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1.
J Bone Miner Res ; 2019 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31170332

RESUMO

In bone, sclerostin is mainly osteocyte-derived and plays an important local role in adaptive responses to mechanical loading. Whether circulating levels of sclerostin also play a functional role is currently unclear, which we aimed to examine by two-sample Mendelian randomization (MR). A genetic instrument for circulating sclerostin, derived from a genomewide association study (GWAS) meta-analysis of serum sclerostin in 10,584 European-descent individuals, was examined in relation to femoral neck bone mineral density (BMD; n = 32,744) in GEFOS and estimated bone mineral density (eBMD) by heel ultrasound (n = 426,824) and fracture risk (n = 426,795) in UK Biobank. Our GWAS identified two novel serum sclerostin loci, B4GALNT3 (standard deviation [SD]) change in sclerostin per A allele (ß = 0.20, p = 4.6 × 10-49 ) and GALNT1 (ß = 0.11 per G allele, p = 4.4 × 10-11 ). B4GALNT3 is an N-acetyl-galactosaminyltransferase, adding a terminal LacdiNAc disaccharide to target glycocoproteins, found to be predominantly expressed in kidney, whereas GALNT1 is an enzyme causing mucin-type O-linked glycosylation. Using these two single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) as genetic instruments, MR revealed an inverse causal relationship between serum sclerostin and femoral neck BMD (ß = -0.12, 95% confidence interval [CI] -0.20 to -0.05) and eBMD (ß = -0.12, 95% CI -0.14 to -0.10), and a positive relationship with fracture risk (ß = 0.11, 95% CI 0.01 to 0.21). Colocalization analysis demonstrated common genetic signals within the B4GALNT3 locus for higher sclerostin, lower eBMD, and greater B4GALNT3 expression in arterial tissue (probability >99%). Our findings suggest that higher sclerostin levels are causally related to lower BMD and greater fracture risk. Hence, strategies for reducing circulating sclerostin, for example by targeting glycosylation enzymes as suggested by our GWAS results, may prove valuable in treating osteoporosis. © 2019 The Authors. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

4.
J Bone Miner Res ; 34(7): 1284-1296, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30888730

RESUMO

Hip geometry is an important predictor of fracture. We performed a meta-analysis of GWAS studies in adults to identify genetic variants that are associated with proximal femur geometry phenotypes. We analyzed four phenotypes: (i) femoral neck length; (ii) neck-shaft angle; (iii) femoral neck width, and (iv) femoral neck section modulus, estimated from DXA scans using algorithms of hip structure analysis. In the Discovery stage, 10 cohort studies were included in the fixed-effect meta-analysis, with up to 18,719 men and women ages 16 to 93 years. Association analyses were performed with ∼2.5 million polymorphisms under an additive model adjusted for age, body mass index, and height. Replication analyses of meta-GWAS significant loci (at adjusted genomewide significance [GWS], threshold p ≤ 2.6 × 10-8 ) were performed in seven additional cohorts in silico. We looked up SNPs associated in our analysis, for association with height, bone mineral density (BMD), and fracture. In meta-analysis (combined Discovery and Replication stages), GWS associations were found at 5p15 (IRX1 and ADAMTS16); 5q35 near FGFR4; at 12p11 (in CCDC91); 11q13 (near LRP5 and PPP6R3 (rs7102273)). Several hip geometry signals overlapped with BMD, including LRP5 (chr. 11). Chr. 11 SNP rs7102273 was associated with any-type fracture (p = 7.5 × 10-5 ). We used bone transcriptome data and discovered several significant eQTLs, including rs7102273 and PPP6R3 expression (p = 0.0007), and rs6556301 (intergenic, chr.5 near FGFR4) and PDLIM7 expression (p = 0.005). In conclusion, we found associations between several genes and hip geometry measures that explained 12% to 22% of heritability at different sites. The results provide a defined set of genes related to biological pathways relevant to BMD and etiology of bone fragility. © 2019 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

5.
Nat Genet ; 51(3): 452-469, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30778226

RESUMO

Body-fat distribution is a risk factor for adverse cardiovascular health consequences. We analyzed the association of body-fat distribution, assessed by waist-to-hip ratio adjusted for body mass index, with 228,985 predicted coding and splice site variants available on exome arrays in up to 344,369 individuals from five major ancestries (discovery) and 132,177 European-ancestry individuals (validation). We identified 15 common (minor allele frequency, MAF ≥5%) and nine low-frequency or rare (MAF <5%) coding novel variants. Pathway/gene set enrichment analyses identified lipid particle, adiponectin, abnormal white adipose tissue physiology and bone development and morphology as important contributors to fat distribution, while cross-trait associations highlight cardiometabolic traits. In functional follow-up analyses, specifically in Drosophila RNAi-knockdowns, we observed a significant increase in the total body triglyceride levels for two genes (DNAH10 and PLXND1). We implicate novel genes in fat distribution, stressing the importance of interrogating low-frequency and protein-coding variants.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Variação Genética/genética , Homeostase/genética , Lipídeos/genética , Proteínas/genética , Animais , Distribuição da Gordura Corporal/métodos , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Drosophila/genética , Exoma/genética , Feminino , Frequência do Gene/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Relação Cintura-Quadril/métodos
6.
Bone ; 122: 150-155, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30798002

RESUMO

Bone modeling is an important process in the growing skeleton. An inadequate bone modeling in response to mechanical loads would lead some children to develop weaker bones than others. The resulting higher stresses in the bones would render them more susceptible to fracture. We aimed to examine the association between femoral stress (FS) derived from structural parameters and BMD in relation to incident fractures in children. Bone stress was evaluated at the medial femoral neck, a skeletal site subject to large forces during normal locomotion. This study comprises 1840 children from the Generation R Study, with whole body and hip DXA scans at a mean age of 6.01 years. Hip structural analysis (HSA) was used to measure femur geometry for the FS calculation. Data on fractures occurring over the following 4 years after the DXA assessment were obtained by questionnaire. Incident fracture was observed in 7.6% of the participating children. Cox-multivariate regression analysis, described as hazard ratios (HR), showed that after adjustment for sex, ethnicity, age, weight and lean mass fraction, there was a significant increase in the risk of incident fracture for every standard deviation (SD) decrease in total body BMD (HR: 1.35, 95% CI 1.05-1.74, p-value = 0.021), femoral neck BMD (HR: 1.31, 95% CI 1.09-1.58, p-value = 0.005) and narrow neck BMD (HR: 1.39, 95% CI 1.14-1.68, p-value = 0.001). Whereas, every increment of one SD in femoral stress resulted in 1.33 increased risk of incident fractures (HR: 1.33, 95% CI 1.13-1.57, p-value = 0.001). This association remained (borderline) significant after the adjustment for DXA derived BMD measurements. Our results show that increased bone stress may underlie greater susceptibility to traumatic fractures in children (partially independent of BMD) and underscore the utility of hip DXA scans for the assessment of paediatric bone health and specifically fracture risk.

7.
Nat Genet ; 51(2): 258-266, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30598549

RESUMO

Osteoporosis is a common aging-related disease diagnosed primarily using bone mineral density (BMD). We assessed genetic determinants of BMD as estimated by heel quantitative ultrasound in 426,824 individuals, identifying 518 genome-wide significant loci (301 novel), explaining 20% of its variance. We identified 13 bone fracture loci, all associated with estimated BMD (eBMD), in ~1.2 million individuals. We then identified target genes enriched for genes known to influence bone density and strength (maximum odds ratio (OR) = 58, P = 1 × 10-75) from cell-specific features, including chromatin conformation and accessible chromatin sites. We next performed rapid-throughput skeletal phenotyping of 126 knockout mice with disruptions in predicted target genes and found an increased abnormal skeletal phenotype frequency compared to 526 unselected lines (P < 0.0001). In-depth analysis of one gene, DAAM2, showed a disproportionate decrease in bone strength relative to mineralization. This genetic atlas provides evidence linking associated SNPs to causal genes, offers new insight into osteoporosis pathophysiology, and highlights opportunities for drug development.


Assuntos
Densidade Óssea/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Osteoporose/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Feminino , Fraturas Ósseas/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética
8.
Bone ; 121: 227-231, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30677542

RESUMO

Fracture rate in childhood is increasing and its consequences may affect health and developmental processes and cause school absence and restricted activity days. There are scarce epidemiologic studies regarding fractures in children. The aim of this study was to evaluate if pediatric fractures show disparities across sexes and ethnic groups. This study was conducted based on data from 3632 participants of the Generation R Study. Prevalent fractures were assessed using a questionnaire at a mean age of 9.7 years. Child's ethnicity was determined based on country of birth of the parents using questionnaires (geographic ancestry) or admixture analysis (genetic ancestry). Associations between fracture occurrence and sex or ethnicity were evaluated using logistic regression models adjusted for age, weight, lean mass fraction, bone mineral density (BMD) and sex/ethnicity. Fracture was reported for 525 (14.5%) children. The great majority of these children were classified as European (N = 3164), followed by African (N = 283) and Asian (N = 185) based on geographic ancestry. Similarly, the highest proportion of Europeans was observed based on genetic ancestry. Prevalence of fractures was not different between boys and girls, even after adjustment for possible confounders (OR: 1.03, 95% CI 0.84-1.27, p-value = 0.8). However, odds of prevalent fractures were two times higher in European when compared to Asian children (OR: 2.01, 95% CI 1.17-3.45, p-value = 0.01), and 1.5 times higher when compared to African children (OR: 1.50, 95% CI 1.00-2.26, p-value = 0.05). Overall, in this study, European children showed a highest risk of prevalent fractures independently of factors such as body composition and BMD, while no difference in the prevalence of fractures between boys and girls was observed.

9.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 357, 2019 01 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30664637

RESUMO

Cranial growth and development is a complex process which affects the closely related traits of head circumference (HC) and intracranial volume (ICV). The underlying genetic influences shaping these traits during the transition from childhood to adulthood are little understood, but might include both age-specific genetic factors and low-frequency genetic variation. Here, we model the developmental genetic architecture of HC, showing this is genetically stable and correlated with genetic determinants of ICV. Investigating up to 46,000 children and adults of European descent, we identify association with final HC and/or final ICV + HC at 9 novel common and low-frequency loci, illustrating that genetic variation from a wide allele frequency spectrum contributes to cranial growth. The largest effects are reported for low-frequency variants within TP53, with 0.5 cm wider heads in increaser-allele carriers versus non-carriers during mid-childhood, suggesting a previously unrecognized role of TP53 transcripts in human cranial development.


Assuntos
Alelos , Loci Gênicos , Variação Genética , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Crânio/metabolismo , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Cefalometria , Criança , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Frequência do Gene , Genoma Humano , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Crânio/anatomia & histologia
11.
Microbiome ; 6(1): 101, 2018 06 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29880062

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In recent years, human microbiota, especially gut microbiota, have emerged as an important yet complex trait influencing human metabolism, immunology, and diseases. Many studies are investigating the forces underlying the observed variation, including the human genetic variants that shape human microbiota. Several preliminary genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have been completed, but more are necessary to achieve a fuller picture. RESULTS: Here, we announce the MiBioGen consortium initiative, which has assembled 18 population-level cohorts and some 19,000 participants. Its aim is to generate new knowledge for the rapidly developing field of microbiota research. Each cohort has surveyed the gut microbiome via 16S rRNA sequencing and genotyped their participants with full-genome SNP arrays. We have standardized the analytical pipelines for both the microbiota phenotypes and genotypes, and all the data have been processed using identical approaches. Our analysis of microbiome composition shows that we can reduce the potential artifacts introduced by technical differences in generating microbiota data. We are now in the process of benchmarking the association tests and performing meta-analyses of genome-wide associations. All pipeline and summary statistics results will be shared using public data repositories. CONCLUSION: We present the largest consortium to date devoted to microbiota-GWAS. We have adapted our analytical pipelines to suit multi-cohort analyses and expect to gain insight into host-microbiota cross-talk at the genome-wide level. And, as an open consortium, we invite more cohorts to join us (by contacting one of the corresponding authors) and to follow the analytical pipeline we have developed.

12.
Hum Mol Genet ; 27(17): 3113-3127, 2018 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29931343

RESUMO

Prior studies suggest dental caries traits in children and adolescents are partially heritable, but there has been no large-scale consortium genome-wide association study (GWAS) to date. We therefore performed GWAS for caries in participants aged 2.5-18.0 years from nine contributing centres. Phenotype definitions were created for the presence or absence of treated or untreated caries, stratified by primary and permanent dentition. All studies tested for association between caries and genotype dosage and the results were combined using fixed-effects meta-analysis. Analysis included up to 19 003 individuals (7530 affected) for primary teeth and 13 353 individuals (5875 affected) for permanent teeth. Evidence for association with caries status was observed at rs1594318-C for primary teeth [intronic within ALLC, odds ratio (OR) 0.85, effect allele frequency (EAF) 0.60, P 4.13e-8] and rs7738851-A (intronic within NEDD9, OR 1.28, EAF 0.85, P 1.63e-8) for permanent teeth. Consortium-wide estimated heritability of caries was low [h2 of 1% (95% CI: 0%: 7%) and 6% (95% CI 0%: 13%) for primary and permanent dentitions, respectively] compared with corresponding within-study estimates [h2 of 28% (95% CI: 9%: 48%) and 17% (95% CI: 2%: 31%)] or previously published estimates. This study was designed to identify common genetic variants with modest effects which are consistent across different populations. We found few single variants associated with caries status under these assumptions. Phenotypic heterogeneity between cohorts and limited statistical power will have contributed; these findings could also reflect complexity not captured by our study design, such as genetic effects which are conditional on environmental exposure.

13.
Gene ; 674: 127-133, 2018 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29935354

RESUMO

Cadherin-like and PC-esterase domain containing 1 (CPED1) is an uncharacterized gene with no known function. Human genome wide association studies (GWAS) for bone mineral density (BMD) have repeatedly identified a significant locus on Chromosome 7 that contains the gene CPED1, but it remains unclear if this gene could be causative. While an open reading frame for this gene has been predicted, there has been no systematic exploration of expression or alternate splicing for CPED1 in humans or mice.Using mouse models, we demonstrate that Cped1 is alternately spliced whereby transcripts are generated with exon 3 or exons 16 and 17 removed. In calvarial-derived pre-osteoblasts, Cped1 utilizes the predicted promoter upstream of exon 1 as well as alternate promoters upstream of exon 3 and exon 12.Lastly, we have determined that some transcripts terminate at the end of exon 10 and therefore do not contain the cadherin like and the PC esterase domains.Together, these data suggest that multiple protein products may be produced by this gene, with some products either lacking or containing both the predicted functional domains. Our data provide a framework upon which future functional studies will be built to understand the role of this gene in bone biology.


Assuntos
Processamento Alternativo , Animais , Osso e Ossos/metabolismo , Diferenciação Celular/genética , Linhagem Celular , Éxons , Leucócitos/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Células RAW 264.7 , Regiões não Traduzidas
14.
Hum Mol Genet ; 27(11): 2025-2038, 2018 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29659830

RESUMO

The ratio of the length of the index finger to that of the ring finger (2D:4D) is sexually dimorphic and is commonly used as a non-invasive biomarker of prenatal androgen exposure. Most association studies of 2D:4D ratio with a diverse range of sex-specific traits have typically involved small sample sizes and have been difficult to replicate, raising questions around the utility and precise meaning of the measure. In the largest genome-wide association meta-analysis of 2D:4D ratio to date (N = 15 661, with replication N = 75 821), we identified 11 loci (9 novel) explaining 3.8% of the variance in mean 2D:4D ratio. We also found weak evidence for association (ß = 0.06; P = 0.02) between 2D:4D ratio and sensitivity to testosterone [length of the CAG microsatellite repeat in the androgen receptor (AR) gene] in females only. Furthermore, genetic variants associated with (adult) testosterone levels and/or sex hormone-binding globulin were not associated with 2D:4D ratio in our sample. Although we were unable to find strong evidence from our genetic study to support the hypothesis that 2D:4D ratio is a direct biomarker of prenatal exposure to androgens in healthy individuals, our findings do not explicitly exclude this possibility, and pathways involving testosterone may become apparent as the size of the discovery sample increases further. Our findings provide new insight into the underlying biology shaping 2D:4D variation in the general population.

15.
J Bone Miner Res ; 33(7): 1209-1218, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29502340

RESUMO

Sarcopenia, a complex multifactorial condition, is characterized by loss of muscle mass and function, which increases progressively with age. The existence of different definitions has contributed to the large variation in the prevalence estimates of sarcopenia. We aimed to estimate the prevalence of sarcopenia in the general population using the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People (EWGSOP) proposed definition and compared baseline demographic and clinical characteristics between the nonsarcopenia, presarcopenia, and sarcopenia individuals, with particular emphasis on the overlap with osteoporosis and fracture risk. We studied 5911 subjects at a mean age of 69.2 years (55.8% female) with data on sarcopenia participating in the Rotterdam Study, a prospective population-based cohort study in Rotterdam, the Netherlands. Presarcopenia was defined as having only low muscle mass, whereas sarcopenia was defined based on the presence of low muscle mass, plus either low muscle strength or low physical performance. The prevalence of presarcopenia and sarcopenia was 5.9% and 4.4%, respectively. Individuals with sarcopenia were older, more often males, smokers, with less optimal dietary intake, and more often disabled with lower physical activity. Although the prevalence of fractures was higher in individuals with low lean mass (presarcopenic [16.6%] and sarcopenic [23.5%]) compared with the no sarcopenic group (15.5%), the differences were not present after correcting for age and sex. There were no statistical differences in the prevalence of chronic diseases, with the exception of a higher prevalence of COPD in presarcopenic (29.1%) and sarcopenic (26.9%) individuals compared with nonsarcopenic (13.4%) individuals. Osteoporotic individuals with (odds ratio [OR] = 2.59, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.41-4.45) and without sarcopenia (OR = 2.75, 95% CI 2.01-3.75) had similar elevated risk of nonvertebral fractures. The presence of sarcopenia appears to be independent of chronic diseases with the exception of COPD and more related to lifestyle factors and disabilities. Sarcopenic individuals in the general population are at no greater risk of fracture than what is determined by their low bone mineral density. © 2018 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

17.
Nat Genet ; 50(5): 766-767, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29549330

RESUMO

In the version of this article originally published, one of the two authors with the name Wei Zhao was omitted from the author list and the affiliations for both authors were assigned to the single Wei Zhao in the author list. In addition, the ORCID for Wei Zhao (Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA) was incorrectly assigned to author Wei Zhou. The errors have been corrected in the HTML and PDF versions of the article.

18.
Am J Hum Genet ; 102(1): 88-102, 2018 01 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29304378

RESUMO

Bone mineral density (BMD) assessed by DXA is used to evaluate bone health. In children, total body (TB) measurements are commonly used; in older individuals, BMD at the lumbar spine (LS) and femoral neck (FN) is used to diagnose osteoporosis. To date, genetic variants in more than 60 loci have been identified as associated with BMD. To investigate the genetic determinants of TB-BMD variation along the life course and test for age-specific effects, we performed a meta-analysis of 30 genome-wide association studies (GWASs) of TB-BMD including 66,628 individuals overall and divided across five age strata, each spanning 15 years. We identified variants associated with TB-BMD at 80 loci, of which 36 have not been previously identified; overall, they explain approximately 10% of the TB-BMD variance when combining all age groups and influence the risk of fracture. Pathway and enrichment analysis of the association signals showed clustering within gene sets implicated in the regulation of cell growth and SMAD proteins, overexpressed in the musculoskeletal system, and enriched in enhancer and promoter regions. These findings reveal TB-BMD as a relevant trait for genetic studies of osteoporosis, enabling the identification of variants and pathways influencing different bone compartments. Only variants in ESR1 and close proximity to RANKL showed a clear effect dependency on age. This most likely indicates that the majority of genetic variants identified influence BMD early in life and that their effect can be captured throughout the life course.

19.
Nat Genet ; 50(1): 26-41, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29273807

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified >250 loci for body mass index (BMI), implicating pathways related to neuronal biology. Most GWAS loci represent clusters of common, noncoding variants from which pinpointing causal genes remains challenging. Here we combined data from 718,734 individuals to discover rare and low-frequency (minor allele frequency (MAF) < 5%) coding variants associated with BMI. We identified 14 coding variants in 13 genes, of which 8 variants were in genes (ZBTB7B, ACHE, RAPGEF3, RAB21, ZFHX3, ENTPD6, ZFR2 and ZNF169) newly implicated in human obesity, 2 variants were in genes (MC4R and KSR2) previously observed to be mutated in extreme obesity and 2 variants were in GIPR. The effect sizes of rare variants are ~10 times larger than those of common variants, with the largest effect observed in carriers of an MC4R mutation introducing a stop codon (p.Tyr35Ter, MAF = 0.01%), who weighed ~7 kg more than non-carriers. Pathway analyses based on the variants associated with BMI confirm enrichment of neuronal genes and provide new evidence for adipocyte and energy expenditure biology, widening the potential of genetically supported therapeutic targets in obesity.

20.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 77(3): 378-385, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29170203

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To identify genetic determinants of susceptibility to clinical vertebral fractures, which is an important complication of osteoporosis. METHODS: Here we conduct a genome-wide association study in 1553 postmenopausal women with clinical vertebral fractures and 4340 controls, with a two-stage replication involving 1028 cases and 3762 controls. Potentially causal variants were identified using expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) data from transiliac bone biopsies and bioinformatic studies. RESULTS: A locus tagged by rs10190845 was identified on chromosome 2q13, which was significantly associated with clinical vertebral fracture (P=1.04×10-9) with a large effect size (OR 1.74, 95% CI 1.06 to 2.6). Bioinformatic analysis of this locus identified several potentially functional SNPs that are associated with expression of the positional candidate genes TTL (tubulin tyrosine ligase) and SLC20A1 (solute carrier family 20 member 1). Three other suggestive loci were identified on chromosomes 1p31, 11q12 and 15q11. All these loci were novel and had not previously been associated with bone mineral density or clinical fractures. CONCLUSION: We have identified a novel genetic variant that is associated with clinical vertebral fractures by mechanisms that are independent of BMD. Further studies are now in progress to validate this association and evaluate the underlying mechanism.

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