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1.
J Adolesc ; 76: 75-87, 2019 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31472428

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: In the past, stressful life events have been consistently linked to developmental outcomes such as well-being and psychopathological problems. Theory on identity postulates that stressful life events may also predict a regression in identity development. While some support for this link has been found in adult populations, it is important to examine this in adolescence, a time marked by identity development as well as stressful transitions and experiences. METHODS: In the present study, we examined whether having to repeat a grade and death of a family member or friend were related to regressive change in educational and relational identity in a sample of 840 Dutch adolescents (49% female, Mage W1 = 12.4) drawn from a large ongoing longitudinal study. We also investigated whether the impact of the events was moderated by neuroticism, and parental and peer support. All analyses were controlled for age, educational level, and sex. RESULTS: Results of latent difference score models indicated that experiencing an event did not predict regressions in identity. Congruence between the domain of the event and identity (i.e., educational or relational) did not affect the strength of the effects. Neuroticism and parental and peer support did not significantly moderate this link. However, social support was related to relational and educational identity. CONCLUSIONS: The link between stressful events and identity may not be as straightforward as would be expected based on identity theory, as our results did not show evidence for a link between these events and change in identity for all adolescents.

2.
J Pers ; 2019 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31483860

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Being a student is an important social role youth play during adolescence and how they approach this role has critical implications for their future development. This three-wave longitudinal study investigated the links between academic achievement (i.e., GPA) and personality traits, through the lens of social comparison mechanisms. METHOD: Patterns of effects between students' GPA and personality traits were analyzed at group (i.e., comparing rank-order differences at group-level; group effects) and individual (i.e., scores are compared to a student's own mean; within-person effects) levels. A total of 1,151 adolescents (Mage  = 16.45 years; 58.7% female) participated in the study. RESULTS: Most effects we depicted were from GPA to personality traits. At the group-level, higher GPA fostered students' Extraversion, Agreeableness, and Openness, while Openness reinforced high levels of GPA. At the individual level, GPA was a protective factor against negative affect, as it drove longitudinal decreases in Neuroticism. CONCLUSIONS: GPA had a stronger role in personality formation when it reflected students' standing in the school compared to their peers (i.e., group effects) and to a lesser extent when it reflected changes at personal level (i.e., within-person effects).

3.
Child Dev ; 2019 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31364163

RESUMO

To examine the contributions of maternal and paternal age on offspring externalizing and internalizing problems, this study analyzed problem behaviors at age 10-12 years from four Dutch population-based cohorts (N = 32,892) by a multiple informant design. Bayesian evidence synthesis was used to combine results across cohorts with 50% of the data analyzed for discovery and 50% for confirmation. There was evidence of a robust negative linear relation between parental age and externalizing problems as reported by parents. In teacher-reports, this relation was largely explained by parental socio-economic status. Parental age had limited to no association with internalizing problems. Thus, in this large population-based study, either a beneficial or no effect of advanced parenthood on child problem behavior was observed.

4.
J Youth Adolesc ; 2019 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31407186

RESUMO

The narrative and dual-cycle approach conceptualize and operationalize adolescents' identity formation in different ways. While the narrative approach focuses on the construction of an autobiographical life story, the dual-cycle approach focuses on the formation of identity commitments. Although these approaches have different emphases, they are conceptually complementary. Yet, their empirical links and distinctions have only scarcely been investigated. Empirical knowledge on these links in adolescence and across time has been especially lacking. In the present research, it was therefore examined whether key characteristics of adolescents' narration (autobiographical reasoning and agency) were concurrently and prospectively related to engagement in the dual-cycle processes of commitment making, identification with commitment, exploration in breadth, exploration in depth, and ruminative exploration. The findings from a cross-sectional sample of 1,580 Dutch adolescents (Mage = 14.7 years, 56% female) demonstrated that autobiographical reasoning was significantly positively associated with the commitment and more adaptive exploration processes (i.e., in breadth and in depth). In addition, agency was significantly positively associated with the commitment processes and exploration in depth. Yet, these associations between the narrative characteristics and dual-cycle processes were only weak. Subsequently, the findings from a two-year longitudinal subsample (n = 242, Mage = 14.7 years, 62% female) indicated that on average commitment strength remained stable but exploration increased across middle adolescence. A stronger increase in identification with commitment and adaptive exploration (i.e., in breadth and in depth) was predicted by a higher degree of agency in adolescents' narratives. Overall, these findings indicate that both approaches to identity formation are associated, but the small size of these associations suggests that they predominantly capture unique aspects of identity formation. Both approaches could thus complement and inform each other.

5.
Child Dev ; 2019 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31448413

RESUMO

This study aimed to examine the relations between educational and interpersonal identity trajectories and psychosocial functioning based on a three-factor identity process model. A total of 968 Japanese adolescents including 13- and 16-years-olds (49.7% female) participated in a four-wave longitudinal study. Latent class growth analysis extracted five identity trajectories in each educational and interpersonal identity domain and revealed (a) high prevalence of low commitment identity trajectories, (b) absence of the closure trajectory, and (c) changeable identity trajectories that have not been identified in Western context (i.e., the Netherlands). Furthermore, a latent change model revealed dynamic relations between identity trajectories and psychosocial functioning. These findings provide critical insights into the diverse and dynamic pathways of identity formation during adolescence in Japan.

6.
Nat Neurosci ; 22(7): 1196, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31168101

RESUMO

Several occurrences of the word 'schizophrenia' have been re-worded as 'liability to schizophrenia' or 'schizophrenia risk', including in the title, which should have been "GWAS of lifetime cannabis use reveals new risk loci, genetic overlap with psychiatric traits, and a causal effect of schizophrenia liability," as well as in Supplementary Figures 1-10 and Supplementary Tables 7-10, to more accurately reflect the findings of the work.

7.
J Youth Adolesc ; 2019 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31254242

RESUMO

Parent-adolescent conflict can be intense, yet parents and adolescents do not always agree on the intensity of conflict. Conflict intensity tends to change during adolescence and is thought to be an indicator of how the parent-adolescent relationship transforms. However, parents and adolescents might differently perceive change in conflict intensity, resulting in changing discrepancies in conflict intensity throughout adolescence. Also, personality characteristics of parents and adolescents might affect the extent to which there are discrepancies in perceptions of conflict intensity. This multi-informant longitudinal study investigated a) the trajectories of parent-adolescent conflict intensity, b) the trajectories of informant discrepancies, and c) the prediction of these trajectories by parental and adolescent personality. Dutch adolescents (N = 497, 43.1% female, Mage = 13.03 at T1), their mothers, and their fathers reported on parent-adolescent conflict intensity and personality for six years. Latent Growth Curve Modeling and Latent Congruence Modeling revealed curvilinear changes in conflict intensity, as well as in discrepancies thereof. Two cycles of discrepancies emerged. First, in early-to-middle-adolescence discrepancies in perceptions of parents and adolescents increased, reflecting that adolescents' perceived conflict intensity increased. Second, in middle-to-late-adolescence, father-adolescent discrepancies increased further, reflecting that fathers' perceptions of conflict decreased. Resilient adolescents, mothers, and fathers reported lower levels of conflict intensity than Undercontrollers and Overcontrollers, but personality was not associated with the rate of change in conflict intensity. Finally, undercontrolling fathers and overcontrolling adolescents showed higher father-adolescent discrepancies. This study showed that parents and adolescents differentially perceive conflict intensity and that in the adolescent-father relationship, the extent of the differences depends on adolescent and father personality.

8.
Dev Psychol ; 55(8): 1733-1742, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31070434

RESUMO

This multisample longitudinal study examined the directionality of effects between identity exploration and commitment processes and depressive symptoms across adolescence. We compared two theoretical perspectives. According to the vulnerability model, identity uncertainty predicts depressive symptoms, whereas the scar model holds that depressive symptoms play into identity uncertainty. In investigating both models, we examined reciprocal within-person associations in Study 1 (N = 497, Mage Time 1 [T1] = 14.03 years, comprising five annual waves) and Study 2 (N = 1,022, Mage T1 = 15.80 years, comprising four annual waves). To this end, we applied the random-intercept cross-lagged panel model (RI-CLPM) in both studies. Results supported the vulnerability model across Studies 1 and 2. Specifically, within-person increasing reconsideration of commitment (Study 1) and ruminative exploration (Study 2) predicted a within-person increase in depressive symptoms 1 year later, but not vice versa. Commitment processes did not predict depressive symptoms at the within-person level. Our findings indicate that maladaptive exploration processes of identity formation play a particularly important role in the development of depressive symptoms at the within-person level. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).

9.
J Youth Adolesc ; 48(5): 1009-1021, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30778830

RESUMO

Morality, competence, and sociability have been conceptualized as fundamental dimensions of social judgment that individuals use to evaluate themselves and other people and groups. The way in which adolescents perceive themselves along these dimensions affects the quality of their relationships across multiple social contexts. Given the centrality of morality, competence, and sociability for adolescents' social life, the purpose of this study was to understand how these dimensions develop over time with a focus on gender differences, since males and females can show distinct trajectories due to socialization and developmental processes. Participants were 916 (51.4% girls; Mage = 15.64 years) adolescents involved in a three-wave longitudinal study with annual assessments. The findings highlighted that females reported increasing levels of morality and competence, while males showed decreasing levels in all dimensions. Furthermore, females also showed greater consistency in the configuration of morality, competence, and sociability, and inter-individual differences appeared to be already well-settled in each dimension for both males and females. Overall, this study increases the developmental understanding of how core dimensions of social judgment change in the adolescent phase, highlighting gender differences and similarities.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento do Adolescente , Desenvolvimento Moral , Habilidades Sociais , Socialização , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Psicologia do Adolescente , Fatores Sexuais
10.
J Youth Adolesc ; 48(6): 1068-1081, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30788766

RESUMO

Adolescence tends to be characterized by a temporary peak in delinquent behavior, and friends in particular play a key role in the initiation and the development of delinquency. However, adolescents differ in their susceptibility to friends' influence on delinquency. Especially adolescents who are less certain about who they are might show more delinquent behavior, and might be more susceptible to their friends' behaviors, as friends are also crucial for adolescents' identity formation. In addition to examining the main effects of best friend's delinquency and self-concept clarity on the development of adolescents' delinquency, the current study scrutinized whether self-concept clarity moderated the longitudinal association between adolescents' and their best friends' self-reported delinquent behavior. The current study examined whether best friend delinquency and adolescent self-concept clarity were related to the development of adolescents' delinquency, and whether self-concept clarity moderated the relation between adolescent and best friend delinquency. Dutch adolescents (N = 497, Mage Wave 1 = 13 years, 287 boys) and their best friends participated across six annual waves. Both adolescents and best friends reported on their delinquency and adolescents reported on their self-concept clarity. Adolescent delinquency linearly declined, and although adolescents' and best friends' delinquency levels were related, changes in delinquency of adolescents and best friends were not. Adolescents low on self-concept clarity reported higher levels of delinquency. Self-concept clarity also moderated the relation between adolescent and best friend delinquency levels, with stronger relations observed for adolescents with lower self-concept clarity. Future research should examine the protective role of self-concept clarity not only against delinquent behavior, but also against susceptibility to peer influence.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Amigos/psicologia , Delinquência Juvenil/psicologia , Infuência dos Pares , Autoimagem , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Grupo Associado , Autorrelato
11.
Dev Psychol ; 55(5): 1072-1087, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30702311

RESUMO

Residential mobility-the change of residence within a country-is a pervasive phenomenon in 21st century societies, with the peak clearly being in young adulthood. Placing the self in geographical space has now become a major challenge for young adults, making region a key identity domain. Little is known, however, about the correlates of regional identity development. In line with the dynamic-transactional paradigm, we expected longitudinal associations between regional identity and the geographical dispersion of personal relationships. We specifically assumed that both individual experiences-such as moving-and personal relationship experiences-such as emotional closeness toward relationship partners-moderate these associations over time. Using longitudinal multilevel analyses, we found support for these hypotheses in a 3-wave longitudinal study over 1 year with 1,059 postsecondary graduates from Germany (73% female, mean age 24.53 years). Most notably, changes in regional identity were related to changes in geographical distance from personal relationship partners. Effects were robust and confirmed when controlling for diverse reasons for moving. We conclude that regional identity and personal relationships share a common developmental pathway. This pathway also points toward the relevance of geographical distance from personal relationships, even in young adults' mobile and connected world. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Geografia , Relações Interpessoais , Dinâmica Populacional , Autoimagem , Identificação Social , Adulto , Feminino , Amigos/psicologia , Alemanha , Humanos , Individuação , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Desenvolvimento da Personalidade , Parceiros Sexuais/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
12.
J Pers Soc Psychol ; 2019 Jan 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30676043

RESUMO

It is well established that trait neuroticism bears strong links with negative affect and interpersonal problems. The goal of this study was to examine the longitudinal associations between neuroticism and daily experiences of negative affect and interpersonal problems during the developmentally important period of adolescence. Dutch adolescents and their best friends (N = 1,046) completed up to 6 yearly personality trait questionnaires and up to 15 between-year assessment bursts between the ages 13 and 18. During each assessment burst, participants reported on 5 consecutive days about their experiences of negative affect and interpersonal conflict with their mother and their best friend. We estimated a series of multilevel random-intercept cross-lagged panel models to differentiate covariance at the level of constant between-person differences from dynamic processes that occurred within persons. At the level of constant between-person differences, higher neuroticism was associated with more negative daily experiences. At the within-person level, yearly changes in neuroticism were bidirectionally and positively associated with yearly changes in daily negative affect. The most parsimonious, best fitting models did not contain a random intercept for daily conflict with friend and adolescents' contingency between daily experiences of conflict with mother and negative affect. Rank-order differences in these variables were positively associated with subsequent within-person changes in neuroticism. We discuss these results with regard to endogenous versus dynamic theories of personality development and the value of using a differentiated statistical approach. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).

13.
Dev Psychol ; 55(2): 377-389, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30570297

RESUMO

This 4-year, multi-informant longitudinal study (N = 480, initial age: 15) investigated the interplay between parental support, behavioral and psychological control, and adolescents' emotion regulation development. We examined reciprocal effects between parents and children, mothers' versus fathers' unique roles in emotion regulation development, and sex differences. Multi-informant data allowed us to compare effects of adolescent-perceived and parent-reported parenting. Finally, innovative analyses allowed us to disentangle between-family differences from within-family predictive processes. Parenting and emotion regulation were associated at the between-family and within-family levels, especially according to adolescent reports. Support primarily played a role between mothers and adolescents, and perceived behavioral control between fathers and adolescents. Sex moderation revealed that support played a more prominent role in mother-daughter than mother-son relationships, and that daughters experienced greater behavioral control. Child effects outnumbered parent effects, which might reflect the increasing equality of adolescent-parent relationships. Finally, adolescent-perceived parenting was a stronger correlate of emotion regulation than parent-reports, suggesting that adolescents' perceptions are a relevant source of information for research and practice. Consistent with the self-determination theory perspective on parenting, emotion regulation flourished when adolescents felt like mothers provided support, and fathers loosened behavioral control. These results are in line with the notion that mother-child relationships are supportive attachment relationships, whereas fathers provide "activation" relationships, challenging adolescents to regulate emotions autonomously by providing less explicit structure. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Emoções/fisiologia , Família/psicologia , Relações Mãe-Filho , Relações Pais-Filho , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Modelos Psicológicos , Psicologia do Adolescente , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Autorrelato
14.
Dev Psychol ; 2018 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30507219

RESUMO

One particular developmental task during adolescence is to regulate fluctuating moods to successfully transition through this period. The aim of this person-centered study was to identify distinct developmental trajectories of adolescent mood variability and to compare adolescents in different trajectories on changes in depressive symptoms, delinquency, and alcohol consumption in early to middle (ages 13-16) and middle to late adolescence (ages 16-20). Dutch adolescents (n = 482, 57.1% male) rated their daily emotions three weeks per year for five years using Internet daily diaries (ages 13-18). Day-to-day mood changes were calculated as an indicator of mood variability. Adolescents provided annual reports on depressive symptoms, delinquent acts, and alcohol consumption (ages 13-20). Results showed that most adolescents (88%) followed a trajectory characterized by decreases in mood variability (i.e., more stable moods). However, a minority (12%) followed a trajectory of increases in mood variability with a peak during middle adolescence. Adolescents with an increasing mood variability trajectory showed stable depressive and delinquency symptoms in early to middle adolescence compared with adolescents with a decreasing mood variability trajectory, who showed a decline in these symptoms. At age 16, there was a significant difference between the groups in depressive and delinquency symptoms, which stayed stable toward late adolescence. Although the two groups did not differ concerning alcohol consumption in early to middle adolescence, adolescents from the increasing mood variability class experienced less steep increases in alcohol use from middle to late adolescence compared with adolescents from the decreasing mood variability class. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30483901

RESUMO

Social withdrawal during adolescence and early adulthood is particularly problematic due to the increasing importance of social interactions during these ages. Yet little is known about the changes, trajectories, or correlates of being withdrawn during this transition to adulthood. The purpose of this study was to examine the normative change and distinct trajectories of withdrawal in order to identify adolescents and early adults at greatest risk for maladjustment. Participants were from a Dutch population-based cohort study (Tracking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey), including 1917 adolescents who were assessed at four waves from the age of 16 to 25 years. Five items from the Youth Self Report and Adult Self Report were found to be measurement invariant and used to assess longitudinal changes in social withdrawal. Overall, participants followed a U-shaped trajectory of social withdrawal, where withdrawal decreased from ages 16 to 19 years, remained stable from 19 to 22 years, and increased from 22 to 25 years. Furthermore, three distinct trajectory classes of withdrawal emerged: a low-stable group (71.8%), a high-decreasing group (12.0%), and a low-curvilinear group (16.2%). The three classes differed on: shyness, social affiliation, reduced social contact, anxiety, and antisocial behaviors. The high-decreasing group endorsed the highest social maladjustment, followed by the low-curvilinear group, and the low-stable group was highly adjusted. We discuss the potential contribution of the changing social network in influencing withdrawal levels, the distinct characteristics of each trajectory group, and future directions in the study of social withdrawal in adolescence and early adulthood.

16.
J Youth Adolesc ; 2018 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30315439

RESUMO

Although the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) is involved in aggression and social affiliation, it has not been examined in gene-environment interaction studies. This longitudinal study examined the effect of genetic variants in OXTR and its gene-environment interaction with perceived deviant peer affiliation in the trajectories of antisocial behavior in 323 adolescents (182 males) from 13 to 18 years. Annual assessments of reactive and proactive aggression, delinquency, and friends' delinquency, as well as DNA at age 17 were collected. Gene-based tests yielded no main effect of OXTR, but revealed a significant gene-environment interaction in proactive aggression and delinquency. Variation in the OXTR might affect the influence of deviant peer affiliation on antisocial behavior, contributing to a better understanding of individual differences in antisocial behavior.

17.
Front Psychol ; 9: 1699, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30283375

RESUMO

The family social relations model (SRM) is applied to identify the sources of variance in interpersonal dispositions in families, but the antecedents or consequences of those sources are rarely investigated. Simultaneous modeling of the SRM with antecedents or consequences using structural equation modeling (SEM) allows to do so, but may become computationally prohibitive in small samples. We therefore consider two factor score regression (FSR) methods: regression and Bartlett FSR. Based on full information maximum likelihood (FIML), we derive closed-form expressions for the regression and Bartlett factor scores in the presence of missingness. A simulation study in both a complete- and incomplete-case setting compares the performance of these FSR methods with SEM and an ANOVA-based approach. In both settings, the regression FIML factor scores as explanatory variable produces unbiased estimators with precision comparable to the SEM-estimators. When SRM-effects are used as dependent variables, none of the FSR methods are a suitable alternative for SEM. The latter result deviates from previous studies on FSR in more simple settings. As an example, we explore whether gender and past victimhood of relational and physical aggression are antecedents for family dynamics of perceived support, and whether those dynamics predict physical and relational aggression.

18.
Nat Neurosci ; 21(9): 1161-1170, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30150663

RESUMO

Cannabis use is a heritable trait that has been associated with adverse mental health outcomes. In the largest genome-wide association study (GWAS) for lifetime cannabis use to date (N = 184,765), we identified eight genome-wide significant independent single nucleotide polymorphisms in six regions. All measured genetic variants combined explained 11% of the variance. Gene-based tests revealed 35 significant genes in 16 regions, and S-PrediXcan analyses showed that 21 genes had different expression levels for cannabis users versus nonusers. The strongest finding across the different analyses was CADM2, which has been associated with substance use and risk-taking. Significant genetic correlations were found with 14 of 25 tested substance use and mental health-related traits, including smoking, alcohol use, schizophrenia and risk-taking. Mendelian randomization analysis showed evidence for a causal positive influence of schizophrenia risk on cannabis use. Overall, our study provides new insights into the etiology of cannabis use and its relation with mental health.

19.
J Res Adolesc ; 2018 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30063277

RESUMO

Adaptive mother-adolescent conflict interactions are characterized by the ability to move from negative to positive emotions. The current micro-observational study investigated how mothers and adolescents make transitions between positive, neutral and negative emotions and whether these transitions depend on maternal internalizing problems. We used three annual waves of conflict interaction observations among 102 mother-adolescent dyads. Mothers were more likely than adolescents to initiate positivity after negativity whereas adolescents were more likely than mothers to reciprocate negativity. Mothers high and low in internalizing problems were equally likely to drive transitions toward positivity. Our study indicates that an active role of mothers in regulating negativity toward positivity is desirable because adolescents are likely to maintain dysfunctional interaction patterns of rigid negativity.

20.
Drug Alcohol Depend ; 190: 143-150, 2018 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30031300

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previously reported comorbidity between schizophrenia and substance use may be explained by shared underlying risk factors, such as genetic background. The aim of the present longitudinal study was to investigate how a genetic predisposition to schizophrenia was associated with patterns of substance use (cannabis use, smoking, alcohol use) during adolescence (comparing ages 13-16 with 16-20 years). METHOD: Using piecewise latent growth curve modelling in a longitudinal adolescent cohort (RADAR-Y study, N = 372), we analyzed the association of polygenic risk scores for schizophrenia (PRS; p-value thresholds (pt) < 5e-8 to pt < 0.5) with increase in substance use over the years, including stratified analyses for gender. Significance thresholds were set to adjust for multiple testing using Bonferroni at p ≤ 0.001. RESULTS: High schizophrenia vulnerability was associated with a stronger increase in cannabis use at age 16-20 (PRS thresholds pt < 5e-5 and pt < 5e-4; pt < 5e-6 was marginally significant), whereas more lenient PRS thresholds (PRS thresholds pt < 5e-3 to pt < 0.5) showed the reverse association. For smoking and alcohol, no clear relations were found. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, our findings support a relation between genetic risk to schizophrenia and prospective cannabis use patterns during adolescence. In contrast, no relation between alcohol and smoking was established.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença/epidemiologia , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Fumar Maconha/epidemiologia , Fumar Maconha/genética , Esquizofrenia/epidemiologia , Esquizofrenia/genética , Adolescente , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/genética , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/psicologia , Cannabis , Comorbidade , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Fumar Maconha/psicologia , Herança Multifatorial , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Psicologia do Esquizofrênico , Adulto Jovem
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