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1.
Cell ; 2021 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33450204

RESUMO

Food is simultaneously a source of essential nutrients and a potential source of lethal toxins and pathogens. Consequently, multiple sensory mechanisms evolved to monitor the quality of food based on the presence and relative abundance of beneficial and harmful food substances. These include the olfactory, gustatory, and gut chemosensory systems. Here we argue that, in addition to these systems, allergic immunity plays a role in food quality control by mounting allergic defenses against food antigens associated with noxious substances. Exaggeration of these defenses can result in pathological food allergy.

2.
J Virol ; 94(22)2020 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32878886

RESUMO

Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) and HSV-2 can efficiently establish lifelong, transcriptionally silent latency states in sensory neurons to escape host detection. While host factors have previously been associated with long-range insulators in the viral genome, it is still unknown whether host transcription factors can repress viral genes more proximately to promote latency in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons. Here, we assessed whether RUNX (runt-related transcription factor) transcription factors, which are critical in the development of sensory neurons, could be binding HSV-1 genome directly to suppress viral gene expression and lytic infection. Using previously published transcriptome sequencing data, we confirmed that mouse DRG neurons highly express Runx1 mRNA. Through computational analysis of HSV-1 and HSV-2 genomes, we observed that putative RUNX consensus binding sites (CBSs) were more enriched and more closely located to viral gene transcription start sites than would be expected by chance. We further found that RUNX CBSs were significantly more enriched among genomes of herpesviruses compared to those of nonherpesviruses. Utilizing an in vitro model of HSV-1 infection, we found that overexpressed RUNX1 could bind putative binding sites in the HSV-1 genome, repress numerous viral genes spanning all three kinetic classes, and suppress productive infection. In contrast, knockdown of RUNX1 in neuroblastoma cells induced viral gene expression and increased HSV-1 infection in vitro In sum, these data support a novel role for RUNX1 in directly binding herpesvirus genome, silencing the transcription of numerous viral genes, and ultimately limiting overall infection.IMPORTANCE Infecting 90% of the global population, HSV-1 and HSV-2 represent some of the most prevalent viruses in the world. Much of their success can be attributed to their ability to establish lifelong latent infections in the dorsal root ganglia (DRG). It is still largely unknown, however, how host transcription factors are involved in establishing this latency. Here, we report that RUNX1, expressed highly in DRG, binds HSV-1 genome, represses transcription of numerous viral genes, and suppresses productive in vitro infection. Our computational work further suggests this strategy may be used by other herpesviruses to reinforce latency in a cell-specific manner.

3.
Cell Metab ; 32(2): 148-149, 2020 Aug 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32755605

RESUMO

iNKT cells are important regulatory cells in metabolic health and disease. In this issue of Cell Metabolism, LaMarche et al. (2020) clarify the origin and heterogeneity of these unconventional T cells and identify the specific signals in adipose tissues that direct their function.

4.
Nature ; 584(7821): 463-469, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32717743

RESUMO

Recent studies have provided insights into the pathogenesis of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)1-4. However, the longitudinal immunological correlates of disease outcome remain unclear. Here we serially analysed immune responses in 113 patients with moderate or severe COVID-19. Immune profiling revealed an overall increase in innate cell lineages, with a concomitant reduction in T cell number. An early elevation in cytokine levels was associated with worse disease outcomes. Following an early increase in cytokines, patients with moderate COVID-19 displayed a progressive reduction in type 1 (antiviral) and type 3 (antifungal) responses. By contrast, patients with severe COVID-19 maintained these elevated responses throughout the course of the disease. Moreover, severe COVID-19 was accompanied by an increase in multiple type 2 (anti-helminths) effectors, including interleukin-5 (IL-5), IL-13, immunoglobulin E and eosinophils. Unsupervised clustering analysis identified four immune signatures, representing growth factors (A), type-2/3 cytokines (B), mixed type-1/2/3 cytokines (C), and chemokines (D) that correlated with three distinct disease trajectories. The immune profiles of patients who recovered from moderate COVID-19 were enriched in tissue reparative growth factor signature A, whereas the profiles of those with who developed severe disease had elevated levels of all four signatures. Thus, we have identified a maladapted immune response profile associated with severe COVID-19 and poor clinical outcome, as well as early immune signatures that correlate with divergent disease trajectories.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Citocinas/análise , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Análise por Conglomerados , Citocinas/imunologia , Eosinófilos/imunologia , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulina E/análise , Imunoglobulina E/imunologia , Interleucina-13/análise , Interleucina-13/imunologia , Interleucina-5/análise , Interleucina-5/imunologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Linfócitos T/citologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Carga Viral , Adulto Jovem
5.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(29): 17381-17388, 2020 07 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32632018

RESUMO

Adiponectin (Acrp30) is an adipokine associated with protection from cardiovascular disease, insulin resistance, and inflammation. Although its effects are conventionally attributed to binding Adipor1/2 and T-cadherin, its abundance in circulation, role in ceramide metabolism, and homology to C1q suggest an overlooked role as a lipid-binding protein, possibly generalizable to other C1q/TNF-related proteins (CTRPs) and C1q family members. To investigate this, adiponectin, representative family members, and variants were expressed in Expi293 cells and tested for binding to lipids in liposomes using density centrifugation. Binding to physiological lipids were also analyzed using gradient ultracentrifugation, liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, and shotgun lipidomics. Interestingly, adiponectin selectively bound several anionic phospholipids and sphingolipids, including phosphatidylserine, ceramide-1-phosphate, glucosylceramide, and sulfatide, via the C1q domain in an oligomerization-dependent fashion. Binding to lipids was observed in liposomes, low-density lipoproteins, cell membranes, and plasma. Other CTRPs and C1q family members (Cbln1, CTRP1, CTRP5, and CTRP13) also bound similar lipids. These findings suggest that adiponectin and CTRPs function not only as hormones, but also as lipid opsonins, as may other C1q family proteins.


Assuntos
Adiponectina/metabolismo , Complemento C1q/metabolismo , Fosfolipídeos/metabolismo , Esfingolipídeos/metabolismo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo , Adipocinas/metabolismo , Adiponectina/genética , Animais , Ânions , Membrana Celular , LDL-Colesterol , Humanos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Lipidômica , Lipoproteínas/metabolismo , Lipossomos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Proteínas Opsonizantes/metabolismo , Plasma
6.
Nat Rev Immunol ; 20(12): 771-780, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32612208

RESUMO

The human genome encodes more than 300 potential immune inhibitory receptors. The reason for this large number of receptors remains unclear. We suggest that inhibitory receptors operate as two distinct functional categories: receptors that control the signalling threshold for immune cell activation and receptors involved in the negative feedback of immune cell activation. These two categories have characteristic receptor expression patterns: 'threshold' receptors are expressed at steady state and their expression remains high or is downregulated upon activation, whereas 'negative feedback' receptors are induced upon immune cell activation. We use mathematical models to illustrate their possible modes of operation in different scenarios for different purposes. We discuss how this categorization may impact the choice of therapeutic targets for immunotherapy of malignant, infectious and autoimmune diseases.

7.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(27): 15837-15845, 2020 07 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32571957

RESUMO

Despite broad appreciation of their clinical utility, it has been unclear how vitamin B12 and folic acid (FA) function at the molecular level to directly prevent their hallmark symptoms of deficiency like anemia or birth defects. To this point, B12 and FA have largely been studied as cofactors for enzymes in the one-carbon (1C) cycle in facilitating the de novo generation of nucleotides and methylation of DNA and protein. Here, we report that B12 and FA function as natural antagonists of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). Our studies indicate that B12 and FA bind AhR directly as competitive antagonists, blocking AhR nuclear localization, XRE binding, and target gene induction mediated by AhR agonists like 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzodioxin (TCDD) and 6-formylindolo[3,2-b]carbazole (FICZ). In mice, TCDD treatment replicated many of the hallmark symptoms of B12/FA deficiency and cotreatment with aryl hydrocarbon portions of B12/FA rescued mice from these toxic effects. Moreover, we found that B12/FA deficiency in mice induces AhR transcriptional activity and accumulation of erythroid progenitors and that it may do so in an AhR-dependent fashion. Consistent with these results, we observed that human cancer samples with deficient B12/FA uptake demonstrated higher transcription of AhR target genes and lower transcription of pathways implicated in birth defects. In contrast, there was no significant difference observed between samples with mutated and intact 1C cycle proteins. Thus, we propose a model in which B12 and FA blunt the effect of natural AhR agonists at baseline to prevent the symptoms that arise with AhR overactivation.


Assuntos
Ácido Fólico/metabolismo , Desnutrição/metabolismo , Receptores de Hidrocarboneto Arílico/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptores de Hidrocarboneto Arílico/metabolismo , Vitamina B 12/metabolismo , Animais , Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos , Carbazóis/farmacologia , Anormalidades Congênitas , Feminino , Deficiência de Ácido Fólico/tratamento farmacológico , Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Neoplasias , Dibenzodioxinas Policloradas/farmacologia , Receptores de Hidrocarboneto Arílico/agonistas , Receptores de Hidrocarboneto Arílico/genética , Deficiência de Vitamina B 12/tratamento farmacológico
8.
Cell ; 180(5): 847-861.e15, 2020 03 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32142678

RESUMO

Early life environmental exposure, particularly during perinatal period, can have a life-long impact on organismal development and physiology. The biological rationale for this phenomenon is to promote physiological adaptations to the anticipated environment based on early life experience. However, perinatal exposure to adverse environments can also be associated with adult-onset disorders. Multiple environmental stressors induce glucocorticoids, which prompted us to investigate their role in developmental programming. Here, we report that perinatal glucocorticoid exposure had long-term consequences and resulted in diminished CD8 T cell response in adulthood and impaired control of tumor growth and bacterial infection. We found that perinatal glucocorticoid exposure resulted in persistent alteration of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Consequently, the level of the hormone in adults was significantly reduced, resulting in decreased CD8 T cell function. Our study thus demonstrates that perinatal stress can have long-term consequences on CD8 T cell immunity by altering HPA axis activity.


Assuntos
Infecções Bacterianas/imunologia , Desenvolvimento Embrionário/imunologia , Glucocorticoides/efeitos adversos , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/genética , Animais , Infecções Bacterianas/genética , Infecções Bacterianas/microbiologia , Infecções Bacterianas/patologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Dexametasona/farmacologia , Desenvolvimento Embrionário/genética , Feminino , Glucocorticoides/imunologia , Glucocorticoides/metabolismo , Humanos , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário/efeitos dos fármacos , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário/metabolismo , Interleucina-4/farmacologia , Lipopolissacarídeos/toxicidade , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/imunologia , Macrófagos/patologia , Masculino , Neoplasias/induzido quimicamente , Neoplasias/genética , Sistema Hipófise-Suprarrenal/efeitos dos fármacos , Sistema Hipófise-Suprarrenal/metabolismo , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/imunologia , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/patologia , Receptores de Glucocorticoides/genética , Transdução de Sinais/genética
9.
iScience ; 23(2): 100841, 2020 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32058955

RESUMO

Tissue repair is a protective response after injury, but repetitive or prolonged injury can lead to fibrosis, a pathological state of excessive scarring. To pinpoint the dynamic mechanisms underlying fibrosis, it is important to understand the principles of the cell circuits that carry out tissue repair. In this study, we establish a cell-circuit framework for the myofibroblast-macrophage circuit in wound healing, including the accumulation of scar-forming extracellular matrix. We find that fibrosis results from multistability between three outcomes, which we term "hot fibrosis" characterized by many macrophages, "cold fibrosis" lacking macrophages, and normal wound healing. This framework clarifies several unexplained phenomena including the paradoxical effect of macrophage depletion, the limited time-window in which removing inflammation leads to healing, and why scar maturation takes months. We define key parameters that control the transition from healing to fibrosis, which may serve as potential targets for therapeutic reduction of fibrosis.

10.
Nature ; 576(7785): E3, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31745371

RESUMO

An Amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.

11.
Nature ; 574(7776): 45-56, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31578484

RESUMO

New therapies that promote antitumour immunity have been recently developed. Most of these immunomodulatory approaches have focused on enhancing T-cell responses, either by targeting inhibitory pathways with immune checkpoint inhibitors, or by targeting activating pathways, as with chimeric antigen receptor T cells or bispecific antibodies. Although these therapies have led to unprecedented successes, only a minority of patients with cancer benefit from these treatments, highlighting the need to identify new cells and molecules that could be exploited in the next generation of immunotherapy. Given the crucial role of innate immune responses in immunity, harnessing these responses opens up new possibilities for long-lasting, multilayered tumour control.


Assuntos
Imunidade Inata/efeitos dos fármacos , Imunidade Inata/imunologia , Imunoterapia/métodos , Imunoterapia/tendências , Neoplasias/imunologia , Neoplasias/terapia , Animais , Humanos , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Linfócitos T/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T/imunologia
12.
Cell ; 178(5): 1231-1244.e11, 2019 08 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31402172

RESUMO

Growth and differentiation factor 15 (GDF15) is an inflammation-associated hormone with poorly defined biology. Here, we investigated the role of GDF15 in bacterial and viral infections. We found that inflammation induced GDF15, and that GDF15 was necessary for surviving both bacterial and viral infections, as well as sepsis. The protective effects of GDF15 were largely independent of pathogen control or the magnitude of inflammatory response, suggesting a role in disease tolerance. Indeed, we found that GDF15 was required for hepatic sympathetic outflow and triglyceride metabolism. Failure to defend the lower limit of plasma triglyceride levels was associated with impaired cardiac function and maintenance of body temperature, effects that could be rescued by exogenous administration of lipids. Together, we show that GDF15 coordinates tolerance to inflammatory damage through regulation of triglyceride metabolism.


Assuntos
Fator 15 de Diferenciação de Crescimento/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo , Sepse/patologia , Animais , Anticorpos/farmacologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Fator 15 de Diferenciação de Crescimento/sangue , Fator 15 de Diferenciação de Crescimento/genética , Fator 15 de Diferenciação de Crescimento/imunologia , Coração/efeitos dos fármacos , Coração/virologia , Humanos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Lipopolissacarídeos/toxicidade , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Norepinefrina/metabolismo , Orthomyxoviridae/patogenicidade , Poli I-C/toxicidade , Proteínas Recombinantes/biossíntese , Proteínas Recombinantes/isolamento & purificação , Proteínas Recombinantes/farmacologia , Sepse/sangue , Sepse/mortalidade , Taxa de Sobrevida , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Triglicerídeos/metabolismo , Troponina I/sangue , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/sangue
14.
Cell ; 177(2): 223-224, 2019 04 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30951664

RESUMO

A relationship between thermoregulation, metabolism, and the host response to infections has long been appreciated. In this study, Ganeshan and colleagues discover that the immune system regulates body temperature as a strategy to regulate metabolic rate, which in turn promotes tolerance to inflammatory damage.


Assuntos
Regulação da Temperatura Corporal , Inflamação , Temperatura Corporal , Humanos , Tolerância Imunológica
15.
Sci Signal ; 12(571)2019 03 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30837303

RESUMO

Heterogeneity in the behavior of genetically and developmentally equivalent cells is becoming increasingly appreciated. There are several sources of cellular heterogeneity, including both intrinsic and extrinsic noise. We found that some aspects of heterogeneity in the response of macrophages to bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) were due to intercellular desynchronization of the molecular clock, a cell-intrinsic oscillator. We found that the ratio of the relative expression of two clock genes, Nfil3 and Dbp, expressed in opposite phases of the clock, determined the fraction of cells that produced the cytokine IL-12p40 in response to LPS. The clock can be entrained by various environmental stimuli, making it a mechanism by which population-level heterogeneity and the inflammatory response can be regulated.


Assuntos
Relógios Biológicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Lipopolissacarídeos/toxicidade , Macrófagos/imunologia , Animais , Fatores de Transcrição de Zíper de Leucina Básica/genética , Fatores de Transcrição de Zíper de Leucina Básica/imunologia , Relógios Biológicos/genética , Relógios Biológicos/imunologia , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/imunologia , Subunidade p40 da Interleucina-12/genética , Subunidade p40 da Interleucina-12/imunologia , Macrófagos/patologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/imunologia
16.
Science ; 363(6423)2019 01 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30630899

RESUMO

Metabolism is at the core of all biological functions. Anabolic metabolism uses building blocks that are either derived from nutrients or synthesized de novo to produce the biological infrastructure, whereas catabolic metabolism generates energy to fuel all biological processes. Distinct metabolic programs are required to support different biological functions. Thus, recent studies have revealed how signals regulating cell quiescence, proliferation, and differentiation also induce the appropriate metabolic programs. In particular, a wealth of new studies in the field of immunometabolism has unveiled many examples of the connection among metabolism, cell fate decisions, and organismal physiology. We discuss these findings under a unifying framework derived from the evolutionary and ecological principles of life history theory.


Assuntos
Diferenciação Celular , Proliferação de Células , Metabolismo Energético , Sistema Imunitário/metabolismo , Animais , Evolução Biológica , Humanos , Hipotálamo/fisiologia , Tolerância Imunológica
17.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 116(6): 2200-2209, 2019 02 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30674681

RESUMO

Secondary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (sHLH) is a highly mortal complication associated with sepsis. In adults, it is often seen in the setting of infections, especially viral infections, but the mechanisms that underlie pathogenesis are unknown. sHLH is characterized by a hyperinflammatory state and the presence hemophagocytosis. We found that sequential challenging of mice with a nonlethal dose of viral toll-like receptor (TLR) agonist followed by a nonlethal dose of TLR4 agonist, but not other permutations, produced a highly lethal state that recapitulates many aspects of human HLH. We found that this hyperinflammatory response could be recapitulated in vitro in bone marrow-derived macrophages. RNA sequencing analyses revealed dramatic up-regulation of the red-pulp macrophage lineage-defining transcription factor SpiC and its associated transcriptional program, which was also present in bone marrow macrophages sorted from patients with sHLH. Transcriptional profiling also revealed a unique metabolic transcriptional profile in these macrophages, and immunometabolic phenotyping revealed impaired mitochondrial function and oxidative metabolism and a reliance on glycolytic metabolism. Subsequently, we show that therapeutic administration of the glycolysis inhibitor 2-deoxyglucose was sufficient to rescue animals from HLH. Together, these data identify a potential mechanism for the pathogenesis of sHLH and a potentially useful therapeutic strategy for its treatment.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis/complicações , Linfo-Histiocitose Hemofagocítica/etiologia , Animais , Biomarcadores , Contagem de Células Sanguíneas , Linhagem Celular , Doenças Transmissíveis/microbiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis/virologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Lipopolissacarídeos/efeitos adversos , Lipopolissacarídeos/imunologia , Linfo-Histiocitose Hemofagocítica/diagnóstico , Linfo-Histiocitose Hemofagocítica/metabolismo , Macrófagos/imunologia , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Masculino , Metabolômica/métodos , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Receptores Toll-Like/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptores Toll-Like/metabolismo
18.
Nat Metab ; 1(10): 947-957, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32694839

RESUMO

Metabolic control systems coordinate myriad processes across the cellular, tissue and organismal levels to optimize the allocation of limited supplies across multiple, often competing, metabolic demands. As such, the regulation of metabolism can be analysed from the perspective of the economic theory of supply and demand. Here, we discuss how such analyses can provide new insights into the logic of metabolic control. In particular, we suggest that, in addition to being subject to well-appreciated homeostatic control, metabolism is subject to supply-driven and demand-driven controls, each operated by a dedicated set of signals throughout various physiological states, including inflammation. Furthermore, we argue that systemic homeostasis is a derived feature that evolved from the control systems that monitor metabolic supply and demand.

19.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 115(43): 11042-11047, 2018 10 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30291189

RESUMO

Sickness behaviors are a conserved set of stereotypic responses to inflammatory diseases. We recently demonstrated that interfering with inflammation-induced anorexia led to metabolic changes that had profound effects on survival of acute inflammatory conditions. We found that different inflammatory states needed to be coordinated with corresponding metabolic programs to actuate tissue-protective mechanisms. Survival of viral inflammation required intact glucose utilization pathways, whereas survival of bacterial inflammation required alternative fuel substrates and ketogenic programs. We thus hypothesized that organismal metabolism would be important in other classes of infectious inflammation and sought to understand its role in the prototypic parasitic disease malaria. Utilizing the cerebral malaria model, Plasmodium berghei ANKA (PbA) infection in C57BL/6J male mice, we unexpectedly found that inhibition of glycolysis using 2-deoxy glucose (2DG) conferred protection from cerebral malaria. Unlike vehicle-treated animals, 2DG-treated animals did not develop cerebral malaria and survived until ultimately succumbing to fatal anemia. We did not find any differences in parasitemia or pathogen load in affected tissues. There were no differences in the kinetics of anemia. We also did not detect differences in immune infiltration in the brain or in blood-brain barrier permeability. Rather, on pathological analyses performed on the entire brain, we found that 2DG prevented the formation of thrombi and thrombotic complications. Using thromboelastography (TEG), we found that 2DG-treated animals formed clots that were significantly less strong and stable. Together, these data suggest that glucose metabolism is involved in inflammation-induced hemostasis and provide a potential therapeutic target in treatment of cerebral malaria.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/imunologia , Encéfalo/parasitologia , Glucose/imunologia , Glucose/metabolismo , Tolerância Imunológica/imunologia , Malária Cerebral/imunologia , Malária Cerebral/metabolismo , Animais , Barreira Hematoencefálica/imunologia , Barreira Hematoencefálica/metabolismo , Barreira Hematoencefálica/parasitologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Inflamação/imunologia , Inflamação/metabolismo , Inflamação/parasitologia , Malária Cerebral/parasitologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Parasitemia/imunologia , Plasmodium berghei/imunologia
20.
Mol Cell ; 71(3): 389-397, 2018 08 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30075140

RESUMO

Many mechanisms contribute to regulation of gene expression to ensure coordinated cellular behaviors and fate decisions. Transcriptional responses to external signals can consist of many hundreds of genes that can be parsed into different categories based on kinetics of induction, cell-type and signal specificity, and duration of the response. Here we discuss the structure of transcription programs and suggest a basic framework to categorize gene expression programs based on characteristics related to their control mechanisms. We also discuss possible evolutionary implications of this framework.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Animais , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/fisiologia , Humanos , Especificidade de Órgãos/genética , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia , Transcrição Genética/genética , Transcriptoma/genética
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