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1.
Stroke ; : STROKEAHA121035607, 2021 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34839696

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Postmortem and experimental studies indicate a potential association between repeated concussions and stroke risk in older contact sport athletes. We examined the relationship between concussion and stroke history in former National Football League players aged ≥50 years. METHODS: Former professional football players aged ≥50 years who played ≥1 year in the National Football League were enrolled in the cross-sectional study. Indirect standardization was used to calculate overall and decade-specific standardized prevalence ratios. Logistic regression using Firth's bias reduction method examined the association between lifetime concussion history 0 (n=119; 12.2%), 1 to 2 (n=152; 15.5%), 3 to 5 (n=242; 24.7%), 6 to 9 (201; 20.5%), and 10+(n=265; 27.1%) and stroke. Adjusted odds ratios for stroke were calculated for concussion history groups, age, and coronary artery disease and/or myocardial infarction. RESULTS: The 979 participants who met inclusion criteria had a mean age of 65.0±9.0 years (range, 50-99). The prevalence of stroke was 3.4% (n=33), significantly lower than expected based on rates of stroke in US men aged 50 and over (standardized prevalence ratio=0.56, Z= -4.56, P<0.001). Greater odds of stroke history were associated with concussion history (10+ versus 0, adjusted odds ratio [95% CI]=5.51 [1.61-28.95]), cardiovascular disease (adjusted odds ratio [95% CI]=2.24 [1.01-4.77]), and age (1-year-increase adjusted odds ratio [95% CI]=1.07 [1.02-1.11]). CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of stroke among former National Football League players aged ≥50 years was lower than the general population, with significantly increased risk among those with 10 or more prior concussions. Findings add to the evidence suggesting that traumatic brain injuries are associated with increased risk of stroke. Clinically, management of cardio- and cerebrovascular health may be pertinent to those with a history of multiple prior concussions.

2.
Sports Med ; 2021 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34773581

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Potential links between a history of sport-related concussions and later-life neurobiological and psychological brain health have been studied in former collision-sport athletes. However, empirical studies of how former athletes perceive the future of their brain health as a result of these injuries are missing. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to (1) identify the extent to which former National Football League players currently have concerns about their long-term psychological and cognitive functioning as a result of concussions sustained while playing football; (2) examine whether current concerns are different than concerns they had while playing football; (3) examine the relationship between current brain health concerns and self-reported concussion history (SR-CHx); and (4) explore other important factors associated with these concerns. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, former National Football League players with a SR-CHx of one or more concussions (n = 1514; aged mean [standard deviation] = 52.3 [15.7] years) completed a general health questionnaire. Participants reported their lifetime concussion history, as well as both their current concerns and concerns while playing football (i.e., retrospective concerns) regarding the long-term effects of concussions on their memory, thinking skills, and risk of developing chronic traumatic encephalopathy. Current and retrospective concerns were self-reported on a five-point Likert scale. Four concussion history categories were created based on SR-CHx: 1-2 (n = 309); 3-5 (n = 413); 6-9 (n = 356); and 10 + (n = 436) lifetime concussions. Proportions of participants reporting each level of current and retrospective concerns were examined to identify whether concerns presently exist in these former players, and whether their current concerns are different than retrospective concerns. Next, we explored associations between current concerns and SR-CHx. RESULTS: More than one-third of participants reported being currently "extremely concerned" about memory problems (36.9%), thinking skills (37.8%), and developing chronic traumatic encephalopathy (39.5%). In contrast, when asked about concerns while playing, most reported being "not at all concerned" regarding memory = 61.2%, thinking skills = 56.1%, and developing chronic traumatic encephalopathy = 71.2%. Of those who retrospectively endorsed being "not at all" or "slightly" concerned regarding memory (n = 1159/1514), thinking skills (n = 1080/1514), and developing chronic traumatic encephalopathy (n = 1219/1514), approximately half reported being currently "moderately" or "extremely" concerned about those same issues (n = 586/1159; n = 534/1080; n = 619/1219, respectively). Current concerns regarding memory (χ216 = 316.61; p < 0.001; V = 0.264), thinking skills (χ216 = 333.17; p < 0.001; V = 0.271), and developing chronic traumatic encephalopathy (χ216 = 280.85; p < 0.001; V = 0.249) were significantly related to SR-CHx, with more concussions being associated with greater current concerns. CONCLUSIONS: Former National Football League players reported significant concerns regarding the potential effects of their prior concussions on long-term brain health, and these concerns are more prevalent now than when they were playing football. Cognitive and mental health concerns are readily identifiable targets for clinical intervention. Clinicians working with former players may wish to explore the extent to which individual players experience these concerns, the nature and depth of these concerns, and the impact of these concerns on the player's functioning and well-being.

3.
Lancet Child Adolesc Health ; 5(11): 792-799, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34600629

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sport-related concussion is a public health problem, particularly in adolescents. Quality of life is reduced in adolescents with persistent post-concussive symptoms (symptoms >28 days). We replicated a previous randomised controlled trial to validate the safety, efficacy, and generalisability of, and objective adherence to, prescribed early targeted heart rate subsymptom threshold aerobic exercise compared with placebo-like stretching exercise for adolescent recovery from sport-related concussion and for reducing the risk of persistent post-concussive symptoms. METHODS: This randomised controlled trial was done at three community and hospital-affiliated sports medicine concussion centres in the USA. Male and female adolescent athletes (aged 13-18 years) presenting within 10 days of sport-related concussion were randomly assigned to individualised subsymptom threshold aerobic or stretching exercise at least 20 min daily, for up to 4 weeks after injury. Exercise adherence and intensity were measured by heart rate monitors. The primary outcome was clinical recovery (ie, return to baseline symptoms, normal exercise tolerance, and a normal physical examination) within the 4-week intervention period, and development of persistent post-concussive symptoms beyond 28 days after injury. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02959216. FINDINGS: Between Aug 1, 2018, and March 31, 2020, 118 adolescents were recruited (61 were randomly assigned to the aerobic exercise group and 57 to the stretching exercise group) and included in the intention-to-treat analysis. On survival analysis, controlling for sex, site, and mean daily exercise time, patients assigned to aerobic exercise were more likely to recover within 4 weeks after injury compared with those assigned to stretching exercise, with a 48% reduced risk of persistent post-concussive symptoms (hazard ratio for stretching vs aerobic exercise of 0·52 [95% CI 0·28-0·97], p=0·039). No adverse events were reported. INTERPRETATION: This multicentre study found that early treatment with subsymptom threshold aerobic exercise safely speeds recovery from sport-related concussion and reduces the risk for persistent post-concussive symptoms, an important result given the impact of delayed recovery on adolescent quality of life. Adherence was good and there were no adverse events from this non-pharmacological treatment. These results suggest that physicians should not only permit, but consider prescribing, early subsymptom threshold physical activity to adolescents as treatment for sport-related concussion and to reduce the risk of persistent post-concussive symptoms. FUNDING: American Medical Society for Sports Medicine.

4.
Med Sci Sports Exerc ; 2021 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34593716

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To estimate prevalences of MCI and dementia diagnoses in former National Football League (NFL) players ≥50 years old and examine the relationships among these diagnoses and an array of predictors of long-term brain health. METHODS: A cross-section of former NFL players (n = 922; aged [mean ± SD] 64.8 ± 8.9 years) completed a questionnaire. Prevalences of self-reported medical diagnoses of MCI and dementia were reported alongside U.S. population estimates across 5-year age intervals (e.g., 60-64 years). Prevalence ratios (PRs) were calculated for multiple predictors of long-term brain health. RESULTS: Overall, MCI and dementia prevalences were n = 219(23.8%) and n = 82(8.9%), respectively. Each diagnosis was more prevalent in former NFL players across age groups than U.S. norms, with greater disparities at relatively younger ages (e.g., 65-69) compared with older ages. Greater prevalences of MCI and dementia were associated with: self-reported concussion history (10+ vs. 0; PRadjusted[95%CI] = 1.66[1.02-2.71] and 2.61[1.01-6.71], respectively); recent pain intensity (PRadjusted[95%CI] = 1.13[1.07-1.20] and 1.15[1.03-1.28]); and diagnoses of depression (PRadjusted[95%CI] = 2.70[1.92-3.81] and 3.22[1.69-6.14]), anxiety (PRadjusted[95%CI] = 1.96[1.26-3.07] and 3.14[1.47-6.74]), or both (PRadjusted[95%CI] = 3.11[2.38-4.08] and 4.43[2.71-7.25]). Higher MCI prevalence was related to sleep apnea (PRadjusted[95%CI] = 1.30[1.06-1.60]); higher dementia prevalence was associated with age (5-year interval, PRadjusted[95%CI] = 1.42[1.26-1.60]) and race (non-White vs. White, PRadjusted[95%CI] = 1.64[1.07-2.53]). CONCLUSIONS: Self-reported MCI and dementia prevalences were higher in former NFL players than national estimates and were associated with numerous personal factors, including mood-related disorders and a high number of self-reported concussions. Predictors of higher MCI and dementia prevalence may be modifiable and warrant consideration by clinicians and researchers as potential targets to mitigate the onset of these conditions.

5.
Neurology ; 97(22): e2204-e2212, 2021 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34635563

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Aerobic exercise has become a useful method to assist with postconcussion management. Exercise can exacerbate concussion symptoms even when symptoms are not apparent at rest. Few studies have examined the reasons for symptom exacerbation during exercise following a concussion. We had 2 primary objectives: (1) to delineate cardiopulmonary and cerebrovascular responses to exercise in adolescents and young adults with a concussion and healthy controls and (2) to determine the association between cerebrovascular responses and symptom burden. METHODS: We recruited participants with a recent concussion from a sport concussion clinic between September 1, 2018, and February 22, 2020. They were included if their concussion occurred <3 weeks before initial testing and if they were symptomatic at rest. Participants were excluded if they sustained a concussion in the past year (excluding index injury), reported history of neurologic disorders, or were using medications/devices that may alter neurologic function. Participants completed a progressive, symptom-limited, submaximal exercise protocol on a stationary bicycle. We assessed heart rate, blood pressure, fraction of end tidal CO2 (FETCO2), and middle cerebral artery blood flow velocity (CBF) and cerebrovascular function (vasoactivity and autoregulation) at seated rest and during exercise. RESULTS: We conducted 107 exercise tests (40 concussed, 37 healthy participants initially; 30 concussed at follow-up). Concussed participants were tested initially (mean 17.6 ± 2.2 [SD] years of age; 55% female; mean 12.5 ± 4.7 days postconcussion) and again 8 weeks later (mean 73.3 ± 9.5 days postconcussion). Control participants (mean 18.3 ± 2.4 years; 62% female) were tested once. FETCO2 increased throughout the exercise protocol as heart rate increased, reached a plateau, and declined at higher exercise intensities. CO2 explained >25% of the variation in resting CBF (R 2 > 0.25; p < 0.01) in most (73% individuals). Within the concussion group, resting symptom severity and the heart rate at which FETCO2 reached a plateau explained ∼2/3s of variation in exercise-induced symptom exacerbation (R 2 = 0.65; FETCO2 ß = -1.210 ± 0.517 [SE], p < 0.05). There was a moderate, statistically significant relationship between cerebrovascular responses to CO2 at rest (cerebral vasoactivity) and cerebrovascular responses to exercise-induced changes in FETCO2 (R 2 = 0.13, p = 0.01). DISCUSSION: The arterial CO2 response and symptom exacerbation relationship during postconcussion aerobic exercise may be mediated by increased sensitivity of cerebral vasculature to exercise-related increase in CO2.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34663623

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the longitudinal course of depressive symptom severity over 19 years in former American football players and the influence of concussion history, contact sport participation and physical function on observed trajectories. METHODS: Former American football players completed a general health questionnaire involving demographic information, medical/psychiatric history, concussion/football history and validated measures of depression and physical function at three time points (2001, 2010 and 2019). Parallel process latent growth curve modelling tested associations between concussion history, years of football participation, and overall and change in physical function on the overall level and trajectory of depressive symptoms. RESULTS: Among the 333 participants (mean(SD) age, 48.95 (9.37) at enrolment), there was a statistically significant, but small increase in depressive symptom severity from 2001 (48.34 (7.75)) to 2019 (49.77 (9.52)), slope=0.079 (SE=0.11), p=0.007. Those with greater concussion history endorsed greater overall depressive symptom severity, B=1.38 (SE=0.33), p<0.001. Concussion history, B<0.001 (SE=0.02), p=0.997 and years of participation, B<0.001 (SE=0.01), p=0.980, were not associated with rate of change (slope factor) over 19 years. Greater decline in physical function, B=-0.71 (SE=0.16), p<0.001, was predictive of a faster growth rate (ie, steeper increase) of depression symptom endorsement over time. CONCLUSIONS: Concussion history, not years of participation, was associated with greater depressive symptom severity. Neither factor was predictive of changes over a 19-year period. Decline in physical function was a significant predictor of a steeper trajectory of increased depressive symptoms, independent of concussion effects. This represents one viable target for preventative intervention to mitigate long-term neuropsychiatric difficulties associated with concussion across subsequent decades of life.

7.
Neurology ; 2021 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34675105

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Sport-related concussions affect millions of individuals across the United States each year and current techniques to diagnose and monitor them rely largely on subjective measures. Our goal was to discover and validate objective, quantifiable non-invasive biomarkers with the potential to be used in sport-related concussion diagnosis. METHODS: Urine samples from a convenience series of healthy control collegiate athletes who had not sustained a concussion and athletes who sustained a concussion as diagnosed by a sports medicine physician within seven days were collected prospectively and studied. Participants also completed an instrumented single-task gait analysis as a functional measure. Participants were recruited from a single collegiate athletic program, were ≥18 years old, and were excluded if they had a concomitant injury, active psychiatric conditions or pre-existing neurological disorders. Using Tandem Mass Tags (TMT) mass spectroscopy and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA), urinary biomarkers of concussion were identified and validated. RESULTS: Forty-eight control and 47 concussion age- and sex-matched athletes were included in the study (51.6%F, 48.4%M, average age 19.6y). Participants represented both contact and non-contact sports. All but one of the post-concussion participants reported experiencing symptoms at the time of data collection. Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) and IGF binding protein 5 (IGFBP5) were downregulated in the urine of athletes with concussions compared to healthy controls. Multivariable risk algorithms developed to predict the probability of sport-related concussion showed that IGF-1 multiplexed with single-task gait velocity predicts concussion risk across a range of post-injury timepoints (AUC=0.786; 95% CI:0.690-0.884). When IGF-1 and IGFBP5 are multiplexed with single-task gait velocity, they accurately distinguish between healthy controls and concussion at acute timepoints (AUC=0.835, 95% CI:0.701-0·968, p<0.001). DISCUSSION: These noninvasive biomarkers, discovered in an objective and validated manner, may be useful in diagnosing and monitoring sport-related concussions in both acute phases of injury in addition to several days post-injury. CLASSIFICATION OF EVIDENCE: This study provides Class III evidence that urinary IGF-1 and IGFBP5 multiplexed with single-task gait velocity may be useful in diagnosing sport-related concussion. TRIAL REGISTRATION INFORMATION: Clinicaltrials.gov identifier NCT02354469, submitted February 2015, first patient enrolled August 2015 (https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02354469).

8.
Brain Inj ; 35(10): 1218-1228, 2021 08 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34383619

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To examine the association between Post-Concussion Symptom Scale (PCSS) scores, Convergence Insufficiency Symptom Survey (CISS) scores, and oculomotor deficits post-concussion. METHODS: Records of adolescent patients examined in a multidisciplinary concussion clinic between July 2014 and May 2019 were reviewed. PCSS and CISS scores, results of eye examination and oculomotor assessment, concussion history, and demographics were abstracted. RESULTS: One hundred and forty patient records (median age, 15.3 years; 52 males, presented 109 days (median) from their most recent concussion) met inclusion criteria. Mean total scores on PCSS and CISS were 46.67 ± 25.89 and 27.13 ± 13.22, respectively, and were moderately correlated with each other (r = 0.53, p < .001). Oculomotor deficits were observed in 123 (88%) patients. Step-wise linear regression identified increased PCSS total score to be significantly associated with decreased amplitude of accommodation (p < .001). Increased CISS total score was significantly associated with receded near point of convergence, developmental eye movement test error scores, and cause of concussion. CONCLUSION: High PCSS scores may indicate an accommodation deficit and thus prompt an oculomotor assessment in patients following a concussion. Using the CISS and a detailed oculomotor assessment may reveal underlying oculomotor deficits, which may benefit from treatment.


Assuntos
Traumatismos em Atletas , Concussão Encefálica , Síndrome Pós-Concussão , Adolescente , Concussão Encefálica/complicações , Movimentos Oculares , Humanos , Masculino , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Síndrome Pós-Concussão/diagnóstico , Síndrome Pós-Concussão/epidemiologia
9.
Physiol Meas ; 42(9)2021 09 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34450608

RESUMO

Objective.We investigated the relation between prior concussion history and working memory (WM), self-reported cognitive symptom burden, and cerebrovascular function in adolescents and young adults (14-21 years old).Approach.We recruited 59 participants, 34 clinically diagnosed with a sports-related concussion and 25 controls. Concussed subjects were studied at baseline (within 28 days of their injury) and eight weeks after, while control subjects only had one assessment. We assessed WM (n-back task up to four-back), and neurovascular coupling (cerebrovascular responses at middle cerebral artery duringn-back tasks) using a transcranial Doppler ultrasonograph.Main results.There was no significant difference in WM between controls and concussed participants (p = 0.402). However, WM capacity was lower in those who had sustained ≥3 concussions (7.1% with WM capacity of four) compared to those with their first ever concussion (33.3%) and controls (28.0%, overallp = 0.025). At the sub-acute point (n = 24), self-reported cognitive symptom burden was mostly resolved in all but two participants. Despite the resolution of symptoms, WM performance was not different eight weeks post injury (p = 0.706). Neurovascular coupling was not different between controls and concussed participants regardless of prior concussion history.Significance. Up to 20% of concussed individuals experience covert sequelae lasting beyond the resolution of self-reported overt symptoms. How a prior history of concussion impacts the potential for sequelae is not well established, and the underlying mechanisms are unknown. Despite no alterations in neurovascular coupling, a history of prior concussion was associated with significant deficits in WM capacity, and lasted beyond self-reported cognitive symptom resolution.


Assuntos
Concussão Encefálica , Acoplamento Neurovascular , Adolescente , Adulto , Concussão Encefálica/complicações , Cognição , Humanos , Memória de Curto Prazo , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Adulto Jovem
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34320557

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between postconcussion exercise volume and changes in depression, anxiety, dizziness, and postural stability. DESIGN: Secondary analysis of a single-site prospective clinical trial. SETTING: Cerebrovascular research laboratory. PARTICIPANTS: Participants completed questionnaires and underwent tests of gait and balance within 2 weeks of a concussion (mean = 11 ± 3 days postconcussion) and approximately 1 month later (mean = 41 ± 7 days postconcussion). Exercise volume was tracked by weekly exercise logs. INTERVENTIONS: On the basis of a previous work classifying exercise volume following concussion, we grouped participants according to self-reported exercise volume between visits as high exercise volume (≥150 min/wk) or low exercise volume (<150 min/wk). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Participants completed assessments evaluating anxiety and depression (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale), dizziness (Dizziness Handicap Inventory), and postural stability (tandem gait and modified Balance Error Scoring System). RESULTS: Thirty-eight participants completed the study, of which 22 were in the high exercise volume group (mean = 71 ± 40 min/wk; 16.8 ± 2.1 years; 59% female) and 16 were in the low exercise volume group (mean = 379 ± 187 min/wk; 17.5 ± 2.1 years; 31% female). Although depression symptoms were not significantly different initially (mean difference = 1.5; 95% CI, -0.68 to 3.68; P = .24), the high exercise volume group had significantly lower depression symptom scores at follow-up (mean difference = 3.0; 95% CI, 1.40 to 4.47; P < .001). Anxiety symptoms (mean difference = 2.8; 95% CI, 0.3 to 5.4; P = 0.03), dizziness symptoms (mean difference = 10.9; 95% CI, 0.2 to 21.5; P = .047), single-task tandem gait (mean difference = 3.1 seconds; 95% CI, 0.2 to 6.0; P = .04), and dual-task tandem gait (mean difference = 4.2 seconds; 95% CI, 0.2 to 8.2; P = .04) were significantly better among the high exercise volume group. CONCLUSION: Greater exercise volumes were associated with lower depression, anxiety, and dizziness symptoms, and faster tandem gait performance. These preliminary findings suggest a potentially beneficial role for exercise within several different domains commonly affected by concussion.

11.
J Cereb Blood Flow Metab ; : 271678X211021771, 2021 Jul 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34229511

RESUMO

Cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) deficits in adolescents with concussion may persist after resolution of neurological symptoms. Whether or not CVR deficits predict long term neurological function is unknown. We used adolescent mice closed head injury (CHI) models (54 g, 107 cm or 117 cm drop height), followed by blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD)-functional MRI with CO2 challenge to assess CVR and brain connectivity. At one week, 3HD 107 cm mice showed delayed BOLD responses (p = 0.0074), normal striatal connectivity, and an impaired respiratory rate response to CO2 challenge (p = 0.0061 in ΔRmax). The 107 cm group developed rotarod deficits at 6 months (p = 0.02) and altered post-CO2 brain connectivity (3-fold increase in striatum to motor cortex correlation coefficient) by one year, but resolved their CVR and respiratory rate impairments, and did not develop cognitive or circadian activity deficits. In contrast, the 117 cm group had persistent CVR (delay time: p = 0.016; washout time: p = 0.039) and circadian activity deficits (free-running period: 23.7 hr in sham vs 23.9 hr in 3HD; amplitude: 0.15 in sham vs 0.2 in 3HD; peak activity: 18 in sham vs 21 in 3HD) at one year. Persistent CVR deficits after concussion may portend long-term neurological dysfunction. Further studies are warranted to determine the utility of CVR to predict chronic neurological outcome after mild traumatic brain injury.

12.
Optom Vis Sci ; 98(7): 826-832, 2021 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34328459

RESUMO

SIGNIFICANCE: Concussions are complex injuries that require a multifaceted testing battery. Vision impairments are common after concussion, but it is unknown exactly how eye tracking may be affected after injury and how it is associated with other clinical concussion assessments. PURPOSE: This study aimed to (1) examine the relationship between eye tracking performance (BOX score) and other common concussion evaluations, (2) identify if eye tracking adds novel information that augments baseline concussion evaluations, and (3) examine the effect of age, concussion history, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder on eye tracking and other ophthalmological measures. METHODS: A total of 102 male high school football athletes (age, 16.0 years; 95% confidence interval, 15.8 to 16.2 years) completed a series of visual and neurocognitive tests during their pre-season baseline assessment. The main outcome measures were BOX score, near point of convergence (NPC) distance, binocular accommodative amplitude (BAA) distance, Standardized Assessment of Concussion score, and Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing composite scores. RESULTS: BOX score was not significantly associated with symptoms, Standardized Assessment of Concussion score, NPC distance, BAA distance, or any Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing composite scores. Age, concussion history, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and number of prior years playing football were not significantly associated with BOX score or NPC distance, but there was a significant association between concussion history and greater BAA distance (ß = 1.60; 95% confidence interval = 0.19 to 3.01; P < .03). The BOX score cutoff of 10 resulted in a 12% false-positive rate. CONCLUSIONS: Eye tracking was not significantly associated with the commonly used clinical concussion assessments. These results suggest that an objective eye tracking variable may be a valuable addition to the current concussion battery.


Assuntos
Traumatismos em Atletas , Concussão Encefálica , Futebol Americano , Adolescente , Traumatismos em Atletas/complicações , Traumatismos em Atletas/diagnóstico , Concussão Encefálica/diagnóstico , Tecnologia de Rastreamento Ocular , Humanos , Masculino , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Instituições Acadêmicas
13.
Clin J Sport Med ; 2021 Mar 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34009789

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine if self-reported dizziness is associated with concussion symptoms, depression and/or anxiety symptoms, or gait performance within 2 weeks of postconcussion. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Research laboratory. PARTICIPANTS: Participants were diagnosed with a concussion within 14 days of initial testing (N = 40). Participants were divided into 2 groups based on their Dizziness Handicap Inventory (DHI) score: 36 to 100 = moderate/severe dizziness and 0 to 35 = mild/no dizziness. INTERVENTIONS: Participants were tested on a single occasion and completed the DHI, hospital anxiety and depression scale (HADS), Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), and Post-Concussion Symptom Inventory (PCSI). Three different postural control tests were use: modified Balance Error Scoring System, single-/dual-task tandem gait, and a single-/dual-task instrumented steady-state gait analysis. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Comparison of patient-reported outcomes and postural control outcomes between moderate/severe (DHI ≥ 36) and mild/no (DHI < 36) dizziness groups. RESULTS: Participants with moderate/severe dizziness (n = 19; age = 17.1 ± 2.4 years; 63% female) reported significantly higher symptom burden (PSCI: 43.0 ± 20.6 vs 22.8 ± 15.7; P = 0.001) and had higher median HADS anxiety (6 vs 2; P < 0.001) and depression (6 vs 1; P = 0.001) symptom severity than those with no/minimal dizziness (n = 21; age = 16.5 ± 1.9; 38% female). During steady-state gait, moderate/severe dizziness group walked with significantly slower single-task cadence (mean difference = 4.8 steps/minute; 95% confidence interval = 0.8, 8.8; P = 0.02) and dual-task cadence (mean difference = 7.4 steps/minute; 95% confidence interval = 0.7, 14.0; P = 0.04) than no/mild dizziness group. CONCLUSION: Participants who reported moderate/severe dizziness reported higher concussion symptom burden, higher anxiety scores, and higher depression scores than those with no/mild dizziness. Cadence during gait was also associated with the level of dizziness reported.

14.
Am J Sports Med ; 49(7): 1912-1920, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33856860

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Aerobic exercise has emerged as a useful treatment to improve outcomes among individuals who experience a concussion. However, compliance with exercise recommendations and the effect of exercise volume on symptom recovery require further investigation. PURPOSE: To examine (1) if an 8-week aerobic exercise prescription, provided within 2 weeks of concussion, affects symptom severity or exercise volume; (2) whether prescription adherence, rather than randomized group assignment, reflects the actual effect of aerobic exercise in postconcussion recovery; and (3) the optimal volume of exercise associated with symptom resolution after 1 month of study. STUDY DESIGN: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. METHODS: Individuals randomized to an exercise intervention (n = 17; mean age, 17.2 ± 2.0 years; 41% female; initially tested a mean of 11.3 ± 2.8 days after injury) or standard of care (n = 20; mean age, 16.8 ± 2.2 years; 50% female; initially tested a mean of 10.7 ± 3.2 days after injury) completed an aerobic exercise test within 14 days of injury. They returned for assessments 1 month and 2 months after the initial visit. The aerobic exercise group was instructed to exercise 5 d/wk, 20 min/d (100 min/wk), at a target heart rate based on an exercise test at the initial visit. Participants reported their exercise volume each week over the 8-week study period and reported symptoms at each study visit (initial, 1 month, 2 months). Because of low compliance in both groups, there was no difference in the volume of exercise between the 2 groups. RESULTS: There were no significant symptom severity differences between the intervention and standard-of-care groups at the initial (median Post-Concussion Symptom Inventory, 15 [interquartile range = 10, 42] vs 20 [11, 35.5]; P = .26), 1-month (4 [0, 28] vs 5.5 [0.5, 21.5]; P = .96), or 2-month (6.5 [0, 27.5] vs 0 [0, 4]; P = .11) study visits. Exercise volume was similar between groups (median, 115 [54, 225] vs 88 [28, 230] min/wk for exercise intervention vs standard of care; P = .52). Regardless of group, those who exercised <100 min/wk reported significantly higher symptom severity at the 1-month evaluation compared with those who exercised ≥100 min/wk (median, 1.5 [0, 7.5] vs 12 [4, 28]; P = .03). Exercising ≥160 min/wk successfully discriminated between those with and those without symptoms 1 month after study commencement (classification accuracy, 81%; sensitivity, 90%; specificity, 78%). CONCLUSION: Greater exercise volume was associated with lower symptom burden after 1 month of study, and an exercise volume >160 min/wk in the first month of the study was the threshold associated with symptom resolution after the first month of the study. Because our observation on the association between exercise volume and symptom level is a retrospective and secondary outcome, it is possible that participants who were feeling better were more likely to exercise more, rather than the exercise itself driving the reduction in symptom severity.


Assuntos
Concussão Encefálica , Terapia por Exercício , Síndrome Pós-Concussão , Adolescente , Concussão Encefálica/terapia , Estudos de Coortes , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Síndrome Pós-Concussão/terapia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
15.
Ann Neurol ; 90(1): 43-51, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33855730

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess acute cerebrovascular function in concussed adolescents (14-21 years of age), whether it is related to resting cerebral hemodynamics, and whether it recovers chronically. METHODS: Cerebral vasoreactivity and autoregulation, based on middle cerebral artery blood flow velocity, was assessed in 28 concussed participants (≤14 days of injury) and 29 matched controls. The participants in the concussion group returned for an 8-week follow-up assessment. Over the course of those 8-weeks, participants recorded aerobic exercise frequency and duration. RESULTS: Between groups, demographic, clinical, and hemodynamic variables were not significantly different. Vasoreactivity was significantly higher in the concussed group (p = 0.02). Within the concussed group, 60% of the variability in resting cerebral blood flow velocity was explained by vasoreactivity and two components of autoregulation - falling slope and effectiveness of autoregulation (adjusted R2  = 0.60, p < 0.001). Moreover, lower mean arterial pressure, lower responses to increases in arterial pressure, and lower vasoreactivity were significantly associated with larger symptom burden (adjusted R2  = 0.72, p < 0.01). By the 8-week timepoint, symptom burden, but not vasoreactivity, improved in all but four concussed participants (p < 0.01). 8-week change in vasoreactivity was positively associated with aerobic exercise volume (adjusted R2  = 0.19, p = 0.02). INTERPRETATION: Concussion resulted in changes in cerebrovascular regulatory mechanisms, which in turn explained the variability in resting cerebral blood flow velocity and acute symptom burden. Furthermore, these alterations persisted chronically despite symptom resolution, but was positively modified by aerobic exercise volume. These findings provide a mechanistic framework for further investigation into underlying cerebrovascular related symptomatology. ANN NEUROL 2021;90:43-51.


Assuntos
Concussão Encefálica/fisiopatologia , Circulação Cerebrovascular/fisiologia , Hemodinâmica/fisiologia , Neuroproteção/fisiologia , Adolescente , Velocidade do Fluxo Sanguíneo/fisiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Homeostase/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
16.
J Evid Based Integr Med ; 26: 2515690X211006031, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33904781

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Strategies to reduce anxiety prior to injection procedures are not well understood. The purpose is to determine the effect of a meditation monologue intervention delivered via phone/mobile application on pre-injection anxiety levels among patients undergoing a clinical injection. The following hypothesis was tested: patients who listened to a meditation monologue via phone/mobile application prior to clinical injection would experience less anxiety compared to those who did not. METHODS: A prospective, randomized controlled trial was performed at an orthopedics and sports medicine clinic of a tertiary level medical center in the New England region, USA. Thirty patients scheduled for intra- or peri-articular injections were randomly allocated to intervention (meditation monologue) or placebo (nature sounds) group. Main outcome variables were state and trait anxiety inventory (STAI) scores and blood pressure (BP), heart rate, and respiratory rate. RESULTS: There were 16 participants who were allocated to intervention (meditation monologue) while 14 participants were assigned to placebo (nature sounds). There was no interaction effect. However, a main time effect was found. Both state anxiety (STAI-S) and trait anxiety (STAI-T) scores were significantly reduced post-intervention compared to pre-intervention (STAI-S: p = 0.04, STAI-T: p = 0.04). Also, a statistically significant main group effect was detected. The pre- and post- STAI-S score reduction was greater in the intervention group (p = 0.028). Also, a significant diastolic BP increase between pre- and post-intervention was recorded in the intervention group (p = 0.028), but not in the placebo group (p = 0.999). CONCLUSION: Listening to a meditation monologue via phone/mobile application prior to clinical injection can reduce anxiety in adult patients receiving intra- and peri-articular injections. Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02690194.


Assuntos
Meditação , Adulto , Ansiedade/terapia , Transtornos de Ansiedade , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos
17.
J Sport Health Sci ; 10(2): 138-144, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33130092

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The purpose of the study was to (1) examine the relationship between self-reported symptoms and concussion-related eye tracking impairments, and (2) compare gait performance between (a) adolescents with a concussion who have normal eye tracking, (b) adolescents with a concussion who have abnormal eye tracking, and (c) healthy controls. METHODS: A total of 30 concussed participants (age: 14.4 ± 2.2 years, mean ± SD, 50% female) and 30 controls (age: 14.2 ± 2.2 years, 47% female) completed eye tracking and gait assessments. The BOX score is a metric of pupillary disconjugacy, with scores <10 classified as normal and ≥10 abnormal. Symptoms were collected using the Post-Concussion Symptom Scale (PCSS), and gait speed was measured with triaxial inertial measurement units. We conducted a linear regression to examine the relationship between PCSS and BOX scores and a two-way mixed effects analysis of variance to examine the effect of group (abnormal BOX, normal BOX, and healthy control) on single- and dual-task gait speed. RESULTS: There was a significant association between total PCSS score and BOX score in the concussion group (ß = 0.16, p = 0.004, 95% confidence interval (95%CI): 0.06‒0.27), but not in the control group (ß = 0.21, p = 0.08, 95%CI: -0.03 to 0.45). There were no significant associations between PCSS symptom profiles and BOX scores in the concussion or control groups. There were also no significant differences in single-task (Abnormal: 1.00 ± 0.14 m/s; Normal: 1.11 ± 0.21 m/s; Healthy: 1.14 ± 0.18 m/s; p = 0.08) or dual-task (Abnormal: 0.77 ± 0.15 m/s; Normal: 0.84 ± 0.21 m/s; Healthy: 0.90 ± 0.18 m/s; p = 0.16) gait speed. CONCLUSION: The concussed group with impaired eye tracking reported higher total symptom severity, as well as worse symptom severity across the 5 PCSS symptom domain profiles. However, eye tracking deficits did not appear to be driven by any particular symptom domain. While not statistically significant, the slower gait speeds in those with abnormal BOX scores may still be clinically relevant since gait-related impairments may persist beyond clinical recovery.


Assuntos
Concussão Encefálica/fisiopatologia , Autoavaliação Diagnóstica , Medições dos Movimentos Oculares , Equilíbrio Postural/fisiologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Acelerometria , Adolescente , Análise de Variância , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Tecnologia de Rastreamento Ocular , Feminino , Análise da Marcha , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Síndrome Pós-Concussão/fisiopatologia , Avaliação de Sintomas/métodos
18.
Clin J Sport Med ; 31(2): 133-138, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30762699

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate recovery trajectories among youth athletes with a concussion and healthy controls across different domains using a quantitative and multifaceted protocol. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective repeated measures. PARTICIPANTS: Youth athletes diagnosed with a concussion between the ages of 8 and 18 years were evaluated (1) within 10 days after injury, (2) approximately 3 weeks after injury, and (3) after return-to-play clearance. Control participants completed the same protocol. SETTING: Sport concussion clinic. INTERVENTIONS: N/A. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Participants underwent a multifaceted protocol that assessed symptoms (postconcussion symptom scale [PCSS]), dual-task gait, event-related potentials (ERPs), and eye tracking. RESULTS: Sixty-seven athletes participated: 36 after concussion (age = 14.0 ± 2.6 years; 44% female) and 31 controls (age = 14.6 ± 2.2 years; 39% female). Concussion symptoms were higher for the concussion group compared with controls at the first (PCSS = 31.7 ± 18.8 vs 1.9 ± 2.9; P < 0.001) and second time points (PCSS = 10.8 ± 11.2 vs 1.8 ± 3.6; P = 0.001) but resolved by the final assessment (PCSS = 1.7 ± 3.6 vs 2.0 ± 3.8; P = 0.46). The concussion group walked slower during dual-task gait than controls at all 3 tests including after return-to-play clearance (0.83 ± 0.19 vs 0.95 ± 0.15 m/s; P = 0.049). There were no between-group differences for ERP connectivity or eye tracking. Those with concussions had a decrease in ERP connectivity recovery over the 3 time points, whereas control participants' scores increased (concussion Δ = -8.7 ± 28.0; control Δ = 13.9 ± 32.2; χ2 = 14.1, P = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Concussion is associated with altered dual-task gait speeds after resolution of concussion symptoms, but ERP and eye tracking measures did not demonstrate between-group differences across time. Some objective approaches to concussion monitoring may support with identifying deficits after concussion, but further work is required to delineate the role of gait, electrophysiological, and eye tracking methods for clinical decision-making.

19.
Phys Sportsmed ; 49(4): 463-468, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33337938

RESUMO

Objective: 1) to determine the proportion of sport specialization among female figure skaters, 2) to compare proportion of low back injuries between specialized female figure skaters and non-specialized female figure skaters, and 3) to identify an independent risk factor(s) for low back injuries in female figure skaters.Methods: A cross-sectional questionnaire study was used. Young female figure skaters were asked questions related to sport specialization and any history of low back injuries. The primary outcome variables were status of sport specialization, weekly training hours, and low back injury. Descriptive statistics, t-test, chi-square analyses, and binary logistic regressions were used.Results: Responses from 132 female figure skaters (mean age: 16.3 ± 2.7 years, age range: 8-22 years) were analyzed. Sixty-two percent (82/132) of figure skaters were specialized. Specialized female figure skaters spent more time in training (11.3 ± 6.5 hours/week) than non-specialized skaters (7.6 ± 4.9 hours/week, p = 0.001). No statistical differences were found in proportion of low back injury history between specialized (25.6%) and non-specialized female figure skaters (24.0%, p = 0.836). Chronological age was also identified as an independent risk factor for low back injuries in female figure skaters (aOR: 1.24, 95%CI: 1.00, 1.54, p = 0.048).Conclusions: The majority of female figure skaters in this cohort were specialized. An association between chronological age and low back injuries, found in the current study, may be a result of cumulative effects of participating in figure skating over time.

20.
Clin Sports Med ; 40(1): 147-158, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33187605

RESUMO

Pediatric patients with concussions have different needs than adults throughout the recovery process. Adolescents, in particular, may take longer to recover from concussion than adults. Initially, relative rest from academic and physical activities is recommended for 24 to 48 hours to allow symptoms to abate. After this time period, physicians should guide the return to activity and return to school process in a staged fashion using published guidelines. Further concussion research in pediatric patients, particularly those younger than high-school age, is needed to advance the management of this special population.


Assuntos
Traumatismos em Atletas/diagnóstico , Traumatismos em Atletas/terapia , Concussão Encefálica/diagnóstico , Concussão Encefálica/terapia , Esportes Juvenis/lesões , Adolescente , Adulto , Traumatismos em Atletas/complicações , Concussão Encefálica/complicações , Criança , Terapia por Exercício , Humanos , Aprendizagem , Síndrome Pós-Concussão/diagnóstico , Síndrome Pós-Concussão/terapia , Volta ao Esporte , Fatores de Tempo
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