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1.
J Bone Joint Surg Am ; 101(20): 1860-1867, 2019 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31626011

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The effect of diabetes type on the risk of periprosthetic joint infection is not well documented. We hypothesized that patients with diabetes mellitus type 1 would be at greater risk for periprosthetic joint infection than those with diabetes mellitus type 2 and that a history of diabetic complications would be associated with an increased risk of periprosthetic joint infection. METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study, within a statewide database, on all adult patients who underwent hip or knee arthroplasty, with follow-up of ≥2 years, from 1996 to 2013. Of the 75,478 patients included, 1,668 had type-1 diabetes and 18,186 had type-2 diabetes. Risk factors were calculated using Cox regression, adjusting for siblings and stratified by age. Logistic regression was used to analyze the effect of diabetic complications on the risk of periprosthetic joint infection, controlling for other known risks for periprosthetic joint infection. RESULTS: There was no difference in age or sex between groups (p > 0.05). The frequency of periprosthetic joint infection in patients without diabetes was 2.6% compared with 4.3% in all patients with diabetes (relative risk, 1.47; p < 0.001). Patients with type-1 diabetes were at a 1.8 times greater risk for periprosthetic joint infection than patients with type-2 diabetes (7% compared with 4%; p < 0.001). The following diabetic complications increased the risk of periprosthetic joint infection: peripheral circulatory disorders (odds ratio [OR], 2.59 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.70 to 3.94]), ketoacidosis (OR, 2.52 [95% CI, 1.51 to 4.19]), neurological manifestations (OR, 2.33 [95% CI, 1.96 to 2.78]), renal manifestations (OR, 2.15 [95% CI, 1.66 to 2.79]), and ophthalmic manifestations (OR, 1.76 [95% CI, 1.24 to 2.51]). The odds of periprosthetic joint infection increased with each added complication and patients with ≥4 complications were 9 times more likely to have a periprosthetic joint infection than patients with uncomplicated diabetes (OR, 9.47 [95% CI, 4.97 to 18.03]). Overweight and obese patients with type-2 diabetes and underweight patients with type-1 diabetes were at greater risk for periprosthetic joint infection compared with the general population (all p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Our data showed an increased risk of periprosthetic joint infection in patients with type-1 diabetes compared with those with type-2 diabetes, along with an increasing risk associated with additional diabetic complications. These findings emphasize the need to better understand the medical history of patients with diabetes for more appropriate risk management. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Prognostic Level III. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

2.
Hum Mutat ; 39(5): 729-741, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29460995

RESUMO

Although the spliceogenic nature of the BRCA2 c.68-7T > A variant has been demonstrated, its association with cancer risk remains controversial. In this study, we accurately quantified by real-time PCR and digital PCR (dPCR), the BRCA2 isoforms retaining or missing exon 3. In addition, the combined odds ratio for causality of the variant was estimated using genetic and clinical data, and its associated cancer risk was estimated by case-control analysis in 83,636 individuals. Co-occurrence in trans with pathogenic BRCA2 variants was assessed in 5,382 families. Exon 3 exclusion rate was 4.5-fold higher in variant carriers (13%) than controls (3%), indicating an exclusion rate for the c.68-7T > A allele of approximately 20%. The posterior probability of pathogenicity was 7.44 × 10-115 . There was neither evidence for increased risk of breast cancer (OR 1.03; 95% CI 0.86-1.24) nor for a deleterious effect of the variant when co-occurring with pathogenic variants. Our data provide for the first time robust evidence of the nonpathogenicity of the BRCA2 c.68-7T > A. Genetic and quantitative transcript analyses together inform the threshold for the ratio between functional and altered BRCA2 isoforms compatible with normal cell function. These findings might be exploited to assess the relevance for cancer risk of other BRCA2 spliceogenic variants.

3.
J Med Genet ; 55(1): 15-20, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28490613

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We previously showed that the BRCA1 variant c.5096G>A p.Arg1699Gln (R1699Q) was associated with an intermediate risk of breast cancer (BC) and ovarian cancer (OC). This study aimed to assess these cancer risks for R1699Q carriers in a larger cohort, including follow-up of previously studied families, to further define cancer risks and to propose adjusted clinical management of female BRCA1*R1699Q carriers. METHODS: Data were collected from 129 BRCA1*R1699Q families ascertained internationally by ENIGMA (Evidence-based Network for the Interpretation of Germline Mutant Alleles) consortium members. A modified segregation analysis was used to calculate BC and OC risks. Relative risks were calculated under both monogenic model and major gene plus polygenic model assumptions. RESULTS: In this cohort the cumulative risk of BC and OC by age 70 years was 20% and 6%, respectively. The relative risk for developing cancer was higher when using a model that included the effects of both the R1699Q variant and a residual polygenic component compared with monogenic model (for BC 3.67 vs 2.83, and for OC 6.41 vs 5.83). CONCLUSION: Our results confirm that BRCA1*R1699Q confers an intermediate risk for BC and OC. Breast surveillance for female carriers based on mammogram annually from age 40 is advised. Bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy should be considered based on family history.


Assuntos
Proteína BRCA1/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Mutação/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Segregação de Cromossomos , Feminino , Humanos , Fatores de Risco
4.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 108(2)2016 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26586665

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The K3326X variant in BRCA2 (BRCA2*c.9976A>T; p.Lys3326*; rs11571833) has been found to be associated with small increased risks of breast cancer. However, it is not clear to what extent linkage disequilibrium with fully pathogenic mutations might account for this association. There is scant information about the effect of K3326X in other hormone-related cancers. METHODS: Using weighted logistic regression, we analyzed data from the large iCOGS study including 76 637 cancer case patients and 83 796 control patients to estimate odds ratios (ORw) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for K3326X variant carriers in relation to breast, ovarian, and prostate cancer risks, with weights defined as probability of not having a pathogenic BRCA2 variant. Using Cox proportional hazards modeling, we also examined the associations of K3326X with breast and ovarian cancer risks among 7183 BRCA1 variant carriers. All statistical tests were two-sided. RESULTS: The K3326X variant was associated with breast (ORw = 1.28, 95% CI = 1.17 to 1.40, P = 5.9x10(-) (6)) and invasive ovarian cancer (ORw = 1.26, 95% CI = 1.10 to 1.43, P = 3.8x10(-3)). These associations were stronger for serous ovarian cancer and for estrogen receptor-negative breast cancer (ORw = 1.46, 95% CI = 1.2 to 1.70, P = 3.4x10(-5) and ORw = 1.50, 95% CI = 1.28 to 1.76, P = 4.1x10(-5), respectively). For BRCA1 mutation carriers, there was a statistically significant inverse association of the K3326X variant with risk of ovarian cancer (HR = 0.43, 95% CI = 0.22 to 0.84, P = .013) but no association with breast cancer. No association with prostate cancer was observed. CONCLUSIONS: Our study provides evidence that the K3326X variant is associated with risk of developing breast and ovarian cancers independent of other pathogenic variants in BRCA2. Further studies are needed to determine the biological mechanism of action responsible for these associations.


Assuntos
Proteína BRCA2/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Códon de Terminação , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Lisina/genética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Invasividade Neoplásica , Razão de Chances , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco
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