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2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(9)2021 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33922643

RESUMO

ATPase inhibitory factor-1 (IF1) preserves cellular ATP under conditions of respiratory collapse, yet the function of IF1 under normal respiring conditions is unresolved. We tested the hypothesis that IF1 promotes mitochondrial dysfunction and pathological cardiomyocyte hypertrophy in the context of heart failure (HF). Methods and results: Cardiac expression of IF1 was increased in mice and in humans with HF, downstream of neurohumoral signaling pathways and in patterns that resembled the fetal-like gene program. Adenoviral expression of wild-type IF1 in primary cardiomyocytes resulted in pathological hypertrophy and metabolic remodeling as evidenced by enhanced mitochondrial oxidative stress, reduced mitochondrial respiratory capacity, and the augmentation of extramitochondrial glycolysis. Similar perturbations were observed with an IF1 mutant incapable of binding to ATP synthase (E55A mutation), an indication that these effects occurred independent of binding to ATP synthase. Instead, IF1 promoted mitochondrial fragmentation and compromised mitochondrial Ca2+ handling, which resulted in sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ overloading. The effects of IF1 on Ca2+ handling were associated with the cytosolic activation of calcium-calmodulin kinase II (CaMKII) and inhibition of CaMKII or co-expression of catalytically dead CaMKIIδC was sufficient to prevent IF1 induced pathological hypertrophy. Conclusions: IF1 represents a novel member of the fetal-like gene program that contributes to mitochondrial dysfunction and pathological cardiac remodeling in HF. Furthermore, we present evidence for a novel, ATP-synthase-independent, role for IF1 in mitochondrial Ca2+ handling and mitochondrial-to-nuclear crosstalk involving CaMKII.

3.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 2021 Apr 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33847047

RESUMO

AIMS: Patients surviving an acute myocardial infarction (AMI) are at risk of developing symptomatic heart failure (HF) or premature death. We hypothesized that sacubitril/valsartan, effective in the treatment of chronic HF, prevents development of HF and reduces cardiovascular death following high-risk AMI compared to a proven angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor. This paper describes the study design and baseline characteristics of patients enrolled in the Prospective ARNI vs. ACE inhibitor trial to DetermIne Superiority in reducing heart failure Events after Myocardial Infarction (PARADISE-MI) trial. METHODS AND RESULTS: PARADISE-MI, a multinational (41 countries), double-blind, active-controlled trial, randomized patients within 0.5-7 days of presentation with index AMI to sacubitril/valsartan or ramipril. Transient pulmonary congestion and/or left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) ≤40% and at least one additional factor augmenting risk of HF or death (age ≥70 years, estimated glomerular filtration rate <60 mL/min/1.73 m2 , diabetes, prior myocardial infarction, atrial fibrillation, LVEF <30%, Killip class ≥III, ST-elevation myocardial infarction without reperfusion) were required for inclusion. PARADISE-MI was event-driven targeting 708 primary endpoints (cardiovascular death, HF hospitalization or outpatient development of HF). Randomization of 5669 patients occurred 4.3 ± 1.8 days from presentation with index AMI. The mean age was 64 ± 12 years, 24% were women. The majority (76%) qualified with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction; acute percutaneous coronary intervention was performed in 88% and thrombolysis in 6%. LVEF was 37 ± 9% and 58% were in Killip class ≥II. CONCLUSIONS: Baseline therapies in PARADISE-MI reflect advances in contemporary evidence-based care. With enrollment complete PARADISE-MI is poised to determine whether sacubitril/valsartan is more effective than a proven ACE inhibitor in preventing development of HF and cardiovascular death following AMI.

4.
Curr Heart Fail Rep ; 2021 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33835398

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: (Mal-)nutrition of micronutrients, like selenium, has great impact on the human heart and improper micronutrient intake was observed in 30-50% of patients with heart failure. Low selenium levels have been reported in Europe and Asia and thought to be causal for Keshan disease. Selenium is an essential micronutrient that is needed for enzymatic activity of the 25 so-called selenoproteins, which have a broad range of activities. In this review, we aim to summarize the current evidence about selenium in heart failure and to provide insights about the potential mechanisms that can be modulated by selenoproteins. RECENT FINDINGS: Suboptimal selenium levels (<100 µg/L) are prevalent in more than 70% of patients with heart failure and were associated with lower exercise capacity, lower quality of life, and worse prognosis. Small clinical trials assessing selenium supplementation in patients with HF showed improvement of clinical symptoms (NYHA class), left ventricular ejection fraction, and lipid profile, while governmental interventional programs in endemic areas have significantly decreased the incidence of Keshan disease. In addition, several selenoproteins are found impaired in suboptimal selenium conditions, potentially aggravating underlying mechanisms like oxidative stress, inflammation, and thyroid hormone insufficiency. While the current evidence is not sufficient to advocate selenium supplementation in patients with heart failure, there is a clear need for high level evidence to show whether treatment with selenium has a place in the contemporary treatment of patients with HF to improve meaningful clinical endpoints. Graphical summary summarizing the potential beneficial effects of the various selenoproteins, locally in cardiac tissues and systemically in the rest of the body. In short, several selenoproteins contribute in protecting the integrity of the mitochondria. By doing so, they contribute indirectly to reducing the oxidative stress as well as improving the functionality of immune cells, which are in particular vulnerable to oxidative stress. Several other selenoproteins are directly involved in antioxidative pathways, next to excreting anti-inflammatory effects. Similarly, some selenoproteins are located in the endoplasmic reticulum, playing roles in protein folding. With exception of the protection of the mitochondria and the reduction of oxidative stress, other effects are not yet investigated in cardiac tissues. The systemic effects of selenoproteins might not be limited to these mechanisms, but also may include modulation of endothelial function, protection skeletal muscles, in addition to thyroid metabolism. ABBREVIATIONS: DIO, iodothyronine deiodinase; GPx, glutathione peroxidase; MsrB2, methionine-R-sulfoxide reductase B2; SELENOK, selenoprotein K; SELENON, selenoprotein N; SELENOP, selenoprotein P; SELENOS, selenoprotein S; SELENOT, selenoprotein T; TXNRD, thioredoxin reductase.

5.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 2021 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33609068

RESUMO

This position paper focusses on the pathophysiology, diagnosis and management of women diagnosed with a cardiomyopathy, or at risk of heart failure (HF), who are planning to conceive or present with (de novo or previously unknown) HF during or after pregnancy. This includes the heterogeneous group of heart muscle diseases such as hypertrophic, dilated, arrhythmogenic right ventricular and non-classified cardiomyopathies, left ventricular non-compaction, peripartum cardiomyopathy, Takotsubo syndrome, adult congenital heart disease with HF, and patients with right HF. Also, patients with a history of chemo-/radiotherapy for cancer or haematological malignancies need specific pre-, during and post-pregnancy assessment and counselling. We summarize the current knowledge about pathophysiological mechanisms, including gene mutations, clinical presentation, diagnosis, and medical and device management, as well as risk stratification. Women with a known diagnosis of a cardiomyopathy will often require continuation of drug therapy, which has the potential to exert negative effects on the foetus. This position paper assists in balancing benefits and detrimental effects.

6.
J Card Fail ; 2021 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33497808

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Elevated plasma interleukin-6 (IL-6) concentrations are frequently observed in patients with acute heart failure (AHF). However, the predictive value of serial IL-6 measurements beyond brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) remains poorly characterized. METHODS AND RESULTS: This was a retrospective analysis of the PROTECT cohort (2033 patients with AHF). Plasma IL-6 and BNP levels were determined on days 1, 2, 7 and 14 after admission for AHF in 1591 (78.3%), 1462 (71.9%), 1445 (71.1%) and 1451 (71.4%) patients, respectively. The primary endpoint was 180-day all-cause mortality. The median day-1 IL-6 concentration was 11.1 pg/mL (IQR: 6.6, 20.9) and decreased to 10.1 pg/mL (IQR: 5.6-18.5) at day-7. Higher cross-sectional IL-6 concentrations at all time-points predicted the primary endpoint, independent of a risk model for this cohort and changes in BNP. Each doubling of IL-6 between day-1 and day-7 predicted the primary endpoint independent of baseline IL-6 concentrations, the risk model, baseline BNP and changes in BNP [HR (95% CI): 1.18 (1.07-1.30), p=0.0013]. Collectively, 214 (17%) patients experienced at least a doubling of their IL-6 concentrations between day-1 and day-7. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrate that the temporal evolution patterns of IL-6 in patients with AHF have additive prognostic value independent of changes in BNP.

7.
ESC Heart Fail ; 8(2): 879-889, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33453082

RESUMO

AIMS: In peripartum cardiomyopathy (PPCM), electrocardiography (ECG) and its relationship to echocardiography have not yet been investigated in large multi-centre and multi-ethnic studies. We aimed to identify ECG abnormalities associated with PPCM, including regional and ethnic differences, and their correlation with echocardiographic features. METHODS AND RESULTS: We studied 411 patients from the EURObservational PPCM registry. Baseline demographic, clinical, and echocardiographic data were collected. ECGs were analysed for rate, rhythm, QRS width and morphology, and QTc interval. The median age was 31 [interquartile range (IQR) 26-35] years. The ECG was abnormal in > 95% of PPCM patients. Sinus tachycardia (heart rate > 100 b.p.m.) was common (51%), but atrial fibrillation was rare (2.27%). Median QRS width was 82 ms [IQR 80-97]. Left bundle branch block (LBBB) was reported in 9.30%. Left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy (LVH), as per ECG criteria, was more prevalent amongst Africans (59.62%) and Asians (23.17%) than Caucasians (7.63%, P < 0.001) but did not correlate with LVH on echocardiography. Median LV end-diastolic diameter (LVEDD) was 60 mm [IQR 55-65] and LV ejection fraction (LVEF) 32.5% [IQR 25-39], with no significant regional or ethnic differences. Sinus tachycardia was associated with an LVEF < 35% (OR 1.85 [95% CI 1.20-2.85], P = 0.006). ECG features that predicted an LVEDD > 55 mm included a QRS complex > 120 ms (OR 11.32 [95% CI 1.52-84.84], P = 0.018), LBBB (OR 4.35 [95% CI 1.30-14.53], P = 0.017), and LVH (OR 2.03 [95% CI 1.13-3.64], P = 0.017). CONCLUSIONS: PPCM patients often have ECG abnormalities. Sinus tachycardia predicted poor systolic function, whereas wide QRS, LBBB, and LVH were associated with LV dilatation.

8.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 23(1): 43-57, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33340221

RESUMO

AIMS: This retrospective analysis sought to identify markers that might distinguish between acute heart failure (HF) and worsening HF in chronic outpatients. METHODS AND RESULTS: The BIOSTAT-CHF index cohort included 2516 patients with new or worsening HF symptoms: 1694 enrolled as inpatients (acute HF) and 822 as outpatients (worsening HF in chronic outpatients). A validation cohort included 935 inpatients and 803 outpatients. Multivariable models were developed in the index cohort using clinical characteristics, routine laboratory values, and proteomics data to examine which factors predict adverse outcomes in both conditions and to determine which factors differ between acute HF and worsening HF in chronic outpatients, validated in the validation cohort. Patients with acute HF had substantially higher morbidity and mortality (6-month mortality was 12.3% for acute HF and 4.7% for worsening HF in chronic outpatients). Multivariable models predicting 180-day mortality and 180-day HF readmission differed substantially between acute HF and worsening HF in chronic outpatients. Carbohydrate antigen 125 was the strongest single biomarker to distinguish acute HF from worsening HF in chronic outpatients, but only yielded a C-index of 0.71. A model including multiple biomarkers and clinical variables achieved a high degree of discrimination with a C-index of 0.913 in the index cohort and 0.901 in the validation cohort. CONCLUSIONS: This study identifies different characteristics and predictors of outcome in acute HF patients as compared to outpatients with chronic HF developing worsening HF. The markers identified may be useful in better diagnosing acute HF and may become targets for treatment development.

10.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 2020 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33251643

RESUMO

AIMS: Sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors improve clinical outcome in patients with heart failure (HF), but the mechanisms behind their beneficial effects are not yet fully understood. We examined the effects of empagliflozin on renal sodium and glucose handling in patients with acute HF. METHODS AND RESULTS: This study was a predefined sub-study of a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, multicenter study (EMPA-RESPONSE-AHF). Patients were allocated within 24 hours of an acute HF admission to either empagliflozin 10 mg/day (n=40) or placebo (n=39) for 30 days. Markers of glucose and sodium handling were measured daily during the first 96 hours and at day 30. Patients were 76 (range 38-89) years old and 33% had diabetes. The use of loop diuretics during the first 96 hours was similar in both groups. Empagliflozin increased fractional glucose excretion with a peak after 24 hours (21.8 vs 0.1%; P<0.001), without affecting plasma glucose concentration, while fractional sodium and chloride excretion and urinary osmolality remained unchanged (P for all >0.3). However, empagliflozin increased plasma osmolality (delta osmolality at 72 hours: 5±8 versus 2±5 mOsm/kg; P=0.049). Finally, there was an early decline in eGFR with empagliflozin versus placebo (-10±12 vs. -2±12 mL/min/1.73m2 P=0.009), which recovered within 30 days CONCLUSION: In patients with acute HF, empagliflozin increased fractional glucose excretion and plasma osmolality, without affecting fractional sodium excretion or urine osmolality and caused a temporary decline in eGFR. This suggests that empagliflozin stimulates osmotic diuresis through increased glycosuria rather than natriuresis in patients with acute HF.

11.
Lancet ; 2020 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33197395

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Intravenous ferric carboxymaltose has been shown to improve symptoms and quality of life in patients with chronic heart failure and iron deficiency. We aimed to evaluate the effect of ferric carboxymaltose, compared with placebo, on outcomes in patients who were stabilised after an episode of acute heart failure. METHODS: AFFIRM-AHF was a multicentre, double-blind, randomised trial done at 121 sites in Europe, South America, and Singapore. Eligible patients were aged 18 years or older, were hospitalised for acute heart failure with concomitant iron deficiency (defined as ferritin <100 µg/L, or 100-299 µg/L with transferrin saturation <20%), and had a left ventricular ejection fraction of less than 50%. Before hospital discharge, participants were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive intravenous ferric carboxymaltose or placebo for up to 24 weeks, dosed according to the extent of iron deficiency. To maintain masking of patients and study personnel, treatments were administered in black syringes by personnel not involved in any study assessments. The primary outcome was a composite of total hospitalisations for heart failure and cardiovascular death up to 52 weeks after randomisation, analysed in all patients who received at least one dose of study treatment and had at least one post-randomisation data point. Secondary outcomes were the composite of total cardiovascular hospitalisations and cardiovascular death; cardiovascular death; total heart failure hospitalisations; time to first heart failure hospitalisation or cardiovascular death; and days lost due to heart failure hospitalisations or cardiovascular death, all evaluated up to 52 weeks after randomisation. Safety was assessed in all patients for whom study treatment was started. A pre-COVID-19 sensitivity analysis on the primary and secondary outcomes was prespecified. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02937454, and has now been completed. FINDINGS: Between March 21, 2017, and July 30, 2019, 1525 patients were screened, of whom 1132 patients were randomly assigned to study groups. Study treatment was started in 1110 patients, and 1108 (558 in the carboxymaltose group and 550 in the placebo group) had at least one post-randomisation value. 293 primary events (57·2 per 100 patient-years) occurred in the ferric carboxymaltose group and 372 (72·5 per 100 patient-years) occurred in the placebo group (rate ratio [RR] 0·79, 95% CI 0·62-1·01, p=0·059). 370 total cardiovascular hospitalisations and cardiovascular deaths occurred in the ferric carboxymaltose group and 451 occurred in the placebo group (RR 0·80, 95% CI 0·64-1·00, p=0·050). There was no difference in cardiovascular death between the two groups (77 [14%] of 558 in the ferric carboxymaltose group vs 78 [14%] in the placebo group; hazard ratio [HR] 0·96, 95% CI 0·70-1·32, p=0·81). 217 total heart failure hospitalisations occurred in the ferric carboxymaltose group and 294 occurred in the placebo group (RR 0·74; 95% CI 0·58-0·94, p=0·013). The composite of first heart failure hospitalisation or cardiovascular death occurred in 181 (32%) patients in the ferric carboxymaltose group and 209 (38%) in the placebo group (HR 0·80, 95% CI 0·66-0·98, p=0·030). Fewer days were lost due to heart failure hospitalisations and cardiovascular death for patients assigned to ferric carboxymaltose compared with placebo (369 days per 100 patient-years vs 548 days per 100 patient-years; RR 0·67, 95% CI 0·47-0·97, p=0·035). Serious adverse events occurred in 250 (45%) of 559 patients in the ferric carboxymaltose group and 282 (51%) of 551 patients in the placebo group. INTERPRETATION: In patients with iron deficiency, a left ventricular ejection fraction of less than 50%, and who were stabilised after an episode of acute heart failure, treatment with ferric carboxymaltose was safe and reduced the risk of heart failure hospitalisations, with no apparent effect on the risk of cardiovascular death. FUNDING: Vifor Pharma.

14.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 2020 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33111457

RESUMO

AIMS: Iron deficiency (ID) is frequent in heart failure (HF), linked with exercise intolerance and poor prognosis. Intravenous iron repletion improves clinical status in HF patients with left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) ≤45%. However, uncertainty exists about the accuracy of serum biomarkers in diagnosing ID. The aims of this study were (i) to identify the iron biomarker with the greatest accuracy for the diagnosis of ID in bone marrow in patients with ischaemic HF, and (ii) to establish the prevalence of ID using this biomarker and its prognostic value in HF patients. METHODS AND RESULTS: Bone marrow was stained for iron in 30 patients with ischaemic HF with LVEF ≤45% and 10 healthy controls, and ID was diagnosed for 0-1 grades (Gale scale). A total of 791 patients with HF with LVEF ≤45% were prospectively followed up for 3 years. Serum ferritin, transferrin saturation, soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR) were assessed as iron biomarkers. Most patients with HF (n = 25, 83%) had ID in bone marrow, but none of the controls (P < 0.001). Serum sTfR had the best accuracy in predicting ID in bone marrow (area under the curve 0.920, 95% confidence interval 0.761-0.987, for cut-off 1.25 mg/L sensitivity 84%, specificity 100%). Serum sTfR was ≥1.25 mg/L in 47% of HF patients, in 56% and 46% of anaemics and non-anaemics, respectively (P < 0.05). The reclassification methods revealed that serum sTfR significantly added the prognostic value to the baseline prognostic model, and to the greater extent than plasma N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide. Based on internal derivation and validation procedures, serum sTfR ≥1.41 mg/L was the optimal threshold for predicting 3-year mortality, independent of other established variables. CONCLUSIONS: High serum sTfR accurately reflects depleted iron stores in bone marrow in patients with HF, and identifies those with a high 3-year mortality.

15.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 2020 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33094495

RESUMO

The co-occurrence of cancer and heart failure (HF) represents a significant clinical drawback as each disease interferes with the treatment of the other. In addition to shared risk factors, a growing body of experimental and clinical evidence reveals numerous commonalities in the biology underlying both pathologies. Inflammation emerges as a common hallmark for both diseases as it contributes to the initiation and progression of both HF and cancer. Under stress, malignant and cardiac cells change their metabolic preferences to survive, which makes these metabolic derangements a great basis to develop intersection strategies and therapies to combat both diseases. Furthermore, genetic predisposition and clonal haematopoiesis are common drivers for both conditions and they hold great clinical relevance in the context of personalized medicine. Additionally, altered angiogenesis is a common hallmark for failing hearts and tumours and represents a promising substrate to target in both diseases. Cardiac cells and malignant cells interact with their surrounding environment called stroma. This interaction mediates the progression of the two pathologies and understanding the structure and function of each stromal component may pave the way for innovative therapeutic strategies and improved outcomes in patients. The interdisciplinary collaboration between cardiologists and oncologists is essential to establish unified guidelines. To this aim, pre-clinical models that mimic the human situation, where both pathologies coexist, are needed to understand all the aspects of the bidirectional relationship between cancer and HF. Finally, adequately powered clinical studies, including patients from all ages, and men and women, with proper adjudication of both cancer and cardiovascular endpoints, are essential to accurately study these two pathologies at the same time.

16.
Card Fail Rev ; 6: e21, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32944291

RESUMO

Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) comprises half of the heart failure population. A specific, but underdiagnosed, cause for HFpEF is transthyretin-derived (ATTR) amyloidosis. This article reviews the clinical characteristics of cardiac ATTR amyloidosis. The clinical suspicion of cardiac ATTR amyloidosis is strong if pronounced left ventricular hypertrophy is present in the absence of hypertension. Scintigraphy with a diphosphonate tracer is a diagnostic tool for the early detection of cardiac ATTR amyloidosis with high sensitivity and specificity. First treatment options for ATTR amyloidosis recently emerged, and showed a reduction in morbidity and mortality, especially if treatment was started in the early stages of disease. In light of these results, screening for ATTR amyloidosis in the general HFpEF population with left ventricular hypertrophy might be useful.

18.
Circ Genom Precis Med ; 13(5): 387-395, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32822252

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The P-wave duration (PWD) is an electrocardiographic measurement that represents cardiac conduction in the atria. Shortened or prolonged PWD is associated with atrial fibrillation (AF). We used exome-chip data to examine the associations between common and rare variants with PWD. METHODS: Fifteen studies comprising 64 440 individuals (56 943 European, 5681 African, 1186 Hispanic, 630 Asian) and ≈230 000 variants were used to examine associations with maximum PWD across the 12-lead ECG. Meta-analyses summarized association results for common variants; gene-based burden and sequence kernel association tests examined low-frequency variant-PWD associations. Additionally, we examined the associations between PWD loci and AF using previous AF genome-wide association studies. RESULTS: We identified 21 common and low-frequency genetic loci (14 novel) associated with maximum PWD, including several AF loci (TTN, CAND2, SCN10A, PITX2, CAV1, SYNPO2L, SOX5, TBX5, MYH6, RPL3L). The top variants at known sarcomere genes (TTN, MYH6) were associated with longer PWD and increased AF risk. However, top variants at other loci (eg, PITX2 and SCN10A) were associated with longer PWD but lower AF risk. CONCLUSIONS: Our results highlight multiple novel genetic loci associated with PWD, and underscore the shared mechanisms of atrial conduction and AF. Prolonged PWD may be an endophenotype for several different genetic mechanisms of AF.

19.
Nutrients ; 12(9)2020 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32825781

RESUMO

Selenium is an essential micronutrient, and a low selenium concentration (<100 µg/L) is associated with a poorer quality of life and exercise capacity, and an impaired prognosis in patients with worsening heart failure. Measuring selenium concentrations routinely is laborious and costly, and although its clinical utility is yet to be proven, an easy implemented model to predict selenium status is desirable. A stepwise multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed using routinely measured clinical factors. Low selenium was independently predicted by: older age, lower serum albumin, higher N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide levels, worse kidney function, and the presence of orthopnea and iron deficiency. A 10-points risk-model was developed, and a score of ≥6 points identified >80% of patients with low selenium (sensitivity of 44%, specificity of 80%). Given that selenium and iron overlap in their physiological roles, we evaluated the shared determinants and prognostic associates. Both deficiencies shared similar clinical characteristics, including the model risk factors and, in addition, a low protein intake and high levels of C-reactive protein. Low selenium was associated with a similar or worse prognosis compared to iron deficiency. In conclusion, although it is difficult to exclude low selenium based on clinical characteristics alone, we provide a prediction tool which identifies heart failure patients at higher risk of having a low selenium status.

20.
Eur Heart J ; 41(39): 3787-3797, 2020 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32840318

RESUMO

AIMS : We sought to describe the clinical presentation, management, and 6-month outcomes in women with peripartum cardiomyopathy (PPCM) globally. METHODS AND RESULTS : In 2011, >100 national and affiliated member cardiac societies of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) were contacted to contribute to a global registry on PPCM, under the auspices of the ESC EURObservational Research Programme. These societies were tasked with identifying centres who could participate in this registry. In low-income countries, e.g. Mozambique or Burkina Faso, where there are no national societies due to a shortage of cardiologists, we identified potential participants through abstracts and publications and encouraged participation into the study. Seven hundred and thirty-nine women were enrolled in 49 countries in Europe (33%), Africa (29%), Asia-Pacific (15%), and the Middle East (22%). Mean age was 31 ± 6 years, mean left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) was 31 ± 10%, and 10% had a previous pregnancy complicated by PPCM. Symptom-onset occurred most often within 1 month of delivery (44%). At diagnosis, 67% of patients had severe (NYHA III/IV) symptoms and 67% had a LVEF ≤35%. Fifteen percent received bromocriptine with significant regional variation (Europe 15%, Africa 26%, Asia-Pacific 8%, the Middle East 4%, P < 0.001). Follow-up was available for 598 (81%) women. Six-month mortality was 6% overall, lowest in Europe (4%), and highest in the Middle East (10%). Most deaths were due to heart failure (42%) or sudden (30%). Re-admission for any reason occurred in 10% (with just over half of these for heart failure) and thromboembolic events in 7%. Myocardial recovery (LVEF > 50%) occurred only in 46%, most commonly in Asia-Pacific (62%), and least commonly in the Middle East (25%). Neonatal death occurred in 5% with marked regional variation (Europe 2%, the Middle East 9%). CONCLUSION : Peripartum cardiomyopathy is a global disease, but clinical presentation and outcomes vary by region. Just under half of women experience myocardial recovery. Peripartum cardiomyopathy is a disease with substantial maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality.

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