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1.
Molecules ; 26(16)2021 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34443430

RESUMO

Parkinson's disease (PD) is a currently incurable neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the loss of dopaminergic (DAergic) neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta and α-synuclein aggregation. Accumulated evidence indicates that the saponins, especially from ginseng, have neuroprotective effects against neurodegenerative disorders. Interestingly, saponin can also be found in marine organisms such as the sea cucumber, but little is known about its effect in neurodegenerative disease, including PD. In this study, we investigated the anti-Parkinson effects of frondoside A (FA) from Cucumaria frondosa and ginsenoside Rg3 (Rg3) from Panax notoginseng in C. elegans PD model. Both saponins were tested for toxicity and optimal concentration by food clearance assay and used to treat 6-OHDA-induced BZ555 and transgenic α-synuclein NL5901 strains in C. elegans. Treatment with FA and Rg3 significantly attenuated DAergic neurodegeneration induced by 6-OHDA in BZ555 strain, improved basal slowing rate, and prolonged lifespan in the 6-OHDA-induced wild-type strain with downregulation of the apoptosis mediators, egl-1 and ced-3, and upregulation of sod-3 and cat-2. Interestingly, only FA reduced α-synuclein aggregation, rescued lifespan in NL5901, and upregulated the protein degradation regulators, including ubh-4, hsf-1, hsp-16.1 and hsp-16.2. This study indicates that both FA and Rg3 possess beneficial effects in rescuing DAergic neurodegeneration in the 6-OHDA-induced C. elegans model through suppressing apoptosis mediators and stimulating antioxidant enzymes. In addition, FA could attenuate α-synuclein aggregation through the protein degradation process.


Assuntos
Caenorhabditis elegans/fisiologia , Ginsenosídeos/farmacologia , Glicosídeos/farmacologia , Doença de Parkinson/patologia , Triterpenos/farmacologia , Animais , Animais Geneticamente Modificados , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Caenorhabditis elegans/efeitos dos fármacos , Caenorhabditis elegans/genética , Proteínas de Caenorhabditis elegans/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Neurônios Dopaminérgicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurônios Dopaminérgicos/patologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Ginsenosídeos/química , Ginsenosídeos/toxicidade , Glicosídeos/química , Glicosídeos/toxicidade , Longevidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Degeneração Neural/complicações , Degeneração Neural/patologia , Oxidopamina , Doença de Parkinson/complicações , Proteólise/efeitos dos fármacos , Triterpenos/química , Triterpenos/toxicidade , alfa-Sinucleína/metabolismo
2.
Ann Anat ; 239: 151803, 2021 Jul 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34265384

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Thyroid ima artery is a variant artery found on the anterior surface of the trachea. The aim of this meta-analysis was to obtain pooled prevalence data of the thyroid ima artery and discuss its clinical importance especially for tracheostomy. METHODS: A systematic literature search was performed through five electronic databases until May 2021. A set of inclusion and exclusion criteria based on AQUA guidelines were used to select relevant studies. Meta-analysis, subgroup analyses, meta-regression, and tests for publication bias were performed. Factors that influence the prevalence of the thyroid ima artery were detected using simple and interpretable machine learning (linear regression and K means). RESULTS: Thirty-six studies with a total of 4335 subjects met the inclusion criteria. The prevalence of the thyroid ima artery was 3.8% (95% CI: 0.027-0.049, I2=56.2%). Machine learning identified age, region and year of publication as potential covariates. Subgroup analysis showed that the prevalence of the thyroid ima artery was 4.5 times higher in fetuses (14.8%) than adults (3.3%) (z=-6.76, p<0.01). There was a significant negative correlation between the adult prevalence of the thyroid ima artery and the year of publication (Pearson's r=-0.354, p=0.040) thereby suggesting a decline in thyroid ima artery prevalence over time. This artery, if present, may originate from the brachiocephalic trunk (74%), right common carotid artery (9.6%), arch of aorta (7.7%), right internal thoracic artery (4.8%), left common carotid artery (1.9%) and left internal thoracic artery (1.9%). CONCLUSION: In addition to evidence-based synthesis of the thyroid ima artery, this study is the first ever study to report the decreasing prevalence over time of a human body structure in the postnatal life. Knowledge of the thyroid ima artery is of vital importance for surgeons to avoid accidental hemorrhage during tracheostomy.

3.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 279: 114347, 2021 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34147616

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Holothuria (Metriatyla) scabra Jaeger (H. scabra), sea cucumber, is the marine organism that has been used as traditional food and medicine to gain the health benefits since ancient time. Although our recent studies have shown that crude extracts from H. scabra exhibited neuroprotective effects against Parkinson's disease (PD), the underlying mechanisms and bioactive compounds are still unknown. AIM OF THE STUDY: In the present study, we examined the efficacy of purified compounds from H. scabra and their underlying mechanism on α-synuclein degradation and neuroprotection against α-synuclein-mediated neurodegeneration in a transgenic Caenorhabditis elegans PD model. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The H. scabra compounds (HSEA-P1 and P2) were purified and examined for their toxicity and optimal dose-range by food-clearance and lifespan assays. The α-synuclein degradation and neuroprotection against α-synuclein-mediated neurodegeneration were determined using transgenic C. elegans model, Punc-54::α-syn and Pdat-1:: α-syn; Pdat-1::GFP, respectively, and then further investigated by determining the behavioral assays including locomotion rate, basal slowing rate, ethanol avoidance, and area-restricted searching. The underlying mechanisms related to autophagy were clarified by quantitative PCR and RNAi experiments. RESULTS: Our results showed that HSEA-P1 and HSEA-P2 significantly diminished α-synuclein accumulation, improved motility deficits, and recovered the shortened lifespan. Moreover, HSEA-P1 and HSEA-P2 significantly protected dopaminergic neurons from α-synuclein toxicity and alleviated dopamine-associated behavioral deficits, i.e., basal slowing, ethanol avoidance, and area-restricted searching. HSEA-P1 and HSEA-P2 also up-regulated autophagy-related genes, including beclin-1/bec-1, lc-3/lgg-1, and atg-7/atg-7. RNA interference (RNAi) of these genes in transgenic α-synuclein worms confirmed that lc-3/lgg-1 and atg-7/atg-7 were required for α-synuclein degradation and DAergic neuroprotection activities of HSEA-P1 and HSEA-P2. NMR and mass spectrometry analysis revealed that the HSEA-P1 and HSEA-P2 contained diterpene glycosides. CONCLUSION: These findings indicate that diterpene glycosides extracted from H. scabra decreases α-synuclein accumulation and protects α-synuclein-mediated DAergic neuronal loss and its toxicities via lgg-1 and atg-7.

4.
Parasitol Int ; 83: 102353, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33872795

RESUMO

Protections against Fasciola gigantica infection in mice immunized with the individual and combined cathepsin L1H and cathepsin B3 vaccines were assessed. The vaccines comprised recombinant (r) pro-proteins of cathepsin L1H and B3 (rproFgCatL1H and rproFgCatB3) and combined proteins which were expressed in Pichia pastoris. The experimental trials were performed in ICR mice (n = 10 per group) by subcutaneous injection with 50 µg of the recombinant proteins combined with Alum or Freund's adjuvants. At two weeks after the third immunization, mice were infected with 15 F. gigantica metacercariae per mouse by oral route. The percents of protection of rproFgCatL1H, rproFgCatB3 and combined vaccines against F. gigantica were approximately 58.8 to 75.0% when compared with adjuvant-infected control. These protective effects were similar among groups receiving vaccines with Alum or Freund's adjuvants. By determining the levels of IgG1 and IgG2a in the immune sera, which are indicative of Th1 and Th2 immune responses, it was found that both Th1 and Th2 humoral immune responses were significantly increased in vaccinated groups compared with the control groups, with higher levels of IgG1 (Th2) than IgG2a (Th1). Mice in vaccinated groups showed reduction in liver pathological lesions when compared with control groups. This study indicates that the combined rproFgCatB3 and rproFgCatL1H vaccine had a high protective potential than a single a vaccine, with Alum and Freund's adjuvants showing similar level of protection. These results can serve as guidelines for the testing of this F. gigantica vaccine in larger economic animals.


Assuntos
Catepsina B/genética , Catepsina L/genética , Fasciola/imunologia , Fasciolíase/prevenção & controle , Proteínas de Helminto/genética , Fatores Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Vacinas/administração & dosagem , Animais , Catepsina B/metabolismo , Catepsina L/metabolismo , Proteínas de Helminto/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR
5.
Clin Anat ; 34(6): 872-883, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33908686

RESUMO

The azygos lobe (AL) is an accessory lobe of the right lung with prevalence between 0.4 and 1.2%. The aim of the present review is to provide a better estimate of the frequency of the AL and to examine its relationships with other variables such as population, diagnostic methods, and co-occurring illnesses. Studies published between 1899 and October 2020 were searched through three electronic databases; Google Scholar, PubMed, and JSTOR. Titles, abstracts, and full texts of the retrieved entries were screened to determine their appropriateness for inclusion. A total of 88 studies relating to 1,033,083 subjects met the inclusion criteria. A random-effects meta-analysis yielded an overall prevalence of 0.30% (95% CI: 0.0024-0.0035, I2  = 97.9%). Linear regression and subgroup analysis revealed a negative correlation (ρ = -0.540, p <0.001) between AL prevalence and sample size; studies with smaller sample sizes had higher prevalences. The AL prevalence in individuals with congenital pulmonary defects, 5.2% (95% CI: 0.0018-0.0086, I2  = 0%), was 17 times higher than the overall prevalence (z = 6.65, p <0.001), suggesting associations with other abnormalities and possibly a genetic predisposition. In addition to an evidence-based synthesis of AL prevalence, this study demonstrates publication bias and small-study effects in the anatomy literature. Awareness of the AL is crucial for radiologists when they interpret unusual radiological findings and for surgeons when they operate in the region.


Assuntos
Variação Anatômica , Pulmão/anatomia & histologia , Humanos , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco
6.
Molecules ; 26(8)2021 Apr 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33920352

RESUMO

The pathological finding of amyloid-ß (Aß) aggregates is thought to be a leading cause of untreated Alzheimer's disease (AD). In this study, we isolated 2-butoxytetrahydrofuran (2-BTHF), a small cyclic ether, from Holothuria scabra and demonstrated its therapeutic potential against AD through the attenuation of Aß aggregation in a transgenic Caenorhabditis elegans model. Our results revealed that amongst the five H. scabra isolated compounds, 2-BTHF was shown to be the most effective in suppressing worm paralysis caused by Aß toxicity and in expressing strong neuroprotection in CL4176 and CL2355 strains, respectively. An immunoblot analysis showed that CL4176 and CL2006 treated with 2-BTHF showed no effect on the level of Aß monomers but significantly reduced the toxic oligomeric form and the amount of 1,4-bis(3-carboxy-hydroxy-phenylethenyl)-benzene (X-34)-positive fibril deposits. This concurrently occurred with a reduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the treated CL4176 worms. Mechanistically, heat shock factor 1 (HSF-1) (at residues histidine 63 (HIS63) and glutamine 72 (GLN72)) was shown to be 2-BTHF's potential target that might contribute to an increased expression of autophagy-related genes required for the breakdown of the Aß aggregate, thus attenuating its toxicity. In conclusion, 2-BTHF from H. scabra could protect C. elegans from Aß toxicity by suppressing its aggregation via an HSF-1-regulated autophagic pathway and has been implicated as a potential drug for AD.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/tratamento farmacológico , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/antagonistas & inibidores , Furanos/farmacologia , Holothuria/química , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Paralisia/prevenção & controle , Doença de Alzheimer/genética , Doença de Alzheimer/metabolismo , Doença de Alzheimer/patologia , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/genética , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/metabolismo , Animais , Animais Geneticamente Modificados , Proteínas Relacionadas à Autofagia/genética , Proteínas Relacionadas à Autofagia/metabolismo , Sítios de Ligação , Caenorhabditis elegans/efeitos dos fármacos , Caenorhabditis elegans/genética , Caenorhabditis elegans/metabolismo , Proteínas de Caenorhabditis elegans/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas de Caenorhabditis elegans/genética , Proteínas de Caenorhabditis elegans/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Furanos/química , Furanos/isolamento & purificação , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/química , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/isolamento & purificação , Paralisia/genética , Paralisia/metabolismo , Paralisia/patologia , Agregados Proteicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Ligação Proteica , Conformação Proteica em alfa-Hélice , Conformação Proteica em Folha beta , Domínios e Motivos de Interação entre Proteínas , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/antagonistas & inibidores , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/antagonistas & inibidores , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
7.
Surgeon ; 19(6): e402-e411, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33551294

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Anconeus epitrochlaeris muscle and Osborne's ligament are anatomical variants that are occasionally found at the cubital tunnel of the elbow. In certain individuals, these two structures may compress the ulnar nerve resulting in a cubital tunnel syndrome. Although these variants have been reported extensively, its prevalence is still unclear and its contribution to cubital tunnel syndrome is debatable. The aim of this study is to generate weighted frequency values of the anconeus epitrochlearis and Osborne's ligament, as well as to identify any association of these two structures with gender, side, ethnicity and the development of cubital tunnel syndrome. METHODS: An anatomical study and a meta-analysis were performed to more accurately study the prevalence of anconeus epitrochlearis and Osborne's ligament. A total of 40 original studies including the present study met the inclusion criteria for meta-analysis and 6 case reports for descriptive analysis. RESULTS: Crude pooled prevalence estimate of the anconeus epitrochlearis was significantly higher (p < 0.001) in healthy subjects (14.2%) than in subjects diagnosed with cubital tunnel syndrome (4.5%). No significant difference was found for gender, side or laterality. The anconeus epitrochlearis was significantly more common in Europeans populations (18.2%) when compared with North American (6.8%) (p = 0.012) and Asian populations (7.5%) (p < 0.001). Anconeus epitrochlearis had a tendency to be hypertrophied when associated with cubital tunnel syndrome. The definition of Osborne's ligament is unclear, resulting in inconsistent reported prevalence across studies. CONCLUSION: The present study provides a more accurate estimate of anconeus epitrochlearis across the populations. There was a negative correlation between the presence of anconeus epitrochlearis and the development cubital tunnel syndrome, supporting the idea that the muscle may be protective against cubital tunnel syndrome. Future studies are needed to give proper definition of Osborne's ligament and accurately study its prevalence across populations.


Assuntos
Síndrome do Túnel Ulnar , Síndrome do Túnel Ulnar/epidemiologia , Cotovelo , Humanos , Ligamentos , Músculo Esquelético , Prevalência
9.
Front Pharmacol ; 11: 553579, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33013392

RESUMO

Oligomeric assembly of Amyloid-ß (Aß) is the main toxic species that contribute to early cognitive impairment in Alzheimer's patients. Therefore, drugs that reduce the formation of Aß oligomers could halt the disease progression. In this study, by using transgenic Caenorhabditis elegans model of Alzheimer's disease, we investigated the effects of frondoside A, a well-known sea cucumber Cucumaria frondosa saponin with anti-cancer activity, on Aß aggregation and proteotoxicity. The results showed that frondoside A at a low concentration of 1 µM significantly delayed the worm paralysis caused by Aß aggregation as compared with control group. In addition, the number of Aß plaque deposits in transgenic worm tissues was significantly decreased. Frondoside A was more effective in these activities than ginsenoside-Rg3, a comparable ginseng saponin. Immunoblot analysis revealed that the level of small oligomers as well as various high molecular weights of Aß species in the transgenic C. elegans were significantly reduced upon treatment with frondoside A, whereas the level of Aß monomers was not altered. This suggested that frondoside A may primarily reduce the level of small oligomeric forms, the most toxic species of Aß. Frondoside A also protected the worms from oxidative stress and rescued chemotaxis dysfunction in a transgenic strain whose neurons express Aß. Taken together, these data suggested that low dose of frondoside A could protect against Aß-induced toxicity by primarily suppressing the formation of Aß oligomers. Thus, the molecular mechanism of how frondoside A exerts its anti-Aß aggregation should be studied and elucidated in the future.

10.
Front Neurosci ; 14: 303, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32425742

RESUMO

Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the aggregation of α-synuclein protein and selective death of dopaminergic (DA) neurons in the substantia nigra of the midbrain. Although the molecular pathogenesis of PD is not completely understood, a recent study has reported that eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1 alpha (eEF1A) declined in the PD-affected brain. Therefore, the roles of eEF1A1 and eEF1A2 in the prevention of DA neuronal cell death in PD are aimed to be investigated. Herein, by using Caenorhabditis elegans as a PD model, we investigated the role of eft-3/eft-4, the worm homolog of eEF1A1/eEF1A2, on 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced DA neuron degeneration. Our results demonstrated that the expressions of eft-3 and eft-4 were decreased in the 6-OHDA-induced worms. RNA interference (RNAi) of eft-3 and eft-4 resulted in dramatic exacerbation of DA neurodegeneration induced by 6-OHDA, as well as aggravated the food-sensing behavior, ethanol avoidance, and decreased lifespan when compared with only 6-OHDA-induced worms. Moreover, downregulation of eft-3/4 in 6-OHDA-induced worms suppressed the expression of the anti-apoptotic genes, including PI3K/age-1, PDK-1/pdk-1, mTOR/let-363, and AKT-1,2/akt-1,2, promoting the expression of apoptotic genes such as BH3/egl-1 and Caspase-9/ced-3. Collectively, these findings indicate that eEF1A plays an important role in the 6-OHDA-induced neurodegeneration through the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/serine/threonine protein kinase (Akt)/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway and that eEF1A isoforms may be a novel and effective pro-survival factor in protective DA neurons against toxin-induced neuronal death.

11.
Surg Radiol Anat ; 42(8): 935-938, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32076769

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Anatomical variants in the posterior compartment of forearm and hand are not uncommon. Physicians should be aware of variations in this region for correct diagnosis and treatment of diseased hands. METHODS: During a routine dissection at our department, an extremely rare case of deep hand extensor muscle was discovered. RESULTS: A complete extensor digitorum profundus complex was found in the fourth extensor compartment in addition to the extensor indicis proprius. The complex consisted of two muscle bellies originating from the lateral aspect of distal ulna and the adjacent interosseous membrane. The first belly resembled the conventional extensor indicis proprius. The second belly gave off two tendon slips: one inserted to the index and middle fingers and the other formed aponeurosis before inserting to the ring and little fingers. CONCLUSION: To our knowledge, a complete extensor digitorum profundus complex which inserts to all medial four digits has never been reported in humans. Awareness of variations in this region is critical for surgeons operating in the forearm and hand. The present case also provides insights into the evolutionary and developmental origin of these structures.


Assuntos
Variação Anatômica , Aponeurose/anormalidades , Dedos/anormalidades , Antebraço/anormalidades , Músculo Esquelético/anormalidades , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Cadáver , Dissecação , Humanos , Masculino
12.
Anat Sci Educ ; 13(4): 475-487, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31233658

RESUMO

Forty anatomy articles were sampled from English Wikipedia and assessed quantitatively and qualitatively. Quantitatively, each article's edit history was analyzed by Wikipedia X-tools, references and media were counted manually, and two readability indices were used to evaluate article readability. This analysis revealed that each article was updated 8.3 ± 6.8 times per month, and referenced with 33.5 ± 24.3 sources, such as journal articles and textbooks. Each article contained on average 14.0 ± 7.6 media items. The readability indices including: (1) Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level Readability Test and (2) Flesch Reading Ease Readability Formula demonstrated that the articles had low readability and were more appropriate for college students and above. Qualitatively, the sampled articles were evaluated by experts using a modified DISCERN survey. According to the modified DISCERN, 13 articles (32.5%), 24 articles (60%), 3 articles (7.5%), were rated as "good," "moderate," and "poor," respectively. There were positive correlations between the DISCERN score and the number of edits (r = 0.537), number of editors (r = 0.560), and article length (r = 0.536). Strengths reported by the panel included completeness and coverage in 11 articles (27.5%), anatomical details in 10 articles (25%), and clinical details in 5 articles (12.5%). The panel also noted areas which could be improved, such as providing missing information in 28 articles (70%), inaccuracies in 10 articles (25%), and lack or poor use of images in 17 articles (42.5%). In conclusion, this study revealed that many Wikipedia anatomy articles were difficult to read. Each article's quality was dependent on edit frequency and article length. Learners and students should be cautious when using Wikipedia articles for anatomy education due to these limitations.


Assuntos
Anatomia/educação , Compreensão , Enciclopédias como Assunto , Internet/estatística & dados numéricos , Leitura , Anatomia/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Aprendizagem , Publicação de Acesso Aberto/estatística & dados numéricos
13.
J Food Biochem ; 43(12): e13075, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31612532

RESUMO

Saponins are secondary metabolite compounds that can be found in sea cucumbers (Holothuroidea spp.). However, little is known about how saponin-rich extracts from Holothuria leucospilota can delay and prolong the lifespan of the whole organism. In this study, anti-aging effects of H. leucospilota extracts were studied on Caenorhabditis elegans. NMR analysis revealed that body wall n-butanol-extract of H. leucospilota (BW-BU) is saponin-rich. BW-BU extracts exhibited antioxidant activities by 2,2'-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl assay (EC50  = 10.23 ± 0.12 mg/ml) and 2,2'-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid assay (EC50  = 3.91 ± 0.04 mg/ml). BW-BU extracts increased lifespan of L4 and L1 C. elegans (5.92% and 15.76%, respectively), which also increased worm growth, stress resistance, and reduced biomarkers for aging. BW-BU extracts activated DAF-16 nuclear localization and upregulated daf-16 and DAF-16 target genes expression. Taken together, this study revealed the evidences on anti-aging activities of saponin-rich extracts from H. leucospilota, which can extend lifespan of C. elegans via daf-16. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: In recent years, age-associated chronic diseases have had a significant impact on quality of life. Many natural compounds exhibit anti-aging activities, especially in sea cucumber, H. leucospilota. Our results indicated that H. leucospilota is good for health. Extracts from H. leucospilota contain a bioactive compound that can be potentially used to promote longevity and disease prevention in aging.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Antioxidantes/análise , Caenorhabditis elegans/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Saponinas/química , Raios Ultravioleta/efeitos adversos , Animais , Resposta ao Choque Térmico , Holothuria , Pepinos-do-Mar
14.
BMC Complement Altern Med ; 19(1): 164, 2019 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31286949

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Caesalpinia mimosoides, a vegetable consumed in Thailand, has been reported to exhibit in vitro antioxidant properties. The in vivo antioxidant and anti-aging activities have not been investigated. The aim of this research was to study the antioxidant activity of C. mimosoides extracts in Caenorhabditis elegans, a widely used model organism in this context. METHODS: C. elegans were treated with C. mimosoides extracts in a various concentrations. To investigate the protective effects of the extract against oxidative stress, wild-type N2 were used to determine survival rate under oxidative stress and intracellular ROS. To study underlying mechanisms, the mutant strains with GFP reporter gene including TJ356, CF1553, EU1 and LD4 were used to study DAF-16, SOD-3, SKN-1 and GST-4 gene, respectively. Lifespan and aging pigment of the worms were also investigated. RESULTS: A leaf extract of C. mimosoides improved resistance to oxidative stress and reduced intracellular ROS accumulation in nematodes. The antioxidant effects were mediated through the DAF-16/FOXO pathway and SOD-3 expression, whereas the expression of SKN-1 and GST-4 were not altered. The extract also prolonged lifespan and decreased aging pigments, while the body length and brood size of the worms were not affected by the extract, indicating low toxicity and excluding dietary restriction. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study establish the antioxidant activity of C. mimosoides extract in vivo and suggest its potential as a dietary supplement and alternative medicine to defend against oxidative stress and aging, which should be investigated in intervention studies.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Caenorhabditis elegans/efeitos dos fármacos , Caesalpinia/química , Longevidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Animais , Tamanho Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Caenorhabditis elegans/metabolismo , Caenorhabditis elegans/fisiologia , Proteínas de Caenorhabditis elegans/metabolismo , Flavonoides/análise , Sequestradores de Radicais Livres/farmacologia , Metanol , Naftoquinonas , Fenóis/análise , Folhas de Planta/química , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio , Reprodução/efeitos dos fármacos
15.
J Sci Food Agric ; 99(8): 4158-4166, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30767223

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Saponins have been shown to possess many pharmacological properties, including altered fat metabolism. The black sea cucumber, Holothuria leucospilota, is a marine animal that contains a specialized organ called a Cuvierian tubule that produces and secrete the bioactive saponins into the tubules and body wall. Therefore, the aims of this study are to investigate the anti-obesity effect of saponins extracted from body wall and Cuvierian tubules of H. leucospilota. RESULTS: The butanol extracts of H. leucospilota body wall and Cuvierian tubules containing high amounts of saponins significantly reduced fat deposition and triglyceride levels in Caenorhabditis elegans fed with 50 mmol L-1 glucose. Moreover, the saponin-enriched extracts of H. leucospilota significantly restored the lifespan of 2% glucose-fed worms (18.71%). Green fluorescence protein-labeled sbp-1 gene expression and nuclear translocation of daf-16 were also significantly decreased in H. leucospilota treatment. The saponin-enriched extracts downregulated the messenger RNA expressions of genes involved in fat storage and metabolism, including sbp-1, cebp, and daf-16 but upregulated the expression of nhr-49 gene. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that H. leucospilota-derived saponins may mediate the reduction of glucose-induced fat accumulation through sbp-1, cebp, daf-16 and nhr-9 pathways. Therefore, the H. leucospilota extracts could be used as nutraceuticals for anti-obesity prevention. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Modelos Animais de Doenças , Gorduras/metabolismo , Holothuria/química , Lipogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Saponinas/farmacologia , Animais , Caenorhabditis elegans/efeitos dos fármacos , Caenorhabditis elegans/genética , Caenorhabditis elegans/metabolismo , Proteínas de Caenorhabditis elegans/genética , Proteínas de Caenorhabditis elegans/metabolismo , Humanos , Obesidade/genética , Obesidade/metabolismo , Triglicerídeos/metabolismo
16.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 109: 1967-1977, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30551452

RESUMO

Parkinson's disease (PD) is a well-known neurodegenerative disorder characterized by dopaminergic (DA) neuron loss and α-synuclein aggregation. Recent study revealed that the extracts from sea cucumber, Holothuroidea spp., exhibited neuroprotective and lifespan extension effects in Caenorhabditis elegans model. Interestingly, the black sea cucumber, Holothuria leucospilota, possesses body wall and a specialized organ called cuvierian tubules containing high amount of bioactive compounds. In this study, the neuroprotective effects of the body wall (BW) and cuvierian tubules (CT) from this sea cucumber against PD were evaluated using C. elegans as a model. H. leucospilota were extracted using ethanol (ET), ethyl acetate (EA), butanol (BU) and aqueous (AQ) fractions. Extracts from these fractions were used to treat the 6-OHDA-induced BZ555 and α-synuclein expressing NL5901 strains of C. elegans. Treatment with ET, EA, BU and AQ fractions of H. leucospilota extracts could significantly prevent degeneration of DA neurons in 6-OHDA-induced worms, improve food-sensing behavior mediated by DA neurons, and up-regulate cat-2 and sod-3 gene expressions. These results indicate the neuroprotective activity of the extracts which may be attributed to the anti-oxidant activity of the bioactive compounds. Moreover, α-synuclein aggregation was significantly reduced together with the recovery of lipid deposition upon the treatment with H. leucospilota extracts. In addition, treatment with H. leucospilota extracts was able to increase the lifespan of 6-OHDA-induced N2. NMR analysis revealed the major chemical components in the effective EA fractions were terpenoids, steroids, saponins, and glycosides. In summary, H. leucospilota extracts exhibited anti-Parkinson effect in both toxin-induced and transgenic C. elegans models of PD. Further study will be performed to elucidate the most effective anti-PD molecules which will lead to the development of anti-PD drug.


Assuntos
Antiparkinsonianos/farmacologia , Holothuria/química , Doença de Parkinson/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Animais Geneticamente Modificados , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Dopamina/metabolismo , Neurônios Dopaminérgicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurônios Dopaminérgicos/metabolismo , Degeneração Neural/tratamento farmacológico , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Doença de Parkinson/metabolismo , alfa-Sinucleína/metabolismo
17.
J Anat ; 233(6): 724-739, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30294789

RESUMO

Subdivision of cloaca into urogenital and anorectal passages has remained controversial because of disagreements about the identity and role of the septum developing between both passages. This study aimed to clarify the development of the cloaca using a quantitative 3D morphological approach in human embryos of 4-10 post-fertilisation weeks. Embryos were visualised with Amira 3D-reconstruction and Cinema 4D-remodelling software. Distances between landmarks were computed with Amira3D software. Our main finding was a pronounced difference in growth between rapidly expanding central and ventral parts, and slowly or non-growing cranial and dorsal parts. The entrance of the Wolffian duct into the cloaca proved a stable landmark that remained linked to the position of vertebra S3. Suppressed growth in the cranial cloaca resulted in an apparent craniodorsal migration of the entrance of the Wolffian duct, while suppressed growth in the dorsal cloaca changed the entrance of the hindgut from cranial to dorsal on the cloaca. Transformation of this 'end-to-end' into an 'end-to-side' junction produced temporary 'lateral (Rathke's) folds'. The persistent difference in dorsoventral growth straightened the embryonic caudal body axis and concomitantly extended the frontally oriented 'urorectal (Tourneux's) septum' caudally between the ventral urogenital and dorsal anorectal parts of the cloaca. The dorsoventral growth difference also divided the cloacal membrane into a well-developed ventral urethral plate and a thin dorsal cloacal membrane proper, which ruptured at 6.5 weeks. The expansion of the pericloacal mesenchyme followed the dorsoventral growth difference and produced the genital tubercle. Dysregulation of dorsal cloacal development is probably an important cause of anorectal malformations: too little regressive development may result in anorectal agenesis, and too much regression in stenosis or atresia of the remaining part of the dorsal cloaca.


Assuntos
Cloaca/embriologia , Sistema Urogenital/embriologia , Embrião de Mamíferos , Humanos
18.
Exp Gerontol ; 110: 158-171, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29902502

RESUMO

Holothuria scabra is a sea cucumber that is mostly found in the Indo-Pacific region including Thailand. Extracts from many sea cucumbers possess pharmacological activities proposed to benefit human health. In this study, we investigated the anti-oxidant and anti-ageing activities of extracts from H. scabra by using Caenorhabditis elegans as a model organism. Parts of H. scabra were solvent-extracted and divided into nine fractions including whole body-hexane (WBHE), whole body-ethyl acetate (WBEA), whole body-butanol (WBBU), body wall-hexane (BWHE), body wall-ethyl acetate (BWEA), body wall-butanol (BWBU), viscera-hexane (VIHE), viscera-ethyl acetate (VIEA), and viscera-butanol (VIBU). All fractions of the extracts were tested for anti-oxidant activities by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) assays and for anti-ageing effects by lifespan assays using C. elegans as a model. The results showed anti-oxidant properties in all fractions with the highest activity shown by the DPPH assay in WBBU (EC50 = 3.12 ±â€¯0.09 mg/ml), and by the ABTS assay in WBHE (EC50 = 0.31 ±â€¯0.10 mg/ml). In lifespan assays the highest anti-ageing effect was detected in WBBU- and BWEA-treated C. elegans with increased mean lifespans of 8.12% and 4.77%, respectively. Furthermore, WBBU and BWEA-treated C. elegans exhibited significantly higher resistance against heat shock and paraquat-induced oxidative stresses than controls. By using LC-MS/MS, both extracts were characterized to contain triterpene glycosides as the main bioactive components. To explore mechanisms of H. scabra extracts on longevity and stress resistance, worms with genetic mutations in anti-ageing pathways were analyzed and showed that WBBU and BWEA did not prolong the lifespan of daf-16, age-1, sir-2.1, jnk-1, sek-1, and osr-1 mutants, suggesting that these genetic pathways are involved in mediating the anti-ageing effects of the H. scabra extracts. Moreover, WBBU and BWEA enhanced the nuclear translocation of the FoxO/DAF-16 transcription factor, and increased mRNA expression of this gene and its downstream targets sod-3, hsp12.3, and hsp16.2. In conclusion, this study strongly demonstrates anti-oxidant and anti-ageing properties of H. scabra extracts containing triterpene glycosides, which, in the C. elegans model, may be mediated via the insulin/IGF-1 signaling (IIS)-DAF-16 pathway.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Produtos Biológicos/farmacologia , Caenorhabditis elegans/efeitos dos fármacos , Holothuria/química , Longevidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Cromatografia Líquida , Estresse Oxidativo , Transdução de Sinais , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
19.
Surg Radiol Anat ; 40(3): 297-301, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29423702

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The aim of the study was to investigate the anatomy and histology of Linburg-Comstock variation, or the anomalous connection between flexor pollicis longus and flexor digitorum profundus to the index finger, in Thai population. METHODS: One hundred and thirty cadaveric upper limbs were dissected. Skin and superficial fascia on the anterior distal forearm and hand were removed. The tendons of the flexor pollicis longus and flexor digitorum profundus to the index finger were identified for the possible occurrence of the intertendinous connection. For histological analysis, selected specimens were sampled, and were stained with hematoxylin and eosin. RESULTS: Out of 130 dissected upper limbs, interconnection between the two tendons was found in 32 limbs (25%). The connection was classified into three types including fibrous, tendinous, and musculotendinous. In 29 cases (22%), the connection was simply the thickening of synovial sheath between the two tendons. In two cases (1%) the connection was found as an additional tendinous slip of dense regular collagen bundles running from the flexor pollicis longus to flexor digitorum profundus of the index. In one case (1%), there was an aberrant reversed musculotendinous unit running from flexor pollicis longus, and later joined the first lumbrical. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides a detailed anatomo-histological description of the interconnection between flexor pollicis longus and flexor digitorum profundus to the index finger. Its etiology could either be congenital or secondarily acquired. Surgeons should be aware of this connection for better diagnosis, surgical planning and treatment of diseased hands.


Assuntos
Dedos/anormalidades , Deformidades Congênitas da Mão/patologia , Tendões/anormalidades , Variação Anatômica , Cadáver , Dissecação , Humanos , Síndrome , Tailândia
20.
Nutr Neurosci ; 21(6): 427-438, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28276260

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Parkinson's disease (PD) is associated with aggregation of α-synuclein and selective death of dopaminergic (DA) neurons in the substantia nigra, thereby leading to cognitive and motor impairments. Nowadays, the drugs commonly used for PD treatment, such as levodopa, provide only symptomatic relief. Therefore, seeking new drugs against PD, especially from plants and marine organisms, is one of the major research areas to be explored. This study aimed to investigate the anti-Parkinson activity of the extracts from the sea cucumber, Holothuria scabra, by using Caenorhabditis elegans as a model. METHODS: H. scabra was solvent-extracted and subdivided into six fractions including whole body-ethyl acetate (WBEA), body wall-ethyl acetate (BWEA), viscera-ethyl acetate (VIEA), whole body-butanol (WBBU), body wall-butanol (BWBU), and viscera-butanol (VIBU). The extracts were tested in C. elegans BZ555 strain expressing the green fluorescent protein (GFP) specifically in the DA neurons and NL5901 strain expressing human α-synuclein in the muscle cells. RESULTS: WBEA, BWEA, and WBBU fractions of H. scabra extracts at 500 µg/ml significantly attenuated DA neuron-degeneration induced by selective cathecholamine neurotoxin 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) in the BZ555 strain. Moreover, the extracts also reduced α-synuclein aggregation and restored lipid content in NL5901, as well as improved food-sensing behavior and prolonged lifespan in the 6-OHDA-treated wild-type strain. DISCUSSION: The study indicated that the H. scabra extracts have anti-Parkinson potential in the C. elegans model. These findings encourage further investigations on using the H. scabra extract, as well as its active constituent compounds, as a possible preventive and/or therapeutic intervention against PD.


Assuntos
Antiparkinsonianos/farmacologia , Produtos Biológicos/farmacologia , Caenorhabditis elegans/efeitos dos fármacos , Holothuria/química , Doença de Parkinson/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Caenorhabditis elegans/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Neurônios Dopaminérgicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurônios Dopaminérgicos/metabolismo , Degeneração Neural/induzido quimicamente , Degeneração Neural/tratamento farmacológico , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Oxidopamina/toxicidade , alfa-Sinucleína/genética , alfa-Sinucleína/metabolismo
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