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1.
Child Dev ; 2019 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31448413

RESUMO

This study aimed to examine the relations between educational and interpersonal identity trajectories and psychosocial functioning based on a three-factor identity process model. A total of 968 Japanese adolescents including 13- and 16-years-olds (49.7% female) participated in a four-wave longitudinal study. Latent class growth analysis extracted five identity trajectories in each educational and interpersonal identity domain and revealed (a) high prevalence of low commitment identity trajectories, (b) absence of the closure trajectory, and (c) changeable identity trajectories that have not been identified in Western context (i.e., the Netherlands). Furthermore, a latent change model revealed dynamic relations between identity trajectories and psychosocial functioning. These findings provide critical insights into the diverse and dynamic pathways of identity formation during adolescence in Japan.

2.
Child Dev ; 2019 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31364163

RESUMO

To examine the contributions of maternal and paternal age on offspring externalizing and internalizing problems, this study analyzed problem behaviors at age 10-12 years from four Dutch population-based cohorts (N = 32,892) by a multiple informant design. Bayesian evidence synthesis was used to combine results across cohorts with 50% of the data analyzed for discovery and 50% for confirmation. There was evidence of a robust negative linear relation between parental age and externalizing problems as reported by parents. In teacher-reports, this relation was largely explained by parental socio-economic status. Parental age had limited to no association with internalizing problems. Thus, in this large population-based study, either a beneficial or no effect of advanced parenthood on child problem behavior was observed.

3.
J Youth Adolesc ; 2019 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31254242

RESUMO

Parent-adolescent conflict can be intense, yet parents and adolescents do not always agree on the intensity of conflict. Conflict intensity tends to change during adolescence and is thought to be an indicator of how the parent-adolescent relationship transforms. However, parents and adolescents might differently perceive change in conflict intensity, resulting in changing discrepancies in conflict intensity throughout adolescence. Also, personality characteristics of parents and adolescents might affect the extent to which there are discrepancies in perceptions of conflict intensity. This multi-informant longitudinal study investigated a) the trajectories of parent-adolescent conflict intensity, b) the trajectories of informant discrepancies, and c) the prediction of these trajectories by parental and adolescent personality. Dutch adolescents (N = 497, 43.1% female, Mage = 13.03 at T1), their mothers, and their fathers reported on parent-adolescent conflict intensity and personality for six years. Latent Growth Curve Modeling and Latent Congruence Modeling revealed curvilinear changes in conflict intensity, as well as in discrepancies thereof. Two cycles of discrepancies emerged. First, in early-to-middle-adolescence discrepancies in perceptions of parents and adolescents increased, reflecting that adolescents' perceived conflict intensity increased. Second, in middle-to-late-adolescence, father-adolescent discrepancies increased further, reflecting that fathers' perceptions of conflict decreased. Resilient adolescents, mothers, and fathers reported lower levels of conflict intensity than Undercontrollers and Overcontrollers, but personality was not associated with the rate of change in conflict intensity. Finally, undercontrolling fathers and overcontrolling adolescents showed higher father-adolescent discrepancies. This study showed that parents and adolescents differentially perceive conflict intensity and that in the adolescent-father relationship, the extent of the differences depends on adolescent and father personality.

4.
Dev Psychol ; 55(8): 1733-1742, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31070434

RESUMO

This multisample longitudinal study examined the directionality of effects between identity exploration and commitment processes and depressive symptoms across adolescence. We compared two theoretical perspectives. According to the vulnerability model, identity uncertainty predicts depressive symptoms, whereas the scar model holds that depressive symptoms play into identity uncertainty. In investigating both models, we examined reciprocal within-person associations in Study 1 (N = 497, Mage Time 1 [T1] = 14.03 years, comprising five annual waves) and Study 2 (N = 1,022, Mage T1 = 15.80 years, comprising four annual waves). To this end, we applied the random-intercept cross-lagged panel model (RI-CLPM) in both studies. Results supported the vulnerability model across Studies 1 and 2. Specifically, within-person increasing reconsideration of commitment (Study 1) and ruminative exploration (Study 2) predicted a within-person increase in depressive symptoms 1 year later, but not vice versa. Commitment processes did not predict depressive symptoms at the within-person level. Our findings indicate that maladaptive exploration processes of identity formation play a particularly important role in the development of depressive symptoms at the within-person level. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).

5.
J Pers Soc Psychol ; 2019 Jan 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30676043

RESUMO

It is well established that trait neuroticism bears strong links with negative affect and interpersonal problems. The goal of this study was to examine the longitudinal associations between neuroticism and daily experiences of negative affect and interpersonal problems during the developmentally important period of adolescence. Dutch adolescents and their best friends (N = 1,046) completed up to 6 yearly personality trait questionnaires and up to 15 between-year assessment bursts between the ages 13 and 18. During each assessment burst, participants reported on 5 consecutive days about their experiences of negative affect and interpersonal conflict with their mother and their best friend. We estimated a series of multilevel random-intercept cross-lagged panel models to differentiate covariance at the level of constant between-person differences from dynamic processes that occurred within persons. At the level of constant between-person differences, higher neuroticism was associated with more negative daily experiences. At the within-person level, yearly changes in neuroticism were bidirectionally and positively associated with yearly changes in daily negative affect. The most parsimonious, best fitting models did not contain a random intercept for daily conflict with friend and adolescents' contingency between daily experiences of conflict with mother and negative affect. Rank-order differences in these variables were positively associated with subsequent within-person changes in neuroticism. We discuss these results with regard to endogenous versus dynamic theories of personality development and the value of using a differentiated statistical approach. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).

6.
Dev Psychol ; 55(2): 377-389, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30570297

RESUMO

This 4-year, multi-informant longitudinal study (N = 480, initial age: 15) investigated the interplay between parental support, behavioral and psychological control, and adolescents' emotion regulation development. We examined reciprocal effects between parents and children, mothers' versus fathers' unique roles in emotion regulation development, and sex differences. Multi-informant data allowed us to compare effects of adolescent-perceived and parent-reported parenting. Finally, innovative analyses allowed us to disentangle between-family differences from within-family predictive processes. Parenting and emotion regulation were associated at the between-family and within-family levels, especially according to adolescent reports. Support primarily played a role between mothers and adolescents, and perceived behavioral control between fathers and adolescents. Sex moderation revealed that support played a more prominent role in mother-daughter than mother-son relationships, and that daughters experienced greater behavioral control. Child effects outnumbered parent effects, which might reflect the increasing equality of adolescent-parent relationships. Finally, adolescent-perceived parenting was a stronger correlate of emotion regulation than parent-reports, suggesting that adolescents' perceptions are a relevant source of information for research and practice. Consistent with the self-determination theory perspective on parenting, emotion regulation flourished when adolescents felt like mothers provided support, and fathers loosened behavioral control. These results are in line with the notion that mother-child relationships are supportive attachment relationships, whereas fathers provide "activation" relationships, challenging adolescents to regulate emotions autonomously by providing less explicit structure. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Emoções/fisiologia , Família/psicologia , Relações Mãe-Filho , Relações Pais-Filho , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Modelos Psicológicos , Psicologia do Adolescente , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Autorrelato
7.
Dev Psychol ; 2018 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30507219

RESUMO

One particular developmental task during adolescence is to regulate fluctuating moods to successfully transition through this period. The aim of this person-centered study was to identify distinct developmental trajectories of adolescent mood variability and to compare adolescents in different trajectories on changes in depressive symptoms, delinquency, and alcohol consumption in early to middle (ages 13-16) and middle to late adolescence (ages 16-20). Dutch adolescents (n = 482, 57.1% male) rated their daily emotions three weeks per year for five years using Internet daily diaries (ages 13-18). Day-to-day mood changes were calculated as an indicator of mood variability. Adolescents provided annual reports on depressive symptoms, delinquent acts, and alcohol consumption (ages 13-20). Results showed that most adolescents (88%) followed a trajectory characterized by decreases in mood variability (i.e., more stable moods). However, a minority (12%) followed a trajectory of increases in mood variability with a peak during middle adolescence. Adolescents with an increasing mood variability trajectory showed stable depressive and delinquency symptoms in early to middle adolescence compared with adolescents with a decreasing mood variability trajectory, who showed a decline in these symptoms. At age 16, there was a significant difference between the groups in depressive and delinquency symptoms, which stayed stable toward late adolescence. Although the two groups did not differ concerning alcohol consumption in early to middle adolescence, adolescents from the increasing mood variability class experienced less steep increases in alcohol use from middle to late adolescence compared with adolescents from the decreasing mood variability class. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30483901

RESUMO

Social withdrawal during adolescence and early adulthood is particularly problematic due to the increasing importance of social interactions during these ages. Yet little is known about the changes, trajectories, or correlates of being withdrawn during this transition to adulthood. The purpose of this study was to examine the normative change and distinct trajectories of withdrawal in order to identify adolescents and early adults at greatest risk for maladjustment. Participants were from a Dutch population-based cohort study (Tracking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey), including 1917 adolescents who were assessed at four waves from the age of 16 to 25 years. Five items from the Youth Self Report and Adult Self Report were found to be measurement invariant and used to assess longitudinal changes in social withdrawal. Overall, participants followed a U-shaped trajectory of social withdrawal, where withdrawal decreased from ages 16 to 19 years, remained stable from 19 to 22 years, and increased from 22 to 25 years. Furthermore, three distinct trajectory classes of withdrawal emerged: a low-stable group (71.8%), a high-decreasing group (12.0%), and a low-curvilinear group (16.2%). The three classes differed on: shyness, social affiliation, reduced social contact, anxiety, and antisocial behaviors. The high-decreasing group endorsed the highest social maladjustment, followed by the low-curvilinear group, and the low-stable group was highly adjusted. We discuss the potential contribution of the changing social network in influencing withdrawal levels, the distinct characteristics of each trajectory group, and future directions in the study of social withdrawal in adolescence and early adulthood.

9.
J Youth Adolesc ; 2018 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30315439

RESUMO

Although the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) is involved in aggression and social affiliation, it has not been examined in gene-environment interaction studies. This longitudinal study examined the effect of genetic variants in OXTR and its gene-environment interaction with perceived deviant peer affiliation in the trajectories of antisocial behavior in 323 adolescents (182 males) from 13 to 18 years. Annual assessments of reactive and proactive aggression, delinquency, and friends' delinquency, as well as DNA at age 17 were collected. Gene-based tests yielded no main effect of OXTR, but revealed a significant gene-environment interaction in proactive aggression and delinquency. Variation in the OXTR might affect the influence of deviant peer affiliation on antisocial behavior, contributing to a better understanding of individual differences in antisocial behavior.

10.
Front Psychol ; 9: 1699, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30283375

RESUMO

The family social relations model (SRM) is applied to identify the sources of variance in interpersonal dispositions in families, but the antecedents or consequences of those sources are rarely investigated. Simultaneous modeling of the SRM with antecedents or consequences using structural equation modeling (SEM) allows to do so, but may become computationally prohibitive in small samples. We therefore consider two factor score regression (FSR) methods: regression and Bartlett FSR. Based on full information maximum likelihood (FIML), we derive closed-form expressions for the regression and Bartlett factor scores in the presence of missingness. A simulation study in both a complete- and incomplete-case setting compares the performance of these FSR methods with SEM and an ANOVA-based approach. In both settings, the regression FIML factor scores as explanatory variable produces unbiased estimators with precision comparable to the SEM-estimators. When SRM-effects are used as dependent variables, none of the FSR methods are a suitable alternative for SEM. The latter result deviates from previous studies on FSR in more simple settings. As an example, we explore whether gender and past victimhood of relational and physical aggression are antecedents for family dynamics of perceived support, and whether those dynamics predict physical and relational aggression.

11.
J Res Adolesc ; 2018 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30063277

RESUMO

Adaptive mother-adolescent conflict interactions are characterized by the ability to move from negative to positive emotions. The current micro-observational study investigated how mothers and adolescents make transitions between positive, neutral and negative emotions and whether these transitions depend on maternal internalizing problems. We used three annual waves of conflict interaction observations among 102 mother-adolescent dyads. Mothers were more likely than adolescents to initiate positivity after negativity whereas adolescents were more likely than mothers to reciprocate negativity. Mothers high and low in internalizing problems were equally likely to drive transitions toward positivity. Our study indicates that an active role of mothers in regulating negativity toward positivity is desirable because adolescents are likely to maintain dysfunctional interaction patterns of rigid negativity.

12.
Addiction ; 113(11): 2073-2086, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30003630

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Cannabis is one of the most commonly used substances among adolescents and young adults. Earlier age at cannabis initiation is linked to adverse life outcomes, including multi-substance use and dependence. This study estimated the heritability of age at first cannabis use and identified associations with genetic variants. METHODS: A twin-based heritability analysis using 8055 twins from three cohorts was performed. We then carried out a genome-wide association meta-analysis of age at first cannabis use in a discovery sample of 24 953 individuals from nine European, North American and Australian cohorts, and a replication sample of 3735 individuals. RESULTS: The twin-based heritability for age at first cannabis use was 38% [95% confidence interval (CI) = 19-60%]. Shared and unique environmental factors explained 39% (95% CI = 20-56%) and 22% (95% CI = 16-29%). The genome-wide association meta-analysis identified five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on chromosome 16 within the calcium-transporting ATPase gene (ATP2C2) at P < 5E-08. All five SNPs are in high linkage disequilibrium (LD) (r2  > 0.8), with the strongest association at the intronic variant rs1574587 (P = 4.09E-09). Gene-based tests of association identified the ATP2C2 gene on 16q24.1 (P = 1.33e-06). Although the five SNPs and ATP2C2 did not replicate, ATP2C2 has been associated with cocaine dependence in a previous study. ATP2B2, which is a member of the same calcium signalling pathway, has been associated previously with opioid dependence. SNP-based heritability for age at first cannabis use was non-significant. CONCLUSION: Age at cannabis initiation appears to be moderately heritable in western countries, and individual differences in onset can be explained by separate but correlated genetic liabilities. The significant association between age of initiation and ATP2C2 is consistent with the role of calcium signalling mechanisms in substance use disorders.

13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29943075

RESUMO

Developmental changes in adolescents' relationships with parents and friends intertwine, but individual differences in these relationships are likely to emerge as not all adolescents develop similarly. Generalized anxiety symptoms may underlie these individual differences, as these symptoms have frequently been associated with interpersonal difficulties. This study examines relationship quality development with parents and friends in adolescents with low and high levels of generalized anxiety symptoms. A latent transition analysis was performed in a two-cohort five-wave study design covering ages 12 to 16 (n = 923, 50.8% males) and 16 to 20 (n = 390, 43.4% males). About one-third of adolescents with high levels of generalized anxiety symptoms perceived a turbulent relationship with both their parents and best friends, whereas only one-tenth of those with low levels of generalized anxiety symptoms did. Low levels as opposed to high levels of generalized anxiety symptoms predicted a twice as high likelihood to perceive harmonious relationships with both their parents and best friends. Nevertheless, adolescents with low and high levels of generalized anxiety symptoms exhibited similar trends in relationship development. Overall, our findings indicate that generalized anxiety symptoms are not deterministic markers for relationship difficulties as there were plenty of adolescents with high levels of generalized anxiety symptoms that experienced no relationship difficulties across adolescence.

14.
J Res Adolesc ; 2018 Jun 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29921030

RESUMO

Parent-child relationships change during adolescence. Furthermore, parents and adolescents perceive parenting differently. We examined the changes in perceptions of parental practices in fathers, mothers, and adolescents during adolescence. Furthermore, we investigated if fathers', mothers', and adolescents' perceptions converge during adolescence. Following 497 families across six waves (ages 13-18), we investigated the development of parental support and behavioral control using mother and father self-reports, and adolescent reports for mothers and fathers. We found curvilinear decrease for support and control. Parent-adolescent convergence emerged over the 6 years: those with higher intercepts had a steeper decrease, whereas correlations among parent and adolescent reports increased. This multi-informant study sheds light on the development of parent-adolescent convergence on perceptions of parenting.

15.
Child Dev ; 89(3): 823-836, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29516472

RESUMO

This multimethod multisample longitudinal study examined how neurological substrates associated with goal directedness and information seeking are related to adolescents' identity. Self-reported data on goal-directedness were collected across three biannual waves in Study 1. Identity was measured one wave later. Study 1 design and measurements were repeated in Study 2 and extended with structural brain data (nucleus accumbens [NAcc] and prefrontal cortex gray matter volume [PFC]), collected across three biannual waves. Study 1 included 497 adolescents (Mage T1  = 13.03 years) and Study 2 included 131 adolescents (Mage T1  = 14.69 years). Using latent growth curve models, goal directedness, NAcc, and PFC volume predicted a stronger identity one wave later. These findings provide crucial new insights in the underlying neurobiological architecture of identity.

16.
J Res Adolesc ; 28(1): 169-185, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29460364

RESUMO

This study longitudinally investigated transmission of conflict management styles across inter-parental, adolescent-parent, adolescent-friend, and adolescent-partner relationships. During four waves, 799 middle-to-late adolescents (Mage-t1  = 15.80; 54% boys) and their parents completed the Conflict Resolution Style Inventory. Cross-lagged path analyses indicated transmission of adolescent conflict management styles in relationships with parents to relationships with friends and romantic partners: Positive problem solving and conflict engagement utilized by adolescents in conflicts with parents were significantly, positively related to, respectively, adolescent positive problem solving and conflict engagement in relationships with friends 1 year later and relationships with partners 2 years later. Thus, the study showed that the way adolescents manage conflicts with parents predicts how they handle conflicts later in relationships outside the family.

17.
J Abnorm Child Psychol ; 46(1): 41-56, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28593601

RESUMO

A substantive body of literature suggests that those involved in bullying as perpetrators but particularly victims are at greater risk for psychological maladjustment. In comparison, relatively little is known about associations between bullying-victimization and perpetration and mastery of early adult tasks in domains including romantic relationships, education, work, financial competence, and conduct. These links were tested using data from two Dutch cohorts (RADAR-young, n = 497, 43% girls; TRAILS, n = 2230, 51% girls) who reported on victimization and perpetration at age 11 (TRAILS) and 13 (RADAR-young) and mastery of developmental tasks in early adulthood. Unadjusted regression analyses suggested for both cohorts that perpetrators were less likely to abide the law and more likely to smoke. Victims in TRAILS were less competent in the domains of education, work, and finances, and more likely to smoke in RADAR-young. Adjusting for childhood demographics and child intelligence and including psychopathology in the prediction models substantially reduced the strength of associations between bullying involvement and later outcomes in both cohorts; although association were retained between victimization and welfare dependence and perpetration and crime involvement in TRAILS. Parental support did not buffer associations in either sample and neither were gender differences detected. Overall, findings underline that negative outcomes of bullying are not only a concern for victims but also for their perpetrators although involvement in bullying is not a stable predictor of mastery of developmental tasks when childhood demographics, child intelligence, and psychopathology are taken into account.

18.
Dev Psychopathol ; 30(4): 1487-1501, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29157324

RESUMO

This study examined the impact of the middle school transition on general anxiety trajectories from middle childhood to middle adolescence, as well as how youths' individual vulnerability and exposure to contextual stressors were associated with anxiety trajectories. Participants were 631 youth (47% boys, M age = 7.96 years at Time 1), followed for 7 successive years from second to eighth grade. Teachers reported on youths' individual vulnerability to anxiety (anxious solitude) in second grade; youth reported on their anxiety in second to eighth grade and aspects of their social contexts particularly relevant to the school transition (school hassles, peer victimization, parent-child relationship quality, and friendship quality) in sixth to eighth grade. The results revealed two subgroups that showed either strongly increasing (5%) or decreasing (14%) levels of anxiety across the transition and two subgroups with fairly stable levels of either high (11%) or low (70%) anxiety over time. Youth in the latter two subgroups could be distinguished based on their individual vulnerability to anxiety, whereas youth with increasing anxiety reported more contextual stressors and less contextual support than youth with decreasing anxiety. In sum, findings suggest that the middle school transition has the potential to alter developmental trajectories of anxiety for some youth, for better or for worse.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/psicologia , Individualidade , Relações Pais-Filho , Grupo Associado , Instituições Acadêmicas , Adolescente , Bullying , Criança , Feminino , Amigos/psicologia , Humanos , Masculino , Comportamento Social
19.
Dev Psychol ; 53(11): 2103-2112, 2017 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29094973

RESUMO

A central assumption of identity theory is that adolescents reconsider current identity commitments and explore identity alternatives before they make new commitments in various identity domains (Erikson, 1968; Marcia, 1966). Yet, little empirical evidence is available on how commitment and exploration dynamics of identity formation affect each other across adolescence at the within-person level. Therefore, the current study (N = 494, Mage Time 1 = 13.3 years) examined reciprocal within-person longitudinal linkages between adolescents' identity exploration and identity commitment making in the interpersonal and educational identity domains. For this purpose, we constructed a multilevel type cross-lagged panel model from early to late adolescence (i.e., across 5 successive years). Results supported Erikson's (1968) hypothesis that adolescents reconsider current identity commitments and explore alternatives before they make strong commitments within the interpersonal identity domain across early to late adolescence. Within the educational identity domain, increasing identity commitment level and commitment fluctuations predicted less identity reconsideration over time. Our findings support identity theory, but indicate that the processes of identity formation might differ depending on the identity domain. (PsycINFO Database Record


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento da Personalidade , Psicologia do Adolescente , Incerteza , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Identificação (Psicologia) , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Modelos Psicológicos , Identificação Social , Fatores de Tempo
20.
Child Dev ; 88(6): 1823-1833, 2017 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28849587

RESUMO

This study examined reciprocal associations between adolescents' self-concept clarity (SCC) and their relationship quality with parents and best friends in a five-wave longitudinal study from age 13 to 18 years. In all, 497 adolescents (57% boys) reported on their SCC and all informants (i.e., adolescents, both parents, and adolescents' best friends) reported on support and negative interaction. Within-person cross-lagged analyses provided systematic evidence for both parent effects and child effects, with the direction of effects being strongly dependent on the relational context. For example, higher maternal support predicted higher adolescent SCC, supporting a parent effects perspective, whereas higher SCC predicted lower paternal negative interaction, supporting a child effects perspective. Peer effects on adolescent SCC were not consistently found across adolescent and best friend reports.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento do Adolescente , Amigos/psicologia , Relações Interpessoais , Relações Pais-Filho , Grupo Associado , Autoimagem , Apoio Social , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino
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