Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 18 de 18
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
Clin Nutr ; 2019 Sep 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31606243

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: The family environment can influence offspring diet and weight status. Obesity is a pro-inflammatory state, which is associated with the dietary inflammatory index (DII®). Predictors of the DII in children (C-DII™) and its associations with childhood obesity are relatively unknown. We evaluated the intergenerational relationships between the energy-adjusted DII (E-DII) scores in adults, predictors of C-DII and associations with childhood weight status. METHODS: The study comprises 551 children and index-child's mothers, fathers and grandparents in the Lifeways Cross-Generation Cohort Study. E-DII scores were generated at baseline for expectant mothers, fathers, and grandparents, and at 5-year follow-up for the mothers and children, using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference were determined at age 5 and 9 years. Associations were assessed by logistic regression and mediation analysis. RESULTS: Higher C-DII scores indicating a more pro-inflammatory diet among children, were associated with greater risk of childhood obesity at age 5 (OR:1.09; 95%CI:1.00-1.37; P = 0.02) and overweight/obese status at 5 and 9 years (OR:1.06; 95%CI:1.01-1.09; P = 0.01 and OR:1.12; 95%CI:1.07-1.18; P = 0.01, respectively). Maternal and paternal smoking during pregnancy (OR:1.98; 95%CI:1.19-3.03; P = 0.001 and OR:1.64; 95%CI:1.12-2.49; P = 0.006, respectively) increased likelihood of higher C-DII at age 5. Child BMI, TV watching and all meals given by the childcare provider were associated with a more pro-inflammatory diet (P < 0.05), whereas breastfeeding and family meals at home were associated with a more anti-inflammatory diet (P < 0.04). Higher maternal, but not paternal, E-DII scores during pregnancy (P < 0.001) and at 5-year follow-up (P = 0.008) were associated with more pro-inflammatory diet at age 5. Results from the mediation analysis suggest that maternal grandmothers E-DII scores may influence C-DII indirectly via the mothers E-DII scores. CONCLUSIONS: A more pro-inflammatory dietary score was associated with childhood overweight and obesity. Parental, familial and personal factors independently influenced the C-DII score.

2.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 109(6): 1648-1655, 2019 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31136661

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Maternal caffeine intake is associated with adverse birth outcomes, but its long-term influence on offspring adiposity outcomes is not well studied. Furthermore, few studies have investigated paternal and grandparental caffeine intake in relation to offspring outcomes. OBJECTIVE: To study the associations between maternal, paternal, and grandparental caffeine intake and offspring childhood adiposity. DESIGN: The core study sample consists of 558 mother-child pairs from the Lifeways Study. Caffeine intake was derived from relevant food items in a self-administered validated food frequency questionnaire in early pregnancy. Children's body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) were measured at 5- and 9-y follow-up. Childhood overall and central obesity were defined as age- and sex-specific BMI z-score > International Obesity Task Force cut-off and WC z-score > 90th percentile, respectively. Multiple linear and logistic regressions were used to assess associations. RESULTS: Study mothers had a mean age of 30.8 y and a mean prepregnancy BMI (kg/m2) of 23.7. In adjusted models, maternal caffeine intake was associated with a higher offspring BMI z-score [ß (95% CI): 0.13 (0.06, 0.21) for year 5 and 0.17 (0.04, 0.29) for year 9; per 100 mg/d increment in maternal caffeine intake], WC z-score [ß (95% CI): 0.09 (0.01, 0.17) for year 5 and 0.19 (0.05, 0.32) for year 9], and a higher risk of offspring overall obesity [OR (95% CI): 1.32 (1.11, 1.57) for year 5 and 1.44 (1.10, 1.88) for year 9] and central obesity [1.28 (1.02, 1.60) for year 5 and 1.62 (1.12, 2.34) for year 9]. The influence was stronger for coffee caffeine than tea caffeine. No consistent associations were observed for paternal and grandparental caffeine intake. CONCLUSIONS: Maternal antenatal, but not paternal or grandparental, caffeine intake is associated with higher offspring adiposity and obesity risk at age 5 and 9 y, with stronger associations observed for coffee caffeine. This prospective observational study was registered at the ISRCTN Registry as ISRCTN16537904.

3.
J Nutr ; 149(6): 1037-1046, 2019 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31049568

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: High maternal dietary glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) may be associated with adverse offspring birth and postnatal adiposity outcomes through metabolic programming, but the evidence thus far, mainly from studies conducted in high-risk pregnant populations, has been inconclusive. No study has examined the influence of maternal insulin demand [measured by food insulinemic index (II) and insulinemic load (IL)] on offspring outcomes. OBJECTIVES: We investigated associations between maternal GI, GL, II, and IL and offspring birth outcomes and postnatal adiposity in a general pregnant population. METHODS: The study was based on data from 842 mother-child pairs from the Lifeways prospective cohort study in Ireland. Through the use of standard methodology, maternal GI, GL, II, and IL were derived from dietary information obtained via a validated food-frequency questionnaire in early pregnancy (12-16 wk). Birth outcomes were abstracted from hospital records. At 5-y follow-up, children's body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference were measured. Associations were assessed through the use of multivariable-adjusted regression analysis. RESULTS: Mothers had a mean ± SD age of 30.3 ± 5.7 y and a mean BMI (kg/m2) of 23.9 ± 4.2. The mean ± SD for dietary glycemic and insulinemic indexes were: GI = 58.9 ± 4.4; GL = 152 ± 49; II = 57.4 ± 14.5; IL = 673 ± 267. After adjustment for confounders, no consistent associations were observed between maternal GI, GL, II, and IL and birth outcomes including birth weight, macrosomia, gestational age, and postterm births. Similarly, no association was observed with BMI and waist circumference z scores and childhood obesity (general and central) at 5-y follow-up. There was no evidence of a nonlinear relation between the studied indexes and outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: We observed no clear relation between maternal GI, GL, II, and IL and offspring birth outcomes and childhood obesity in a general pregnant population.

4.
Nutrients ; 11(4)2019 Apr 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31027168

RESUMO

Maternal dietary quality during pregnancy is associated with offspring outcomes. These associations have not been examined in three-generation families. We investigated associations between parental and grandparental dietary quality, determined by healthy eating index (HEI)-2015, and offspring birth outcomes and weight status at age 5. The Lifeways cohort study in the Republic of Ireland comprises 1082 index-child's mothers, 333 index-child's fathers, and 707 grandparents. HEI-2015 scores were generated for all adults from prenatal dietary information collected using a validated food frequency questionnaire. In an adjusted model, greater adherence to the maternal HEI was associated with lower likelihood of low birth weight (LBW) (OR: 0.72, 95% CI: 0.50-0.99, p = 0.04). Similarly, maternal grandmothers (MGM) with higher HEI scores were less likely to have grandchildren with LBW (OR: 0.87, 95% CI: 0.61-0.96, p = 0.04) and more likely to have macrosomia (OR: 1.10, 95% CI: 1.01-1.22, p = 0.03). Higher paternal and paternal grandmothers (PGM) HEI scores were associated with lower likelihood of childhood obesity (OR: 0.89, 95% CI: 0.30-0.94, p = 0.03) and overweight (OR: 0.83, 95% CI: 0.22-0.99, p = 0.04), respectively. Mediation analysis showed significant direct relationship of MGM and PGM HEI scores on grandchildren's birthweight and obesity, respectively. In conclusion, maternal line dietary quality appears to influence fetal growth whereas paternal line dietary quality appears to influence postnatal growth.

5.
Eur J Pain ; 23(8): 1403-1415, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30963658

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Musculoskeletal (MSK) pain is common in obese populations. Multidisciplinary Tier 3 weight management services (WMS) are effective in reducing weight; however, MSK pain as an outcome is not routinely reported post-WMS interventions. METHODS: Following ethical approval this retrospective design study using anonymized data from a national WMS established changes in anthropometric and pain prevalence and intensity scores as well as establishing variables predictive of achieving clinically significant changes (CSC) in pain scores. RESULTS: Of the 806 patients registered to the WMS (January 2011-February 2015), 59% (n = 476; CI = 56-62) attended their reassessments at 6 months. The overall mean age was 45.1 ± 12 years and 62% (n = 294) were female. At baseline 70% (n = 281; CI = 65-75) reported low back pain (LBP) and 59% (n = 234; CI = 54-64) had knee pain. At reassessment 37.3% (n = 177) of patients lost ≥5% body weight, 58.7% (n = 279) were weight stable (5% weight loss or gain) and 4.0% (n = 19) gained ≥5% body weight. Low back and knee pain prevalence reduced significantly for those who lost ≥5% body weight. Variables predictive of a CSC in LBP numerical rating scale (NRS) score included a higher baseline NRS score, weighing more, and rating losing weight as being important (p < 0.05). Higher baseline NRS and being younger resulted in higher odds of a CSC in knee pain NRS (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Overall this WMS was effective for clinical weight loss. For those who lost most weight prevalence of knee and LBP reduced. Imbedding pain management strategies within WMS's may provide a more holistic approach to obesity management. SIGNIFICANCE: Weight loss can reduce musculoskeletal pain, particularly for those who lose more weight. Imbedding pain management strategies within these services may provide a more holistic approach to obesity management.

6.
PLoS Med ; 16(2): e1002744, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30742624

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Maternal obesity and excessive gestational weight gain may have persistent effects on offspring fat development. However, it remains unclear whether these effects differ by severity of obesity, and whether these effects are restricted to the extremes of maternal body mass index (BMI) and gestational weight gain. We aimed to assess the separate and combined associations of maternal BMI and gestational weight gain with the risk of overweight/obesity throughout childhood, and their population impact. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted an individual participant data meta-analysis of data from 162,129 mothers and their children from 37 pregnancy and birth cohort studies from Europe, North America, and Australia. We assessed the individual and combined associations of maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and gestational weight gain, both in clinical categories and across their full ranges, with the risks of overweight/obesity in early (2.0-5.0 years), mid (5.0-10.0 years) and late childhood (10.0-18.0 years), using multilevel binary logistic regression models with a random intercept at cohort level adjusted for maternal sociodemographic and lifestyle-related characteristics. We observed that higher maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and gestational weight gain both in clinical categories and across their full ranges were associated with higher risks of childhood overweight/obesity, with the strongest effects in late childhood (odds ratios [ORs] for overweight/obesity in early, mid, and late childhood, respectively: OR 1.66 [95% CI: 1.56, 1.78], OR 1.91 [95% CI: 1.85, 1.98], and OR 2.28 [95% CI: 2.08, 2.50] for maternal overweight; OR 2.43 [95% CI: 2.24, 2.64], OR 3.12 [95% CI: 2.98, 3.27], and OR 4.47 [95% CI: 3.99, 5.23] for maternal obesity; and OR 1.39 [95% CI: 1.30, 1.49], OR 1.55 [95% CI: 1.49, 1.60], and OR 1.72 [95% CI: 1.56, 1.91] for excessive gestational weight gain). The proportions of childhood overweight/obesity prevalence attributable to maternal overweight, maternal obesity, and excessive gestational weight gain ranged from 10.2% to 21.6%. Relative to the effect of maternal BMI, excessive gestational weight gain only slightly increased the risk of childhood overweight/obesity within each clinical BMI category (p-values for interactions of maternal BMI with gestational weight gain: p = 0.038, p < 0.001, and p = 0.637 in early, mid, and late childhood, respectively). Limitations of this study include the self-report of maternal BMI and gestational weight gain for some of the cohorts, and the potential of residual confounding. Also, as this study only included participants from Europe, North America, and Australia, results need to be interpreted with caution with respect to other populations. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, higher maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and gestational weight gain were associated with an increased risk of childhood overweight/obesity, with the strongest effects at later ages. The additional effect of gestational weight gain in women who are overweight or obese before pregnancy is small. Given the large population impact, future intervention trials aiming to reduce the prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity should focus on maternal weight status before pregnancy, in addition to weight gain during pregnancy.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Análise de Dados , Ganho de Peso na Gestação/fisiologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/epidemiologia , Austrália/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , América do Norte/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/diagnóstico , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/diagnóstico , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco
7.
J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med ; : 1-7, 2019 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30614328

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The growth of the fetus is a complex process, influenced by genetic and environmental factors. Longitudinal patterns of fetal growth are required to fully understand this process, however to date, a paucity of data exists in this area. OBJECTIVE: To identify fetal growth trajectories in-utero and to assess their association with maternal and child characteristics up to 5 years postnatal. METHODS: Data from 781 mother-child pairs from the ROLO longitudinal birth cohort study were analyzed. The ROLO study was a randomized control trial of a low glycemic index diet in pregnancy to prevent recurrence of macrosomia. Fetal ultrasound measurements were recorded at 20 and 34 weeks gestation, and birth weight was recorded. Abdominal circumference (AC), weight (fetal weight, or birth weight), a standardized proxy for length (femur length or birth length, individually standardized), and AC:length ratio were examined for trajectory classes using latent class trajectory mixture models. Two-, three-, four-, and five-class models were evaluated for fit, using a linear (first order) trajectory over three time-points. ANOVA and chi-square tests were applied to test associations between trajectory membership and maternal and child characteristics up to age 5. RESULTS: For AC, two fetal growth trajectories were identified, with 29% of participants on a "slow" trajectory and 71% on a "fast" trajectory. Those on a fast trajectory had higher rates of maternal impaired glucose tolerance (28.7 versus 16.5%, p<.001) and higher rates of mean child 5-year body mass index (BMI) centiles (64th versus 58th centile, p<.05) compared to those on the slow trajectory. For estimated fetal weight, four trajectories were identified, with 4% on a "very-slow" trajectory, 63% in a "moderate-slow" trajectory, 30% in a "moderate-fast" trajectory and 3% on a "very-fast" trajectory. Mothers with a fetus on the fastest trajectory had higher antenatal serum glucose levels (p<.05), and were more likely to deliver by cesarean section (59.1 versus 20%, p<.001). At 5 years of age, children on the fastest growth trajectory had the highest mean BMI centile (86th versus 60th centile, p<.05). CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that specific fetal growth trajectories may be associated with maternal serum glucose concentrations during pregnancy, mode of delivery and child BMI at 5 years of age. Diet and lifestyle measures that target maternal glucose levels during pregnancy may have lifelong benefits for children's BMI. Identifying those on an accelerated growth trajectory during fetal life provides a unique opportunity for antenatal and infant interventions that may have long-lasting health benefits.

8.
Eur J Clin Nutr ; 2018 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30446761

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: To prospectively investigate the predictors of overweight/obesity and of body mass index (BMI) change in schoolchildren. SUBJECTS/METHODS: A cohort of 2755 Irish children (53.7% girls), aged 6-10 years at baseline, participating in the Childhood Obesity Surveillance Initiative were included. Height and weight were objectively measured and BMI was calculated. Overweight/obesity were defined according to the International Obesity Task Force cut-offs. Prevalence of overweight/obesity at baseline and follow-up, incidence of overweight/obesity and changes in BMI over time were computed. Lifestyle indicators were parentally reported with a questionnaire. Predictors of overweight/obesity were investigated by multivariate mixed logistic regression models. RESULTS: Baseline BMI (OR = 6.46, 95% CI = 4.56-9.17) and school socioeconomic level (OR = 2.12, 95% CI = 1.16-3.86) were associated with higher risk of becoming overweight/obese. Children with no savoury snacks consumption (OR = 0.22, 95% CI = 0.07-0.69), or with frequent sports/dancing clubs attendance (OR = 0.41, 95% CI = 0.19-0.88) had lower odds of overweight/obesity at follow-up. Poor fruit intake was associated with higher risk of overweight/obesity (OR = 2.16, 95% CI = 1.23-3.78). CONCLUSIONS: Initial BMI was the main predictor of subsequent overweight/obesity in schoolchildren, followed, to a lesser extent, by school socioeconomic status. Although lifestyle behaviours appeared to have lower effect as compared with prior BMI, children with healthier lifestyle behaviours were at reduced risk of overweight/obesity at follow-up. Programmes that aim at preventing the onset of overweight and obesity need to be a priority given the existing difficulties to reverse this condition later in life.

9.
Br J Nutr ; 120(11): 1252-1261, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30484757

RESUMO

Infant protein intake has been associated with child growth, however, research on maternal protein intake during pregnancy is limited. Insulin-like growth factors (IGF) play a role in early fetal development and maternal protein intake may influence child body composition via IGF-1. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of maternal protein intake throughout pregnancy on cord blood IGF-1 and child body composition from birth to 5 years of age. Analysis was carried out on 570 mother-child dyads from the Randomised cOntrol trial of LOw glycaemic index diet study. Protein intake was recorded using 3-d food diaries in each trimester of pregnancy and protein intake per kg of maternal weight (g/d per kg) was calculated. Cord blood IGF-1 was measured at birth. Infant anthropometry was measured at birth, 6 months, 2 and 5 years of age. Mixed modelling, linear regression, and mediation analysis were carried out. Birth weight centiles were positively associated with early-pregnancy protein intake (g/d per kg), while weight centiles from 6 months to 5 years were negatively associated (B=-21·6, P<0·05). These associations were not mediated by IGF-1. Our findings suggest that high protein intake in early-pregnancy may exert an in utero effect on offspring body composition with a higher weight initially at birth but slower growth rates into childhood. Further research is needed to elucidate the exact mechanisms by which dietary protein modulates fetal growth.

10.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 2018 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30339199

RESUMO

Background: Maternal caffeine intake is associated with adverse birth outcomes, but in most studies the primary caffeine source is coffee; the influence of tea caffeine remains unclear. Objective: The aim of the study was to examine the association between maternal caffeine intake and birth outcomes in a population with tea as the predominant caffeine source. Design: Data from 941 Irish mother-child pairs of the Lifeways Cross Generation Cohort Study were examined. Maternal dietary intakes in early pregnancy were assessed using a validated food-frequency questionnaire. Caffeine intake was derived from coffee, tea, soft drinks, and cocoa-containing foods and beverages. Associations of maternal caffeine intake with continuous (birth weight, birth length, and gestational age) and binary [low birth weight (LBW) (<2500 g) and preterm birth (PB) (<37 wk gestational age)] birth outcomes were investigated using multiple linear and logistic regressions, respectively, with adjustment for potential confounders. Results: Tea was the predominant caffeine source (48%), followed by coffee (39%). In the fully adjusted model, maternal caffeine intake was associated with lower birth weight [ß (95% CI): -71.9 (-105.4, -38.4) g · 100 mg-1 · d-1 caffeine increment], shorter birth length [-0.30 (-0.49, -0.11) cm], smaller head circumference [-0.12 (-0.24, -0.01) cm], and shorter gestational age [-0.13 (-0.25, -0.02) wk]; higher risks for LBW [OR (95% CI): 1.47 (1.14, 1.90)] and PB [1.36 (1.07, 1.74)] were also observed (all P < 0.05). The associations were robust to the exclusion of participants with pregnancy complications and in never smokers. Similar higher risks of adverse birth outcomes were observed for the highest caffeine intake categories from coffee [ORLBW: 3.10 (1.08, 8.89); ORPB: 2.74 (1.05, 7.16)] and tea [ORLBW: 2.47 (1.02, 6.01); ORPB: 2.56 (1.14, 5.75)], compared with the lowest intake categories (all P < 0.05). Conclusions: Maternal caffeine intake from both coffee and tea is associated with adverse birth outcomes. This prospective observational study was registered at ISRCTN Registry as ISRCTN16537904.

11.
Int J Obes (Lond) ; 42(11): 1853-1870, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29535453

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The role of smoking from the paternal line during the pre-conception period on grand-child's overweight/obesity and associated underlying pathways are uncertain. We examined whether the smoking status from the paternal line was associated with the grand-child's higher weight at birth, and overweight or obesity at 5 and 9 years of age. The grandparental smoking effect from the maternal line was also explored. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Participants were fathers and grandparents and grand-children from the Lifeways Cross Generational Cohort (N = 1021 for the analysis at birth; N = 562 and N = 284 for the analysis at 5 and 9 years, respectively). Paternal and grandparental smoking was defined as smoking versus non-smoking. Children's weight categories compared were high versus normal weight at birth, and overweight/obesity versus normal weight (based on BMI and waist circumference) at age of five and nine years. Logistic regression models were used to estimate the crude and adjusted associations. RESULTS: After adjustment for several child and parental factors, at age five there was an association between paternal smoking and offspring's overweight/obesity based on BMI (Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR), and 95%CI: 1.76, 1.14-2.71, p-value: 0.010), most marked for boys (AOR: 2.05, 1.06-3.96, p-value: 0.032). These associations remained when confined to the children sample with biological fathers only (overall sample, AOR: 1.92, 1.22-3.02, p-value: 0.005; son, AOR: 2.09, 1.06-4.11, p-value: 0.033). At age 9, the paternal grandmothers' smoking was positively associated with their grandchild's overweight/obesity status based on waist circumference (AOR: 3.29, 1.29-8.37), and especially with that of her granddaughter (AOR: 3.44, 1.11-10.69). These associations remained when analysing only the children sample with biological fathers (overall sample, AOR: 3.22,1.25-8.29, p-value: 0.016; granddaughter, AOR: 3.55, 1.13-11.15, p-value: 0.030). CONCLUSION: The smoking habit from the paternal line is associated with grand-children's adiposity measures during their early childhood, which might be epigenetically transmitted through male-germline cells.

12.
BMC Public Health ; 18(1): 337, 2018 03 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29523113

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Existing evidence on the role of sociodemographic variables as risk factors for overweight and obesity in school-aged children is inconsistent. Furthermore, findings seem to be influenced by the obesity definition applied. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate if school sociodemographic indicators were associated with weight status in Irish primary schoolchildren and whether this association was sensitive to different obesity classification systems. METHODS: A nationally representative cross-sectional sample of 7542 Irish children (53.9% girls), mean age 10.4 (±1.2SD) years, participating in the Childhood Obesity Surveillance Initiative in the 2010, 2012/2013 or 2015/2016 waves were included. Height, weight and waist circumference were objectively measured. Five definitions of obesity were employed using different approaches for either body mass index (BMI) or abdominal obesity. Associations between overweight and obesity and sociodemographic variables were investigated using adjusted multilevel logistic regression analyses. RESULTS: Children attending disadvantaged schools were more likely to be overweight and obese than their peers attending non-disadvantaged schools, regardless of the obesity classification system used. Associations remained significant for the BMI-based obesity definitions when the sample was stratified by sex and age group, except for boys aged 8-10.5 years. Only boys aged ≥10.5 years in disadvantaged schools had higher odds of abdominal obesity (UK 1990 waist circumference growth charts: OR = 1.56, 95%CI = 1.09-2.24; waist-to-height ratio: OR = 1.78, 95%CI = 1.14-2.79) than those in non-disadvantaged schools. No associations were observed for school urbanisation level. CONCLUSIONS: School socioeconomic status was a strong determinant of overweight and obesity in Irish schoolchildren, and these associations were age- and sex-dependent. School location was not associated with overweight or obesity. There remains a need to intervene with school-aged children in disadvantaged schools, specifically among those approaching adolescence, to prevent a trajectory of obesity into adult life.


Assuntos
Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Obesidade Pediátrica/epidemiologia , Instituições Acadêmicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Classe Social , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Irlanda/epidemiologia , Masculino , Obesidade Pediátrica/classificação
13.
BMJ Open ; 8(2): e017013, 2018 02 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29463584

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The association of maternal pregnancy diet with offspring asthma risk have been reported. However, literature on longitudinal patterns of asthma risk relative to intrauterine nutrient exposure is limited. We aimed to establish whether vegetable, oily fish and vitamin D intake during pregnancy are associated with childhood asthma risk over a 10-year period in the Irish Republic. DESIGN: Mother-child pairs (n=897) from the Lifeways prospective birth cohort, with data on nutrient intake during pregnancy and asthma status, respectively, were eligible for inclusion in the analysis. Data on socioeconomic and morbidity indicators over 10 years of follow-up on mothers and the index child were collected through self-administered questionnaires. Asthma status as diagnosed by the general practitioner at any time point over 10 years was related to maternal vegetable, oily fish and vitamin D intake during pregnancy, while adjusting for gestational age, socioeconomic status, smoking at delivery, breast feeding, season of birth and supplement use. Data were modelled with a marginal model on correlated observations over time within individuals. RESULTS: In the fully adjusted model, asthma was inversely associated with higher daily average intake of oily fish (OR 0.23 per serving/day, 95% CI 0.04 to 1.41) and of vegetables (OR 0.96 per serving/day, 95% CI 0.88 to 1.05), but the confidence limits overlapped 1. A higher daily vitamin D intake was associated with reduced odds of asthma (OR 0.93 per µg/day, 95% CI 0.89 to 0.98). CONCLUSION: This analysis suggests higher daily average intake of vitamin D in pregnancy is associated with asthma risk in offspring over the first 10 years of life.


Assuntos
Asma/epidemiologia , Dieta , Mães , Asma/etiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Suplementos Nutricionais , Feminino , Óleos de Peixe/administração & dosagem , Seguimentos , Humanos , Irlanda , Análise Multivariada , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/epidemiologia , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/etiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Verduras , Vitamina D/administração & dosagem
14.
SSM Popul Health ; 4: 100-116, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29349279

RESUMO

Exposure to deprived socioeconomic conditions during the peri-conception and early childhood periods can have a negative long-term impact on individuals' health and that of their progeny. We aimed to examine whether relatives' birth period affected index-child (grand-child) birthweight status in the Lifeways Cross-Generation Cohort in the Republic of Ireland. Participants were 943 mothers and offspring, 890 fathers, 938 maternal grandmothers (MGM), 700 maternal grandfathers (MGF) 537 paternal grandmothers (PGM) and 553 paternal grandfathers (PGF). Index-child's birthweight was sex-for-gestational age standardised (UK1990 population), and then classified into low birthweight (≤10th percentile) and high-birthweight (≥90th percentile) and compared against normal-birthweight (>10th to <90th percentiles). Four adult birth periods were considered: The Free State (FS, 1916-1938); Emergency Act (EA, 1939-1946); Post-World War-II Baby-Boom (PWWII-BB, 1947-1964); and Modern Ireland (MI, 1964 onwards). Logistic regression was used to assess the crude and adjusted relationship between index-child's birthweight status and relatives' birth periods. Overall, there were 8.7% (n=82) index-children in the low-birthweight category, 77.9% (n=735) and 13.4% (n=126) within the normal and high birthweight groups respectively. Index-children whose mothers were born during the PWWII-BB had higher birthweight infants (Crude OR(COR)=1.81 (1.08-3.03) which remained the case only for male index-children when adjusted for co-variables (Adjusted OR(AOR)=4.61(1.71-12.42)). Parents' combined PWWII-BB birth period was positively associated with male index-child higher birthweight, even adjusted for maternal characteristics (AOR=4.60(1.69-12.50)). MGFs born during the EA were more likely to have grandchildren with low birthweight after adjustment for maternal characteristics (AOR=2.45(1.03-5.85)), particularly for female index-children (AOR=4.74(1.16-19.25)). Both PGMs and PGFs born during the FS period had higher birthweight grandchildren, adjusted for maternal-related co-variables (PGM, AOR=3.23(1.21-8.63); PGF, AOR=3.93(1.11-13.96)), with the effect of PGM more evident in her granddaughter (AOR=6.53(1.25-34.04)). In conclusion, there is some evidence that period of grandparental birth is associated with their grandchildren's birthweights, suggesting that transgenerational exposures may be particular to historical context, meriting further exploration.

15.
Pain ; 158(7): 1342-1353, 2017 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28383311

RESUMO

Obesity is associated with numerous chronic diseases, including musculoskeletal (MSK) pain, which affects on quality of life (QoL). There is, however, limited research providing a comprehensive MSK pain profile of an obese cohort. This retrospective study used a patient database at a national weight management service. After ethical approval, anonymized patient data were statistically analyzed to develop a pain profile, investigate relationships between pain, sleep, and function, and explore variables associated with having low back pain (LBP) and knee pain. Overall, 915 individuals attended the weight management service from January 2011 to September 2015 [male, 35% (n = 318; confidence interval [CI] = 32-38); female, 65% (n = 597; CI = 62-68); mean age 44.6]. Mean body mass index was 50.7 kg/m [class III obese (body mass index ≥40 kg/m), 92% (n = 835; CI = 91-94)]. Approximately 91% reported MSK pain: LBP, 69% (n = 539; CI = 65-72) [mean Numeric Rating Scale 7.4]; knee pain, 58% (n = 447; CI = 55-61) [mean Numeric Rating Scale 6.8]. Class III obese and multisite pain patients had lower QoL and physical activity levels, reduced sleep, and poorer physical function than less obese patients and those without pain (P < 0.05). Relationships were found between demographic, pain, self-report, psychological, and functional measures (P < 0.05). Patients who slept fewer hours and had poorer functional outcomes were more likely to have LBP; patients who were divorced, had lower QoL, and more frequent nocturia were more likely to have knee pain (P < 0.05). Multisite MSK pain is prevalent and severe in obese patients and is negatively associated with most self-report and functional outcomes. This high prevalence suggests that pain management strategies must be considered when treating obesity.


Assuntos
Dor Lombar/diagnóstico , Dor Musculoesquelética/diagnóstico , Obesidade/diagnóstico , Qualidade de Vida , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Feminino , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Dor Lombar/complicações , Dor Lombar/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Dor Musculoesquelética/complicações , Dor Musculoesquelética/fisiopatologia , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Medição da Dor , Estudos Retrospectivos , Autorrelato , Programas de Redução de Peso , Adulto Jovem
16.
Int J Epidemiol ; 46(5): 1465-1477, 2017 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28338907

RESUMO

Background: It has been suggested that prenatal exposure to n-3 long-chain fatty acids protects against asthma and other allergy-related diseases later in childhood. The extent to which fish intake in pregnancy protects against child asthma and rhinitis symptoms remains unclear. We aimed to assess whether fish and seafood consumption in pregnancy is associated with childhood wheeze, asthma and allergic rhinitis. Methods: We pooled individual data from 60 774 mother-child pairs participating in 18 European and US birth cohort studies. Information on wheeze, asthma and allergic rhinitis prevalence was collected using validated questionnaires. The time periods of interest were: infancy (0-2 years), preschool age (3-4 years), and school age (5-8 years). We used multivariable generalized models to assess associations of fish and seafood (other than fish) consumption during pregnancy with child respiratory outcomes in cohort-specific analyses, with subsequent random-effects meta-analyses. Results: The median fish consumption during pregnancy ranged from 0.44 times/week in The Netherlands to 4.46 times/week in Spain. Maternal fish intake during pregnancy was not associated with offspring wheeze symptoms in any age group nor with the risk of child asthma [adjusted meta-analysis relative risk (RR) per 1-time/week = 1.01, 95% confidence interval 0.97-1.05)] and allergic rhinitis at school age (RR = 1.01, 0.99-1.03). These results were consistently found in further analyses by type of fish and seafood consumption and in sensitivity analyses. Conclusion: We found no evidence supporting a protective association of fish and seafood consumption during pregnancy with offspring symptoms of wheeze, asthma and allergic rhinitis from infancy to mid childhood.


Assuntos
Asma/epidemiologia , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/administração & dosagem , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Pré-Natal , Rinite Alérgica/epidemiologia , Alimentos Marinhos , Animais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Gravidez , Prevalência , Análise de Regressão , Sons Respiratórios , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
17.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 58: 236-41, 2013 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23639587

RESUMO

This paper provides a model to assess dietary exposure to flavouring substances intentionally added to food. The purpose is to describe the approaches currently available and their scientific basis. The proposed exposure model for flavouring substances envisages three different levels of refinement: basic, intermediate and refined. At the two first levels, the model may be applied to all 2543 substances actually in use in Europe, while the refined level has been applied to 41 target flavouring substances selected within the FACET project. The refined level entails the use of the probability of addition of the flavouring substance added to the food and of correction factors related to losses owing to the processing of a food.


Assuntos
Dieta , Exposição Ambiental , Aromatizantes/toxicidade , Modelos Teóricos , Humanos
18.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 95(3): 1386-94, 2010 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20080841

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Cytokine polymorphisms and dietary fat composition may influence the risk of the metabolic syndrome (MetS). OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to determine the relationship between lymphotoxin-alpha (LTA), TNF-alpha, and IL-6 gene polymorphisms with MetS risk and investigate whether plasma fatty acid composition, a biomarker of dietary fat intake, modulated these associations. DESIGN: Polymorphisms (LTA rs915654, TNF-alpha rs1800629, IL-6 rs1800797), biochemical measurements, and plasma fatty acids were determined in the LIPGENE-SU.VI.MAX study of MetS cases and matched controls (n = 1754). RESULTS: LTA rs915654 minor A allele carriers and TNF-alpha rs1800629 major G allele homozygotes had increased MetS risk [odds ratio (OR) 1.37 (confidence interval [CI] 1.12-1.66), P = 0.002 and OR 1.35 (CI 1.08-1.70), P = 0.009] compared with their TT homozygotes and A allele carriers. Possession of the IL-6 rs1800797 GG genotype by the LTA and TNF-alpha risk genotype carriers further increased risk of the MetS [OR 2.10 (CI 1.19-3.71) P = 0.009], fasting hyperglycemia [OR 2.65 (CI 1.12-6.28), P = 0.027], high systolic blood pressure [OR 1.99 (CI 1.07-3.72), P = 0.03], and abdominal obesity [OR 1.52 (CI 1.01-2.28), P = 0.04]. Plasma polyunsaturated to saturated fat ratio exacerbated these effects; subjects in the lowest 50th percentile had even greater risk of the MetS [OR 4.40 (CI 1.55-12.45), P = 0.005], fasting hyperglycemia, high systolic blood pressure, and abdominal obesity (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: LTA, TNF-alpha, and IL-6 genotype interactions increased MetS risk, which was further exacerbated by a low plasma polyunsaturated to saturated fat exposure, indicating important modulation of genetic risk by dietary fat exposure.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos/sangue , Interleucina-6/genética , Linfotoxina-alfa/genética , Síndrome Metabólica/sangue , Síndrome Metabólica/genética , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/genética , Alelos , Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Gorduras na Dieta , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genótipo , Humanos , Insulina/sangue , Polimorfismo Genético , Estudos Prospectivos , Análise de Regressão , Fatores de Risco , Circunferência da Cintura
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA