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1.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 105(8)2020 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32449514

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Objective response rate to mitotane in advanced adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is approximately 20%, and adverse drug effects are frequent. To date, there is no marker established that predicts treatment response. Mitotane has been shown to inhibit sterol-O-acyl transferase 1 (SOAT1), which leads to endoplasmic reticulum stress and cell death in ACC cells. OBJECTIVE: To investigate SOAT1 protein expression as a marker of treatment response to mitotane. PATIENTS: A total of 231 ACC patients treated with single-agent mitotane as adjuvant (n = 158) or advanced disease therapy (n = 73) from 12 ENSAT centers were included. SOAT1 protein expression was determined by immunohistochemistry on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded specimens. SETTING: Retrospective study at 12 ACC referral centers. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Recurrence-free survival (RFS), progression-free survival (PFS), and disease-specific survival (DSS). RESULTS: Sixty-one of 135 patients (45%) with adjuvant mitotane treatment had recurrences and 45/68 patients (66%) with mitotane treatment for advanced disease had progressive disease. After multivariate adjustment for sex, age, hormone secretion, tumor stage, and Ki67 index, RFS (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.07; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.61-1.85; P = 0.82), and DSS (HR = 1.30; 95% CI, 0.58-2.93; P = 0.53) in adjuvantly treated ACC patients did not differ significantly between tumors with high and low SOAT1 expression. Similarly, in the advanced stage setting, PFS (HR = 1.34; 95% CI, 0.63-2.84; P = 0.45) and DSS (HR = 0.72; 95% CI, 0.31-1.70; P = 0.45) were comparable and response rates not significantly different. CONCLUSIONS: SOAT1 expression was not correlated with clinical endpoints RFS, PFS, and DSS in ACC patients with mitotane monotherapy. Other factors appear to be relevant for mitotane treatment response and ACC patient survival.

2.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 105(5)2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31900481

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Objective response of advanced adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) to mitotane and cytotoxic chemotherapy regimen is only ~20% and early tumor progression is frequent. Previous clinical trials with oral multikinase inhibitors were negative, which has been attributed in part to inadvertent drug interaction with mitotane. Cabozantinib (CABO) is an inhibitor of c-MET, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2, AXL, and RET and approved for advanced kidney cancer, liver carcinoma after previous sorafenib, and medullary thyroid carcinoma. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the clinical efficacy and safety of CABO monotherapy in ACC patients. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Three referral centers for ACC (Germany, United States). RESULTS: Sixteen patients (13 female) with progressive ACC received CABO after previous mitotane in 15/16 and 3 (median, range 0-8) further systemic treatments. Prior CABO therapy, mitotane was discontinued in all patients. Mitotane plasma concentration was <2 mg/L in 7/16 patients and discontinued >12 months in 6 additional patients before CABO use. In 4/5 cases with available plasma samples, CABO concentration was in the expected steady-state range. Adverse events of grade 1/2 and 3 were observed in 13 and 3 patients, respectively, and consistent with the known safety profile of CABO. Best response was partial response in 3, stable disease in 5, and progressive disease in 8 patients. Median progression-free and overall survival was 16 and 58 weeks, respectively. CONCLUSION: CABO monotherapy appears to be safe and effective as a monotherapy in advanced ACC after failing prior treatments. Therefore, prospective investigation of CABO in ACC patients is warranted.

3.
Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes ; 127(2-03): 109-116, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30469158

RESUMO

Adrenocortical carcinoma is a rare endocrine malignant disease with a generally unfavorable but heterogeneous prognosis. Although even in advanced stages a subset of patients experiences long-term disease stabilisation, effective systemic treatment options are limited. Mitotane is the only approved drug and the combination of etoposide, doxorubicin and cisplatin (plus mitotane) is currently considered as treatment standard for advanced adrenocortical carcinoma based on the results of a large randomized phase III trial. However, progression-free survival is often limited and further treatment options are frequently needed. Here we summarize the current knowledge about second and third-line therapeutic modalities (local and systemic) in advanced disease. Following the recent ESE-ENSAT guidelines local therapies play an important role for these patients. Regarding systemic therapies the best data are available for gemcitabine+capecitabine or streptozotocin (both with or without mitotane). Furthermore, we introduce our own approach to patients with advanced adrenocortical carcinoma based on our experience as a large multidisciplinary clinic dedicated to the care of patients with this orphan disease.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Córtex Suprarrenal/terapia , Carcinoma Adrenocortical/terapia , Antibióticos Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Antimetabólitos Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos Hormonais/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Neoplasias do Córtex Suprarrenal/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Adrenocortical/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos
4.
Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes ; 127(9): 578-584, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30428495

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare malignancy with a dismal prognosis. In advanced stages, tumour control by mitotane and cytotoxic chemotherapy is often temporary and salvage treatments are warranted. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study of participants in the prospective European Networks for the Study of Adrenal Tumours (ENSAT) registry. Main outcome measures were best response during treatment, progression-free survival (PFS), both measured according to RECIST 1.1 by two blinded radiologists, and overall survival (OS). RESULTS: Twenty-seven patients (13 males; median age 44.1 years) progressing after mitotane and a median of 4 further systemic treatments were included. Thalidomide was administered as tolerated with a starting dose of 50 mg and target dose of 200 mg /d. The median interval between treatment initiation and first imaging was 10.5 (4.4-17.5) weeks. The best response to treatment was stable disease (SD, n=2) and progressive disease (n=25), with a median PFS of 11.2 weeks and a median OS of 36.4 weeks. The first patient with SD discontinued treatment due to mild epistaxis and diarrhea after 22.3 weeks. The second patient had SD at the second treatment evaluation after 25.2 weeks and continued thalidomide but then had clinical progression and deceased after 54.3 weeks. In general, thalidomide induced only mild or moderate adverse effects (mainly fatigue and gastrointestinal complaints). CONCLUSION: Thalidomide was overall well tolerated but resulted in disease control in only 2/27 (7.4%) patients. In the absence of predictive response markers, thalidomide should only be considered in exceptional cases as a salvage therapy in ACC.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Córtex Suprarrenal , Carcinoma Adrenocortical , Sistema de Registros , Talidomida/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias do Córtex Suprarrenal/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias do Córtex Suprarrenal/mortalidade , Carcinoma Adrenocortical/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Adrenocortical/mortalidade , Adulto , Idoso , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Taxa de Sobrevida
5.
Endocr Connect ; 2018 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30352425

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas (PPGLs) are rare but potentially harmful tumors that can vary in their clinical presentation. Tumors may be found due to signs and symptoms, as part of a hereditary syndrome or following an imaging procedure. OBJECTIVE: To investigate potential differences in clinical presentation between PPGLs discovered by imaging (iPPGLs), symptomatic cases (sPPGLs) and those diagnosed during follow-up because of earlier disease/known hereditary mutations (fPPGL). DESIGN: Prospective study protocol, which has enrolled patients from 6 European centers with confirmed PPGLs. SETTING AND PATIENTS: Data were analyzed from 235 patients (37% iPPGLs, 36% sPPGLs, 27% fPPGLs) and compared for tumor volume, biochemical profile, mutation status, presence of metastases and self-reported symptoms. RESULTS: iPPGL patients were diagnosed at a significantly higher age than fPPGLs (p<0.001), found to have larger tumors (p=0.003) and higher metanephrine and normetanephrine levels at diagnosis (p=0.021). Significantly lower than in sPPGL, there was a relevant number of self-reported symptoms in iPPGL (2.9 vs. 4.3 symptoms, p<0.001). In 16.2% of iPPGL, mutations in susceptibility genes were detected, although this proportion was lower than in fPPGL (60.9%) and sPPGL (21.5%). CONCLUSIONS: Patients with PPGLs detected by imaging were older, have higher tumor volume and more excessive hormonal secretion in comparison to those found as part of a surveillance program. Presence of typical symptoms indicates that in a relevant proportion of those patients the PPGL diagnosis had been delayed. Précis: Pheochromocytoma/paraganglioma discovered by imaging are often symptomatic and carry a significant proportion of germline mutations in susceptibility genes.

6.
Clin Chem ; 64(11): 1646-1656, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30097498

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Measurements of plasma or urinary metanephrines are recommended for diagnosis of pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma (PPGL). What test offers optimal diagnostic accuracy for patients at high and low risk of disease, whether urinary free metanephrines offer advantages over deconjugated metanephrines, and what advantages are offered by including methoxytyramine in panels all remain unclear. METHODS: A population of 2056 patients with suspected PPGLs underwent prospective screening for disease using mass spectrometric-based measurements of plasma free, urinary deconjugated, and urinary free metanephrines and methoxytyramine. PPGLs were confirmed in 236 patients and were excluded in others on follow-up evaluation. RESULTS: Measurements of plasma free metabolites offered higher (P < 0.01) diagnostic sensitivity (97.9%) than urinary free (93.4%) and deconjugated (92.9%) metabolites at identical specificities for plasma and urinary free metabolites (94.2%) but at a lower (P < 0.005) specificity for deconjugated metabolites (92.1%). The addition of methoxytyramine offered little value for urinary panels but provided higher (P < 0.005) diagnostic performance for plasma measurements than either urinary panel according to areas under ROC curves (0.991 vs 0.972 and 0.964). Diagnostic performance of urinary and plasma tests was similar for patients at low risk of disease, whereas plasma measurements were superior to both urinary panels for high-risk patients. CONCLUSIONS: Diagnosis of PPGLs using plasma or urinary free metabolites provides advantages of fewer false-positive results compared with commonly measured deconjugated metabolites. The plasma panel offers better diagnostic performance than either urinary panel for patients at high risk of disease and, with appropriate preanalytics, provides the test of choice. Measurements of methoxytyramine in urine show limited diagnostic utility compared with plasma.


Assuntos
Neoplasias das Glândulas Suprarrenais/diagnóstico , Células Cromafins/metabolismo , Dopamina/análogos & derivados , Metanefrina , Paraganglioma/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Neoplasias das Glândulas Suprarrenais/sangue , Neoplasias das Glândulas Suprarrenais/urina , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Dopamina/sangue , Dopamina/urina , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Metanefrina/sangue , Metanefrina/urina , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Paraganglioma/sangue , Paraganglioma/urina , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Prospectivos , Curva ROC , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Adulto Jovem
7.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 103(4): 1686-1695, 2018 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29452402

RESUMO

Context: Although mitotane is the only approved drug for the treatment of adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC), data on monotherapy in advanced disease are still scarce. Objective: To assess the efficacy of mitotane in advanced ACC in a contemporary setting and to identify predictive factors. Design and Setting: Multicenter cohort study of three German referral centers. Patients: One hundred twenty-seven patients with advanced ACC treated with mitotane monotherapy. Outcome Measures: Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors evaluation, progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) by Kaplan-Meier method, and predictive factors by Cox regression. Results: Twenty-six patients (20.5%) experienced objective response, including three with complete remission. Overall, median PFS was 4.1 months (range 1.0 to 73) and median OS 18.5 months (range 1.3 to 220). Multivariate analysis indicated two main predictive factors: low tumor burden (<10 tumoral lesions), hazard ratio (HR) for progression of 0.51 (P = 0.002) and for death of 0.59 (P = 0.017); and initiation of mitotane at delayed advanced recurrence, HR 0.35(P < 0.001) and 0.34 (P < 0.001), respectively. Accordingly, 67% of patients with low tumor burden and mitotane initiation ≥360 days after primary diagnosis experienced a clinical benefit (stable disease >180 days). Patients who achieved mitotane levels >14 mg/L had significantly longer OS (HR 0.42; P = 0.003). Conclusions: At 20.5% the objective response rate was slightly lower than previously reported. However, >20% of patients experienced long-term disease control at >1 year. In general, patients with late diagnosis of advanced disease and low tumor burden might especially benefit from mitotane monotherapy, whereas patients with early advanced disease and high tumor burden are probably better candidates for combined therapy of mitotane and cytotoxic drugs.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Córtex Suprarrenal/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Adrenocortical/tratamento farmacológico , Antineoplásicos Hormonais/uso terapêutico , Mitotano/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias do Córtex Suprarrenal/mortalidade , Carcinoma Adrenocortical/mortalidade , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Progressão da Doença , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
8.
Dtsch Med Wochenschr ; 143(3): 200, 2018 02.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29409094
10.
BMC Cancer ; 17(1): 522, 2017 Aug 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28778197

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Metastatic Adrenocortical Carcinoma (ACC) is a rare malignancy with a poor 5-year-survival rate (<15%). A surgical approach is recommended in selected patients if complete resection of distant metastasis can be achieved. To date there are only limited data on the outcome after surgical resection of hepatic metastases of ACC. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of the German Adrenocortical Carcinoma Registry was conducted. Patients with liver metastases of ACC but without extrahepatic metastases or incomplete tumour resection were included. RESULTS: Seventy-seven patients fulfilled these criteria. Forty-three patients underwent resection of liver metastases of ACC. Complete tumour resection (R0) could be achieved in 30 (69.8%). Median overall survival after liver resection was 76.1 months in comparison to 10.1 months in the 34 remaining patients with unresected liver metastases (p < 0.001). However, disease free survival after liver resection was only 9.1 months. Neither resection status (R0/R1) nor extent of liver resection were significant predictive factors for overall survival. Patients with a time interval to the first metastasis/recurrence (TTFR) of greater than 12 months or solitary liver metastases showed significantly prolonged survival. CONCLUSIONS: Liver resection in the case of ACC liver metastases can achieve long term survival with a median overall survival of more than 5 years, but disease free survival is short despite metastasectomy. Time to recurrence and single versus multiple metastases are predictive factors for the outcome.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Córtex Suprarrenal/mortalidade , Neoplasias do Córtex Suprarrenal/patologia , Carcinoma Adrenocortical/mortalidade , Carcinoma Adrenocortical/patologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/mortalidade , Neoplasias Hepáticas/secundário , Adulto , Idoso , Terapia Combinada , Feminino , Hepatectomia , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/cirurgia , Masculino , Metastasectomia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Recidiva , Estudos Retrospectivos , Análise de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento , Carga Tumoral
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