1.
Elife ; 72018 10 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30311906

RESUMO

Proper brain development relies highly on protein N-glycosylation to sustain neuronal migration, axon guidance and synaptic physiology. Impairing the N-glycosylation pathway at early steps produces broad neurological symptoms identified in congenital disorders of glycosylation. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying these defects. We generated a cerebellum specific knockout mouse for Srd5a3, a gene involved in the initiation of N-glycosylation. In addition to motor coordination defects and abnormal granule cell development, Srd5a3 deletion causes mild N-glycosylation impairment without significantly altering ER homeostasis. Using proteomic approaches, we identified that Srd5a3 loss affects a subset of glycoproteins with high N-glycans multiplicity per protein and decreased protein abundance or N-glycosylation level. As IgSF-CAM adhesion proteins are critical for neuron adhesion and highly N-glycosylated, we observed impaired IgSF-CAM-mediated neurite outgrowth and axon guidance in Srd5a3 mutant cerebellum. Our results link high N-glycan multiplicity to fine-tuned neural cell adhesion during mammalian brain development.

2.
Brain ; 141(7): 1998-2013, 2018 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29878067

RESUMO

Cerebellar atrophy is a key neuroradiological finding usually associated with cerebellar ataxia and cognitive development defect in children. Unlike the adult forms, early onset cerebellar atrophies are classically described as mostly autosomal recessive conditions and the exact contribution of de novo mutations to this phenotype has not been assessed. In contrast, recent studies pinpoint the high prevalence of pathogenic de novo mutations in other developmental disorders such as intellectual disability, autism spectrum disorders and epilepsy. Here, we investigated a cohort of 47 patients with early onset cerebellar atrophy and/or hypoplasia using a custom gene panel as well as whole exome sequencing. De novo mutations were identified in 35% of patients while 27% had mutations inherited in an autosomal recessive manner. Understanding if these de novo events act through a loss or a gain of function effect is critical for treatment considerations. To gain a better insight into the disease mechanisms causing these cerebellar defects, we focused on CACNA1G, a gene not yet associated with the early-onset form. This gene encodes the Cav3.1 subunit of T-type calcium channels highly expressed in Purkinje neurons and deep cerebellar nuclei. We identified four patients with de novo CACNA1G mutations. They all display severe motor and cognitive impairment, cerebellar atrophy as well as variable features such as facial dysmorphisms, digital anomalies, microcephaly and epilepsy. Three subjects share a recurrent c.2881G>A/p.Ala961Thr variant while the fourth patient has the c.4591A>G/p.Met1531Val variant. Both mutations drastically impaired channel inactivation properties with significantly slower kinetics (∼5 times) and negatively shifted potential for half-inactivation (>10 mV). In addition, these two mutations increase neuronal firing in a cerebellar nuclear neuron model and promote a larger window current fully inhibited by TTA-P2, a selective T-type channel blocker. This study highlights the prevalence of de novo mutations in early-onset cerebellar atrophy and demonstrates that A961T and M1531V are gain of function mutations. Moreover, it reveals that aberrant activity of Cav3.1 channels can markedly alter brain development and suggests that this condition could be amenable to treatment.

3.
Brain ; 140(10): 2597-2609, 2017 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28969387

RESUMO

Microlissencephaly is a rare brain malformation characterized by congenital microcephaly and lissencephaly. Microlissencephaly is suspected to result from abnormalities in the proliferation or survival of neural progenitors. Despite the recent identification of six genes involved in microlissencephaly, the pathophysiological basis of this condition remains poorly understood. We performed trio-based whole exome sequencing in seven subjects from five non-consanguineous families who presented with either microcephaly or microlissencephaly. This led to the identification of compound heterozygous mutations in WDR81, a gene previously associated with cerebellar ataxia, intellectual disability and quadrupedal locomotion. Patient phenotypes ranged from severe microcephaly with extremely reduced gyration with pontocerebellar hypoplasia to moderate microcephaly with cerebellar atrophy. In patient fibroblast cells, WDR81 mutations were associated with increased mitotic index and delayed prometaphase/metaphase transition. Similarly, in vivo, we showed that knockdown of the WDR81 orthologue in Drosophila led to increased mitotic index of neural stem cells with delayed mitotic progression. In summary, we highlight the broad phenotypic spectrum of WDR81-related brain malformations, which include microcephaly with moderate to extremely reduced gyration and cerebellar anomalies. Our results suggest that WDR81 might have a role in mitosis that is conserved between Drosophila and humans.


Assuntos
Fibroblastos/citologia , Microcefalia/genética , Microcefalia/patologia , Mitose/genética , Mutação/genética , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Células-Tronco Neurais/citologia , Animais , Animais Geneticamente Modificados , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/patologia , Células Cultivadas , Pré-Escolar , Drosophila , Proteínas de Drosophila/genética , Proteínas de Drosophila/metabolismo , Feminino , Fibroblastos/patologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/genética , Humanos , Antígeno Ki-67/metabolismo , Masculino , Microcefalia/diagnóstico por imagem , Células-Tronco Neurais/patologia , Interferência de RNA/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
4.
Orphanet J Rare Dis ; 11(1): 57, 2016 05 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27146152

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cerebellar atrophy and developmental delay are commonly associated features in large numbers of genetic diseases that frequently also include epilepsy. These defects are highly heterogeneous on both the genetic and clinical levels. Patients with these signs also typically present with non-specific neuroimaging results that can help prioritize further investigation but don't suggest a specific molecular diagnosis. METHODS: To genetically explore a cohort of 18 Egyptian families with undiagnosed cerebellar atrophy identified on MRI, we sequenced probands and some non-affected family members via high-coverage whole exome sequencing (WES; >97 % of the exome covered at least by 30x). Patients were mostly from consanguineous families, either sporadic or multiplex. We analyzed WES data and filtered variants according to dominant and recessive inheritance models. RESULTS: We successfully identified disease-causing mutations in half of the families screened (9/18). These mutations are located in seven different genes, PLA2G6 being the gene most frequently mutated (n = 3). We also identified a recurrent de novo mutation in the KIF1A gene and a molybdenum cofactor deficiency caused by the loss of the start codon in the MOCS2A open-reading frame in a mildly affected subject. CONCLUSIONS: This study illustrates the necessity of screening for dominant mutations in WES data from consanguineous families. Our identification of a patient with a mild and improving phenotype carrying a previously characterized severe loss of function mutation also broadens the clinical spectrum associated with molybdenum cofactor deficiency.


Assuntos
Atrofia/diagnóstico , Atrofia/genética , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/diagnóstico , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/genética , Exoma/genética , Mutação/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Encéfalo/patologia , Ataxia Cerebelar/diagnóstico , Ataxia Cerebelar/genética , Pré-Escolar , Diagnóstico Precoce , Feminino , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Fenótipo
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