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1.
Cell ; 185(1): 95-112.e18, 2022 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34995520

RESUMO

Fingerprints are of long-standing practical and cultural interest, but little is known about the mechanisms that underlie their variation. Using genome-wide scans in Han Chinese cohorts, we identified 18 loci associated with fingerprint type across the digits, including a genetic basis for the long-recognized "pattern-block" correlations among the middle three digits. In particular, we identified a variant near EVI1 that alters regulatory activity and established a role for EVI1 in dermatoglyph patterning in mice. Dynamic EVI1 expression during human development supports its role in shaping the limbs and digits, rather than influencing skin patterning directly. Trans-ethnic meta-analysis identified 43 fingerprint-associated loci, with nearby genes being strongly enriched for general limb development pathways. We also found that fingerprint patterns were genetically correlated with hand proportions. Taken together, these findings support the key role of limb development genes in influencing the outcome of fingerprint patterning.

2.
Depress Anxiety ; 2022 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34985809

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Distinctions between major depressive disorder (MDD) and perinatal depression (PND) reflect varying views of PND, from a unique etiological subtype of MDD to an MDD episode that happens to coincide with childbirth. This case-control study investigated genetic differences between PND and MDD outside the perinatal period (non-perinatal depression or NPD). METHODS: We conducted a genome-wide association study using PND cases (Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale score ≥ 13) from the Australian Genetics of Depression Study 2018 data (n = 3804) and screened controls (n = 6134). Results of gene-set enrichment analysis were compared with those of women with non-PND. For six psychiatric disorders/traits, genetic correlations with PND were evaluated, and logistic regression analysis reported polygenic score (PGS) association with both PND and NPD. RESULTS: Genes differentially expressed in ovarian tissue were significantly enriched (stdBeta = 0.07, p = 3.3e-04), but were not found to be associated with NPD. The genetic correlation between PND and MDD was 0.93 (SE = 0.07; p = 3.5e-38). Compared with controls, PGS for MDD are higher for PND cases (odds ratio [OR] = 1.8, confidence interval [CI] = [1.7-1.8], p = 9.5e-140) than for NPD cases (OR = 1.6, CI = [1.5-1.7], p = 1.2e-49). Highest risk is for those reporting both antenatal and postnatal depression, irrespective of prior MDD history. CONCLUSIONS: PND has a high genetic overlap with MDD, but points of distinction focus on differential expression in ovarian tissue and higher MDD PGS, particularly for women experiencing both antenatal and postpartum PND.

3.
Pac Symp Biocomput ; 27: 121-132, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34890142

RESUMO

Disrupted iron homeostasis is associated with several neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease (AD), and may be partially modulated by genetic risk factors. Here we evaluated whether subcortical iron deposition is associated with ApoE genotype, which substantially affects risk for late-onset AD. We evaluated differences in subcortical quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM), a type of MRI sensitive to cerebral iron deposition, between either ApoE4 (E3E4+E4E4) or ApoE2 (E2E3+E2E2) carriers and E3 homozygotes (E3E3) in 27,535 participants from the UK Biobank (age: 45-82 years). We found that ApoE4 carriers had higher hippocampal (d=0.036; p=0.012) and amygdalar (d=0.035; p=0.013) magnetic susceptibility, particularly individuals aged 65 years or older, while those carrying ApoE2 (which protects against AD) had higher QSM only in the hippocampus (d=0.05; p=0.006), particularly those under age 65. Secondary diffusion MRI microstructural associations in these regions revealed greater diffusivity and less diffusion restriction in E4 carriers, however no differences were detected in E2 carriers. Disease risk conferred by ApoE4 may be linked with higher subcortical iron burden in conjunction with inflammation or neuronal loss in aging individuals, while ApoE2 associations may not necessarily reflect unhealthy iron deposits earlier in life.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer , Apolipoproteína E4 , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Doença de Alzheimer/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença de Alzheimer/genética , Apolipoproteína E2/genética , Apolipoproteína E4/genética , Apolipoproteínas E/genética , Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos , Biologia Computacional , Genótipo , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reino Unido
5.
Biol Psychiatry ; 2021 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34924174

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a common and highly heterogeneous psychiatric disorder, but little is known about the genetic characterization of this heterogeneity. Understanding the genetic etiology of MDD can be challenging because large sample sizes are needed for gene discovery-often achieved with a trade-off in the depth of phenotyping. METHODS: The Australian Genetics of Depression Study is the largest stand-alone depression cohort with both genetic data and in-depth phenotyping and comprises a total of 15,792 participants of European ancestry, 92% of whom met diagnostic criteria for MDD. We leveraged the unique nature of this cohort to conduct a meta-analysis with the largest publicly available depression genome-wide association study to date and subsequently used polygenic scores to investigate genetic heterogeneity across various clinical subtypes of MDD. RESULTS: We increased the number of known genome-wide significant variants associated with depression from 103 to 126 and found evidence of association of novel genes implicated in neuronal development. We found that a polygenic score for depression explained 5.7% of variance in MDD liability in our sample. Finally, we found strong support for genetic heterogeneity in depression with differential associations of multiple psychiatric and comorbid traits with age of onset, longitudinal course, and various subtypes of MDD. CONCLUSIONS: Until now, this degree of detailed phenotyping in such a large sample of MDD cases has not been possible. Along with the discovery of novel loci, we provide support for differential pathways to illness models that recognize the overlap with other common psychiatric disorders as well as pathophysiological differences.

6.
Neuroimage ; 245: 118700, 2021 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34740793

RESUMO

Imaging genetics analyses use neuroimaging traits as intermediate phenotypes to infer the degree of genetic contribution to brain structure and function in health and/or illness. Coefficients of relatedness (CR) summarize the degree of genetic similarity among subjects and are used to estimate the heritability - the proportion of phenotypic variance explained by genetic factors. The CR can be inferred directly from genome-wide genotype data to explain the degree of shared variation in common genetic polymorphisms (SNP-heritability) among related or unrelated subjects. We developed a central processing and graphics processing unit (CPU and GPU) accelerated Fast and Powerful Heritability Inference (FPHI) approach that linearizes likelihood calculations to overcome the ∼N2-3 computational effort dependency on sample size of classical likelihood approaches. We calculated for 60 regional and 1.3 × 105 voxel-wise traits in N = 1,206 twin and sibling participants from the Human Connectome Project (HCP) (550 M/656 F, age = 28.8 ± 3.7 years) and N = 37,432 (17,531 M/19,901 F; age = 63.7 ± 7.5 years) participants from the UK Biobank (UKBB). The FPHI estimates were in excellent agreement with heritability values calculated using Genome-wide Complex Trait Analysis software (r = 0.96 and 0.98 in HCP and UKBB sample) while significantly reducing computational (102-4 times). The regional and voxel-wise traits heritability estimates for the HCP and UKBB were likewise in excellent agreement (r = 0.63-0.76, p < 10-10). In summary, the hardware-accelerated FPHI made it practical to calculate heritability values for voxel-wise neuroimaging traits, even in very large samples such as the UKBB. The patterns of additive genetic variance in neuroimaging traits measured in a large sample of related and unrelated individuals showed excellent agreement regardless of the estimation method. The code and instruction to execute these analyses are available at www.solar-eclipse-genetics.org.

7.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 22628, 2021 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34799595

RESUMO

Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a complex psychiatric and neurodevelopmental disorder that develops during childhood and spans into adulthood. ADHD's aetiology is complex, and evidence about its cause and risk factors is limited. We leveraged genetic data from genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and performed latent causal variable analyses using a hypothesis-free approach to infer causal associations between 1387 complex traits and ADHD. We identified 37 inferred potential causal associations with ADHD risk. Our results reveal that genetic variants associated with iron deficiency anemia (ICD10), obesity, type 2 diabetes, synovitis and tenosynovitis (ICD10), polyarthritis (ICD10), neck or shoulder pain, and substance use in adults display partial genetic causality on ADHD risk in children. Genetic variants associated with ADHD have a partial genetic causality increasing the risk for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and carpal tunnel syndrome. Protective factors for ADHD risk included genetic variants associated with the likelihood of participating in socially supportive and interactive activities. Our results show that genetic liability to multiple complex traits influences a higher risk for ADHD, highlighting the potential role of cardiometabolic phenotypes and physical pain in ADHD's aetiology. These findings have the potential to inform future clinical studies and development of interventions.

8.
J Invest Dermatol ; 2021 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34813871

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified a number of risk loci for cutaneous melanoma. Cutaneous melanoma shares overlapping genetic risk (genetic correlation) with a number of other traits, including with its risk factors such as sunburn propensity. This genetic correlation can be exploited to identify additional cutaneous melanoma risk loci by multi-trait analysis of GWAS (MTAG). We used bivariate LD-score regression to identify traits that are genetically correlated with clinically-confirmed cutaneous melanoma, and then used publicly available GWAS for these traits in a MTAG. MTAG allows GWAS to be combined while accounting for sample overlap and incomplete genetic correlation. We identified a total of 74 genome-wide independent loci; 19 of them were not previously reported in the input cutaneous melanoma GWAS-meta-analysis. 55 of these loci were replicated (P < 0.05/74), Bonferroni corrected P -value in two independent cutaneous melanoma replication cohorts from Melanoma Institute Australia and 23andMe, Inc. Among the new cutaneous melanoma loci are ones that have also been associated with autoimmune traits including rs715199 near LPP, and rs10858023 near AP4B1. Our analysis indicates genetic correlation between traits can be leveraged to identify new risk genes for cutaneous melanoma.

9.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 185(5): 743-753, 2021 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34524976

RESUMO

Objective: Genetic factors underpin the narrow intraindividual variability of thyroid function, although precise contributions of environmental vs genetic factors remain uncertain. We sought to clarify the heritability of thyroid function traits and thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb) positivity and identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) contributing to the trait variance. Methods: Heritability of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), free T4 (fT4), free T3 (fT3) and TPOAb in a cohort of 2854 euthyroid, dizygous and monozygous twins (age range 11.9-16.9 years) from the Brisbane Longitudinal Twin Study (BLTS) was assessed using structural equation modelling. A genome-wide analysis was conducted on 2832 of these individuals across 7 522 526 SNPs as well as gene-based association analyses. Replication analysis of the association results was performed in the Raine Study (n = 1115) followed by meta-analysis to maximise power for discovery. Results: Heritability of thyroid function parameters in the BLTS was 70.8% (95% CI: 66.7-74.9%) for TSH, 67.5% (59.8-75.3%) for fT4, 59.7% (54.4-65.0%) for fT3 and 48.8% (40.6-56.9%) for TPOAb. The genome-wide association study (GWAS) in the discovery cohort identified a novel association between rs2026401 upstream of NCOA3 and TPOAb. GWAS meta-analysis found associations between TPOAb and rs445219, also near NCOA3, and fT3 and rs12687280 near SERPINA7. Gene-based association analysis highlighted SERPINA7 for fT3 and NPAS3 for fT4. Conclusion: Our findings resolve former contention regarding heritability estimates of thyroid function traits and TPOAb positivity. GWAS and gene-based association analysis identified variants accounting for a component of this heritability.


Assuntos
Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Coativador 3 de Receptor Nuclear/genética , Testes de Função Tireóidea , Glândula Tireoide/fisiologia , Globulina de Ligação a Tiroxina/genética , Adolescente , Austrália/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Iodeto Peroxidase/análise , Iodeto Peroxidase/imunologia , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Tireotropina/sangue , Tiroxina/sangue , Tri-Iodotironina/sangue , Gêmeos Monozigóticos
10.
Horm Behav ; 136: 105054, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34488063

RESUMO

Comparing twins from same- and opposite-sex pairs can provide information on potential sex differences in a variety of outcomes, including socioeconomic-related outcomes such as educational attainment. It has been suggested that this design can be applied to examine the putative role of intrauterine exposure to testosterone for educational attainment, but the evidence is still disputed. Thus, we established an international database of twin data from 11 countries with 88,290 individual dizygotic twins born over 100 years and tested for differences between twins from same- and opposite-sex dizygotic pairs in educational attainment. Effect sizes with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated by linear regression models after adjusting for birth year and twin study cohort. In contrast to the hypothesis, no difference was found in women (ß = -0.05 educational years, 95% CI -0.11, 0.02). However, men with a same-sex co-twin were slightly more educated than men having an opposite-sex co-twin (ß = 0.14 educational years, 95% CI 0.07, 0.21). No consistent differences in effect sizes were found between individual twin study cohorts representing Europe, the USA, and Australia or over the cohorts born during the 20th century, during which period the sex differences in education reversed favoring women in the latest birth cohorts. Further, no interaction was found with maternal or paternal education. Our results contradict the hypothesis that there would be differences in the intrauterine testosterone levels between same-sex and opposite-sex female twins affecting education. Our findings in men may point to social dynamics within same-sex twin pairs that may benefit men in their educational careers.

11.
Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet ; 186(6): 341-352, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34562071

RESUMO

Our beliefs about the heritability of psychiatric traits may influence how we respond to the use of genetic information in this area. In the present study, we aim to inform future education campaigns as well as genetic counseling interventions by exploring common fears and misunderstandings associated with learning about genetic predispositions for mental health disorders. We surveyed 3,646 genetic research participants from Australia, and 960 members of the public from the United Kingdom, and the United States, and evaluated attitudes toward psychiatric genetic testing. Participants were asked hypothetical questions about their interest in psychiatric genetic testing, perceived usefulness of psychiatric genetic testing, and beliefs about malleability of behavior, among others. We also asked them to estimate the heritability of alcohol dependence, schizophrenia, and major depression. We found a high interest in psychiatric genetic testing. In most cases, more than a third of the participants showed serious concerns related to learning about personal genetic predisposition, such as not wanting to have children if they knew they had a high genetic predisposition, or not wanting to choose a partner with a high genetic predisposition for a mental health problem. Finally, we found a significant association between most participants' attitudes and their lay estimates of heritability, which highlights the complexity of educating the public about genetics.

12.
JAMA Psychiatry ; 78(10): 1152-1160, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34379077

RESUMO

Importance: Genetic studies with broad definitions of depression may not capture genetic risk specific to major depressive disorder (MDD), raising questions about how depression should be operationalized in future genetic studies. Objective: To use a large, well-phenotyped single study of MDD to investigate how different definitions of depression used in genetic studies are associated with estimation of MDD and phenotypes of MDD, using polygenic risk scores (PRSs). Design, Setting, and Participants: In this case-control polygenic risk score analysis, patients meeting diagnostic criteria for a diagnosis of MDD were drawn from the Australian Genetics of Depression Study, a cross-sectional, population-based study of depression, and controls and patients with self-reported depression were drawn from QSkin, a population-based cohort study. Data analyzed herein were collected before September 2018, and data analysis was conducted from September 10, 2020, to January 27, 2021. Main Outcome and Measures: Polygenic risk scores generated from genome-wide association studies using different definitions of depression were evaluated for estimation of MDD in and within individuals with MDD for an association with age at onset, adverse childhood experiences, comorbid psychiatric and somatic disorders, and current physical and mental health. Results: Participants included 12 106 (71% female; mean age, 42.3 years; range, 18-88 years) patients meeting criteria for MDD and 12 621 (55% female; mean age, 60.9 years; range, 43-87 years) control participants with no history of psychiatric disorders. The effect size of the PRS was proportional to the discovery sample size, with the largest study having the largest effect size with the odds ratio for MDD (1.75; 95% CI, 1.73-1.77) per SD of PRS and the PRS derived from ICD-10 codes documented in hospitalization records in a population health cohort having the lowest odds ratio (1.14; 95% CI, 1.12-1.16). When accounting for differences in sample size, the PRS from a genome-wide association study of patients meeting diagnostic criteria for MDD and control participants was the best estimator of MDD, but not in those with self-reported depression, and associations with higher odds ratios with childhood adverse experiences and measures of somatic distress. Conclusions and Relevance: These findings suggest that increasing sample sizes, regardless of the depth of phenotyping, may be most informative for estimating risk of depression. The next generation of genome-wide association studies should, like the Australian Genetics of Depression Study, have both large sample sizes and extensive phenotyping to capture genetic risk factors for MDD not identified by other definitions of depression.

13.
Cereb Cortex ; 2021 Aug 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34379727

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified genetic variants associated with brain morphology and substance use behaviors (SUB). However, the genetic overlap between brain structure and SUB has not been well characterized. We leveraged GWAS summary data of 71 brain imaging measures and alcohol, tobacco, and cannabis use to investigate their genetic overlap using linkage disequilibrium score regression. We used genomic structural equation modeling to model a "common SUB genetic factor" and investigated its genetic overlap with brain structure. Furthermore, we estimated SUB polygenic risk scores (PRS) and examined whether they predicted brain imaging traits using the Adolescent Behavior and Cognitive Development (ABCD) study. We identified 8 significant negative genetic correlations, including between (1) alcoholic drinks per week and average cortical thickness, and (2) intracranial volume with age of smoking initiation. We observed 5 positive genetic correlations, including those between (1) insula surface area and lifetime cannabis use, and (2) the common SUB genetic factor and pericalcarine surface area. SUB PRS were associated with brain structure variation in ABCD. Our findings highlight a shared genetic etiology between cortical brain morphology and SUB and suggest that genetic variants associated with SUB may be causally related to brain structure differences.

14.
Behav Genet ; 51(5): 592-606, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34390460

RESUMO

We test whether genetic influences that explain individual differences in aggression in early life also explain individual differences across the life-course. In two cohorts from The Netherlands (N = 13,471) and Australia (N = 5628), polygenic scores (PGSs) were computed based on a genome-wide meta-analysis of childhood/adolescence aggression. In a novel analytic approach, we ran a mixed effects model for each age (Netherlands: 12-70 years, Australia: 16-73 years), with observations at the focus age weighted as 1, and decaying weights for ages further away. We call this approach a 'rolling weights' model. In The Netherlands, the estimated effect of the PGS was relatively similar from age 12 to age 41, and decreased from age 41-70. In Australia, there was a peak in the effect of the PGS around age 40 years. These results are a first indication from a molecular genetics perspective that genetic influences on aggressive behavior that are expressed in childhood continue to play a role later in life.

15.
Aust N Z J Psychiatry ; : 48674211031491, 2021 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34266302

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Chronic pain and depression are highly comorbid and difficult-to-treat disorders. We previously showed this comorbidity is associated with higher depression severity, lower antidepressant treatment effectiveness and poorer prognosis in the Australian Genetics of Depression Study. OBJECTIVE: The current study aimed to assess whether a genetic liability to chronic pain is associated with antidepressant effectiveness over and above the effect of genetic factors for depression in a sample of 12,863 Australian Genetics of Depression Study participants. METHODS: Polygenic risk scores were calculated using summary statistics from genome-wide association studies of multisite chronic pain and major depression. Cumulative linked regressions were employed to assess the association between polygenic risk scores and antidepressant treatment effectiveness across 10 different medications. RESULTS: Mixed-effects logistic regressions showed that individual genetic propensity for chronic pain, but not major depression, was significantly associated with patient-reported chronic pain (PainPRS OR = 1.17 [1.12, 1.22]; MDPRS OR = 1.01 [0.98, 1.06]). Significant associations were also found between lower antidepressant effectiveness and genetic risk for chronic pain or for major depression. However, a fully adjusted model showed the effect of PainPRS (adjOR = 0.93 [0.90, 0.96]) was independent of MDPRS (adjOR = 0.96 [0.93, 0.99]). Sensitivity analyses were performed to assess the robustness of these results. After adjusting for depression severity measures (i.e. age of onset; number of depressive episodes; interval between age at study participation and at depression onset), the associations between PainPRS and patient-reported chronic pain with lower antidepressant effectiveness remained significant (0.95 [0.92, 0.98] and 0.84 [0.78, 0.90], respectively). CONCLUSION: These results suggest genetic risk for chronic pain accounted for poorer antidepressant effectiveness, independent of the genetic risk for major depression. Our results, along with independent converging evidence from other studies, point towards a difficult-to-treat depression subtype characterised by comorbid chronic pain. This finding warrants further investigation into the implications for biologically based nosology frameworks in pain medicine and psychiatry.

16.
Brain Behav ; 11(8): e02188, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34291596

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The ENIGMA-EEG working group was established to enable large-scale international collaborations among cohorts that investigate the genetics of brain function measured with electroencephalography (EEG). In this perspective, we will discuss why analyzing the genetics of functional brain activity may be crucial for understanding how neurological and psychiatric liability genes affect the brain. METHODS: We summarize how we have performed our currently largest genome-wide association study of oscillatory brain activity in EEG recordings by meta-analyzing the results across five participating cohorts, resulting in the first genome-wide significant hits for oscillatory brain function located in/near genes that were previously associated with psychiatric disorders. We describe how we have tackled methodological issues surrounding genetic meta-analysis of EEG features. We discuss the importance of harmonizing EEG signal processing, cleaning, and feature extraction. Finally, we explain our selection of EEG features currently being investigated, including the temporal dynamics of oscillations and the connectivity network based on synchronization of oscillations. RESULTS: We present data that show how to perform systematic quality control and evaluate how choices in reference electrode and montage affect individual differences in EEG parameters. CONCLUSION: The long list of potential challenges to our large-scale meta-analytic approach requires extensive effort and organization between participating cohorts; however, our perspective shows that these challenges are surmountable. Our perspective argues that elucidating the genetic of EEG oscillatory activity is a worthwhile effort in order to elucidate the pathway from gene to disease liability.


Assuntos
Eletroencefalografia , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Encéfalo , Mapeamento Encefálico , Humanos , Processamento de Sinais Assistido por Computador
17.
Biol Psychiatry ; 90(4): 243-252, 2021 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34172278

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Neuroimaging studies of suicidal behavior have so far been conducted in small samples, prone to biases and false-positive associations, yielding inconsistent results. The ENIGMA-MDD Working Group aims to address the issues of poor replicability and comparability by coordinating harmonized analyses across neuroimaging studies of major depressive disorder and related phenotypes, including suicidal behavior. METHODS: Here, we pooled data from 18 international cohorts with neuroimaging and clinical measurements in 18,925 participants (12,477 healthy control subjects and 6448 people with depression, of whom 694 had attempted suicide). We compared regional cortical thickness and surface area and measures of subcortical, lateral ventricular, and intracranial volumes between suicide attempters, clinical control subjects (nonattempters with depression), and healthy control subjects. RESULTS: We identified 25 regions of interest with statistically significant (false discovery rate < .05) differences between groups. Post hoc examinations identified neuroimaging markers associated with suicide attempt including smaller volumes of the left and right thalamus and the right pallidum and lower surface area of the left inferior parietal lobe. CONCLUSIONS: This study addresses the lack of replicability and consistency in several previously published neuroimaging studies of suicide attempt and further demonstrates the need for well-powered samples and collaborative efforts. Our results highlight the potential involvement of the thalamus, a structure viewed historically as a passive gateway in the brain, and the pallidum, a region linked to reward response and positive affect. Future functional and connectivity studies of suicidal behaviors may focus on understanding how these regions relate to the neurobiological mechanisms of suicide attempt risk.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo Maior , Tentativa de Suicídio , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Neuroimagem
19.
Transl Psychiatry ; 11(1): 285, 2021 05 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33986245

RESUMO

Improving our understanding of the causes of functional impairment in young people is a major global challenge. Here, we investigated the relationships between self-reported days out of role and the total quantity and different patterns of self-reported somatic, anxious-depressive, psychotic-like, and hypomanic symptoms in a community-based cohort of young adults. We examined self-ratings of 23 symptoms ranging across the four dimensions and days out of role in >1900 young adult twins and non-twin siblings participating in the "19Up" wave of the Brisbane Longitudinal Twin Study. Adjusted prevalence ratios (APR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) quantified associations between impairment and different symptom patterns. Three individual symptoms showed significant associations with days out of role, with the largest association for impaired concentration. When impairment was assessed according to each symptom dimension, there was a clear stepwise relationship between the total number of somatic symptoms and the likelihood of impairment, while individuals reporting ≥4 anxious-depressive symptoms or five hypomanic symptoms had greater likelihood of reporting days out of role. Furthermore, there was a stepwise relationship between the total number of undifferentiated symptoms and the likelihood of reporting days out of role. There was some suggestion of differences in the magnitude and significance of associations when the cohort was stratified according to sex, but not for age or twin status. Our findings reinforce the development of early intervention mental health frameworks and, if confirmed, support the need to consider interventions for subthreshold and/or undifferentiated syndromes for reducing disability among young people.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais , Adolescente , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Saúde Mental , Prevalência , Adulto Jovem
20.
Front Psychiatry ; 12: 643609, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33912086

RESUMO

The bidirectional relationship between depression and chronic pain is well-recognized, but their clinical management remains challenging. Here we characterize the shared risk factors and outcomes for their comorbidity in the Australian Genetics of Depression cohort study (N = 13,839). Participants completed online questionnaires about chronic pain, psychiatric symptoms, comorbidities, treatment response and general health. Logistic regression models were used to examine the relationship between chronic pain and clinical and demographic factors. Cumulative linked logistic regressions assessed the effect of chronic pain on treatment response for 10 different antidepressants. Chronic pain was associated with an increased risk of depression (OR = 1.86 [1.37-2.54]), recent suicide attempt (OR = 1.88 [1.14-3.09]), higher use of tobacco (OR = 1.05 [1.02-1.09]) and misuse of painkillers (e.g., opioids; OR = 1.31 [1.06-1.62]). Participants with comorbid chronic pain and depression reported fewer functional benefits from antidepressant use and lower benefits from sertraline (OR = 0.75 [0.68-0.83]), escitalopram (OR = 0.75 [0.67-0.85]) and venlafaxine (OR = 0.78 [0.68-0.88]) when compared to participants without chronic pain. Furthermore, participants taking sertraline (OR = 0.45 [0.30-0.67]), escitalopram (OR = 0.45 [0.27-0.74]) and citalopram (OR = 0.32 [0.15-0.67]) specifically for chronic pain (among other indications) reported lower benefits compared to other participants taking these same medications but not for chronic pain. These findings reveal novel insights into the complex relationship between chronic pain and depression. Treatment response analyses indicate differential effectiveness between particular antidepressants and poorer functional outcomes for these comorbid conditions. Further examination is warranted in targeted interventional clinical trials, which also include neuroimaging genetics and pharmacogenomics protocols. This work will advance the delineation of disease risk indicators and novel aetiological pathways for therapeutic intervention in comorbid pain and depression as well as other psychiatric comorbidities.

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