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2.
Microb Pathog ; 144: 104190, 2020 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32272216

RESUMO

The intestinal protozoan specie, Cryptosporidium causes serious diarrheal syndrome in humans and animals worldwide. However, limited knowledge is known about the infection caused by this specie in yaks in Naqu. About 950 serum and 150 fecal samples were collected and assayed by using commercial ELISA kits and nPCR detection methods to find the prevalence and molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium spp. in yaks. Results found that 103 out of 950 (10.8%) serums were uncovered against C. parvum antibodies. In different regions, the prevalence of C. parvum in yaks were in a range from 9.1% to 16.7%, with obvious difference among the three areas (P < 0.001). In male and female yaks, the prevalence of C. parvum was found to be 7.2% and 13.3% respectively (P < 0.001); and a significant difference (P < 0.001) with a range of 9.8%-18.2% was observed among different age groups. Out of 150 fecal samples, only 2 (1.3%) positive samples were detected via nPCR. The positive samples were sequenced and identified to be C. bovis. The two isolates were clustered to cattle and yak clade separately. Our results highlight the prevalence and epidemiological status of Cryptosporidium spp. in yaks which may contribute towards the prevention and control of this zoonotic disease in Naqu, China.

3.
Travel Med Infect Dis ; : 101674, 2020 Apr 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32320744

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dengue fever (DF) is a vector-bore infectious disease that can infect humans, and has been recognized as a global public health threat, with significant morbidity and mortality rates. METHOD: To describe the epidemiological profile of DF in China during 2004-2016, the morbidity data of DF by age-group, season (different months) and geographic location (different provinces) were obtained from the public health science data center of China for subsequent epidemiological analysis. RESULTS: The results showed that the incidence of DF shows striking annual variations, and two large outbreaks occurred in 2006-2007 and during 2012-2015. The results of the average morbidity rates (cases/100,000 population) for human DF indicated that among all dengue fever cases, Guangdong in southern area of China had the highest rates (3.8160 cases/100,000 population), followed by Yunnan (0.6614 cases/100,000 population), Fujian (0.3463 cases/100,000 population) and Guangxi (0.1474 cases/100,000 population). Epidemic peaks occurred in late June and early November, and the incidence rate among middle-aged people (30-45 years old) was relatively high, followed by rates among 15-29 and 45-59 age groups. CONCLUSION: In this study, we demonstrated the epidemiological profile of DF circulating in China and revealed the geographic distribution, dynamic transmission, seasonal asymmetries and age distribution, which will provide guidelines on the prevention and control of DF in China. The present investigation is useful in the risk assessment of DF transmission, to predict DF outbreaks and the prevention and control strategies should be used along with surveillance to reduce the spread of DF in China.

4.
Microb Pathog ; 143: 104133, 2020 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32169486

RESUMO

Bacillus cereus (B. cereus) is widely distributed in the environment. It is one of the most common opportunistic food-borne pathogens associated with food poisoning, not only being majorly reported to cause fatal infections of the gastrointestinal tract, but also responsible for abdominal distress and vomiting. The current study was undertaken to evaluate the biological characteristics and the genetic evolution of B. cereus isolated from infected organs of dead Elaphurus davidianus (E. davidianus). B. cereus was characterized through antibiotic sensitivity tests, mouse lethality assay, whole genome sequencing analysis, and genome annotation. The results revealed that the isolated B. cereus strain was highly resistant to rifampicin, lincomycin, sulfamethoxazole, erythromycin, and ampicillin, with a high pathogenicity phenotype. KEGG annotation revealed that "metabolic pathways" had the largest number of unigenes, followed by "biosynthesis of secondary metabolites" and "biosynthesis of antibiotics". GO analysis resulted in 8039 unigenes categorized. Meanwhile, 54,779 unigenes were annotated and grouped into 23 categories based on COG functional classifications. Moreover, one gene (codY) was found to be related to the host in conformity with the analysis done on PHI-base. Other tests led to the identification of 16 B. cereus virulence factor genes and five resistance types, with potential resistance against bacitracin, penicillin, and fosfomycin. We isolated a highly drug-resistant and pathogenic B. cereus strain from E. davidianus, showing that a variety of antimicrobial drugs should be avoided in clinical treatments. Furthermore, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to report whole genome sequencing of a emergence of food-borne B. cereus strain isolated from E. davidianus deer; it will be helpful to extensively investigate the genetic and molecular mechanisms of drug resistance and pathogenesis about B. cereus in both humans and animals.

5.
Microb Pathog ; 143: 104109, 2020 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32171710

RESUMO

Acute lung injury (ALI) is considered as an uncontrolled inflammatory response that can leads to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), which limits the therapeutic strategies. Ginsenosides Rb1 (Rb1), an active ingredient obtained from Panax ginseng, possesses a broad range of pharmacological and medicinal properties, comprising the anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, and anti-tumor activities. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to investigate the protective effects of Rb1 against S. aureus-induced (ALI) through regulation of Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and mitochondrial-mediated apoptotic pathways in mice (in-vivo), and RAW264.7 cells (in-vitro). For that purpose, forty Kunming mice were randomly assigned into four treatment groups; (1) Control group (phosphate buffer saline (PBS); (2) S. aureus group; (3) S. aureus + Rb1 (20 mg/kg) group; and (4) Rb1 (20 mg/kg) group. The 20 µg/mL dose of Rb1 was used in RAW264.7 cells. In the present study, we found that Rb1 treatment reduced ALI-induced oxidative stress via suppressing the accumulation of malondialdehyde (MDA) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) and increase the antioxidant enzyme activities of superoxidase dismutase 1 (SOD1), Catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase 1 (Gpx1). Similarly, Rb1 markedly increased messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of antioxidant genes (SOD1, CAT and Gpx1) in comparison with ALI group. The histopathological results showed that Rb1 treatment ameliorated ALI-induced hemorrhages, hyperemia, perivascular edema and neutrophilic infiltration in the lungs of mice. Furthermore, Rb1 enhanced the antioxidant defense system through activating the Nrf2 signaling pathway. Our findings showed that Rb1 treated group significantly up-regulated mRNA and protein expression of Nrf2 and its downstream associated genes down-regulated by ALI in vivo and in vitro. Moreover, ALI significantly increased the both mRNA and protein expression of mitochondrial-apoptosis-related genes (Bax, caspase-3, caspase-9, cytochrome c and p53), while decreased the Bcl-2. In addition, Rb1 therapy significantly reversed the mRNA and protein expression of these mitochondrial-apoptosis-related genes, as compared to the ALI group in vivo and in vitro. Taken together, Rb1 alleviates ALI-induced oxidative injury and apoptosis by modulating the Nrf2 and mitochondrial signaling pathways in the lungs of mice.

6.
Biomed Res Int ; 2020: 7975948, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32016119

RESUMO

A study was conducted to reveal the characterization of the complete mitochondrial genome of Fischoederius elongatus derived from cows in Shanghai, China. Results indicated that the complete mt genome of F. elongatus was 14,288 bp and contained 12 protein-coding genes (cox1-3, nad1-6, nad4L, atp6, and cytb), 22 transfer RNA genes, and two ribosomal RNA genes (l-rRNA and s-rRNA). The overall A + T content of the mt genome was 63.83%, and the nucleotide composition was A (19.83%), C (9.75%), G (26.43%), and T (44.00%). A total of 3284 amino acids were encoded by current F. elongatus isolate mt genome, TTT (Phe) (9.84%) and TTG (Leu) (7.73%) codon were the most frequent amino acids, whereas the ACC (Thr) (0.06%), GCC (Ala) (0.09%), CTC (Leu) (0.09%), and AAC (Asn) (0.09%) codon were the least frequent ones. At the third codon position of F. elongatus mt protein genes, T (50.82%) was observed most frequently and C (5.85%) was the least one. The current results can contribute to epidemiology diagnosis, molecular identification, taxonomy, genetic, and drug development researches about this parasite species in cattle.

7.
J Pak Med Assoc ; 70(2): 259-263, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32063617

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To measure the level of sleep disorders among patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and to see if there was any difference in terms of demographic variables and socioeconomic status. Methods: The cross-sectional descriptive observational study was conducted from March to June 2017, and data was collected through purposive sampling from different tertiary health care centres of Faisalabad, Pakistan. Sleep-50-Urdu scale was used to measure sleep disorders among patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. SPSS 21 was used for data analysis. RESULTS: Of the 140 respondents 70(50%) each were males and females with an overall mean age of 48.64±17.39 years. The patients had significantly high level of narcolepsy (p<0.05), but those from high socioeconomic status had relatively lower level of narcolepsy (p<0.05). Male patients and people from lower socioeconomic status also suffered from sleep apnoea and insomnia along with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Narcolepsy along with sleep apnoea and insomnia were significantly more prevalent among chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients from lower socioeconomic status.

8.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(10): 11337-11348, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31960246

RESUMO

Tetramethyl thiuram disulfide (thiram) is widely used in agricultural production as an insecticide and fungicide, which can also lead to tibial dyschondroplasia (TD) in poultry. TD is characterized by leg disorders and growth performance retardation, and no targeted drugs have been found to treat TD until now. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to explore the ameliorative effect of traditional Chinese medicine naringin on thiram-induced TD chickens. A total of 180 one-day-old Arbor Acres (AA) broiler chickens were randomly divided into three equal groups (n = 60): control group (standard diet), thiram-induced group (thiram 50 mg/kg from day 3 to day 7), and naringin-treated group (naringin 30 mg/kg from day 8 to day 18). During the 18-day experiment, the growth performance, tibial bone parameters, antioxidant property of liver, serum biochemical changes and clinical symptoms were recorded to evaluate the protective effect of naringin in thiram-induced TD broiler chickens. Additionally, mRNA expressions and protein levels of Ihh and PTHrP genes were determined via quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and western blot. Administration of naringin showed significant results by alleviating lameness, increased growth performance, recuperated growth plate (GP) width, and improved functions and antioxidant enzyme level of liver in broilers affected by TD. Moreover, naringin treatment restored the development of damaged tibia bone via downregulating Ihh and upregulating PTHrP mRNA and protein expressions. In conclusion, our study determines naringin could be used as an effective medicine to treat TD.

9.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 190: 110126, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31918251

RESUMO

Tetramethyl thiuram disulfide (thiram) is a dithiocarbamate pesticide used for crop protection and storage. But, it's widespread utilization is associated with deleterious growth plate cartilage disorder in broilers termed as avian tibial dyschondroplasia (TD). TD results in non-mineralized and less vascularized proximal tibial growth plate cartilage causing lameness and poor growth performance. This study investigated the therapeutic potential of puerarin against thiram toxicity in TD affected chickens. One-day-old broiler chickens (n = 240) were alienated into three equal groups i.e. control, TD and puerarin (n = 80) and were offered standard feed. Additionally, TD and puerarin groups were offered thiram at 50 mg/kg of feed from 4 to 7 days for TD induction followed by puerarin therapy at 120 mg/kg to puerarin group only from 8 to 18 days for TD treatment. Thiram feeding to TD and puerarin group chickens caused lameness, mortality, and increased the aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and growth plate (GP) size and upregulated HIF-1α expression. Besides, the production parameters, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) levels and the expressions of TIMP-3 and BCL-2 were decreased (p < 0.05). Puerarin alleviated lameness, enhanced angiogenesis and growth performance and serum and antioxidant enzymes, decreased apoptosis and recuperated GP width by significantly downregulating HIF-1α and upregulating the TIMP-3 and BCL-2 mRNA and protein expressions in puerarin group chickens (p < 0.05). In conclusion, the toxic effects associated with thiram can be mitigated using puerarin.


Assuntos
Fungicidas Industriais/toxicidade , Isoflavonas/farmacologia , Osteocondrodisplasias/veterinária , Tiram/toxicidade , Vasodilatadores/farmacologia , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Galinhas/metabolismo , Glutationa Peroxidase/metabolismo , Lâmina de Crescimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Subunidade alfa do Fator 1 Induzível por Hipóxia/metabolismo , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Neovascularização Patológica/induzido quimicamente , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/tratamento farmacológico , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/metabolismo , Tíbia/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidor Tecidual de Metaloproteinase-3/metabolismo
10.
Anaerobe ; 61: 102115, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31711887

RESUMO

Yak (Bos grunniens), a ruminant, has a complex gastrointestinal microbial ecosystem, which is essential for host nutrition and health. However, not much is known about gut microbial communities of yak. This study was conducted to characterize the gut microbial diversity and composition of small intestinal and cecal contents of yaks through high-throughput sequencing targeting V3-V4 hypervariable region of 16S rRNA gene. A total of 916,934 high-quality sequences were obtained and 224 core operational taxonomic units (OTUs) shared all samples. The result showed that the microbial community in the small intestine was different from cecum sample. In all samples, the majority of bacterial phyla were Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria. A large proportion of anaerobes in the families Peptostreptococcaceae, Prevotellaceae, Flavobacteriaceae, Lachnospiraceae, and Succinivibrionaceae were present in the various intestinal segments. The relative abundance of Ruminococcaceae, Bacteroidaceae and Muribaculaceae were significantly higher in cecum than in other segments of intestines. At the genus level, Bacteroides was the most predominant genus in cecum. The results indicated that yak have abundant and diverse gut microbial community. In conclusion, this study characterized the profiles of microbial communities across intestinal segments and provide better insight into microbial population structure and diversity of yak.

11.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(6): 6628-6636, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31873907

RESUMO

Thiram is a widely known tibial dyschondroplasia (TD) inducer. TD, a common metabolic cartilage disease, presents in rapidly growing poultry birds. There are evidences that miRNAs are involved in diverse aspects of normal skeletal development, but very less is known about the role of miRNAs in TD. Therefore, this study aimed to determine which genes and pathways show differential expression between TD suffered chickens and normal chickens. We collected growth plates from ten-days-old TD chickens and control chickens and performed high-throughput RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq). Afterwards, target prediction, GO annotation and KEGG pathway analysis were carried out to understand the role of DEMs (differentially expressed microRNAs). We obtained 96,884,760 and 94,574,290 clean reads and identified 17 significant DEMs between the TD and control groups. Functional enrichment analysis of DEMs indicated that the putative targets of miRNAs were remarkably enriched in bone-related pathways, such as Notch, MAPK and Autophagy. Overall, this study provides detailed understanding about the pathogenesis of thiram induced TD and new insights towards the molecular mechanism of miRNAs.


Assuntos
Fungicidas Industriais/toxicidade , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Doenças das Aves Domésticas , Tiram/toxicidade , Animais , Galinhas , Lâmina de Crescimento , Osteocondrodisplasias/veterinária , Tíbia
12.
Acta Trop ; 201: 105212, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31600521

RESUMO

Fasciolosis is one of the biggest threats to livestock and human population. For this purpose, the seroprevalence of Fasciola hepatica was investigated in yaks and sheep living on the Qinghai-Tibet plateau, China by piloting commercial ELISA kits. A total of 3276 yaks and 1092 sheep were incorporated in this study. The prevalence of the parasite in yaks and sheep was 38.3% and 26.4%, respectively. The serological results revealed a relatively high prevalence of F. hepatica infection in yaks and sheep, respectively. The present study may greatly contribute to the prevention of this parasitic zoonosis and great importance should be given to the potential threat caused by F. hepatica in this special plateau.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Fasciola hepatica/isolamento & purificação , Fasciolíase/epidemiologia , Gado/parasitologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia , Animais , Bovinos/parasitologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , China/epidemiologia , Humanos , Prevalência , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Ovinos/parasitologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Tibet/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/epidemiologia
13.
Cureus ; 11(10): e5978, 2019 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31803560

RESUMO

Extrahepatic hydatid disease within the abdomen is uncommon, the most common site being the peritoneum. The alimentary tract is a rare site for hydatid cysts. Fistulization of abdominal hydatid cysts to the bowel lumen is a rare occurrence with few cases reported in existing literature. We report a rare case of fistulization of a peritoneal hydatid cyst to the stomach and duodenum with disseminated peritoneal and retroperitoneal hydatidosis, presenting with features of subacute intestinal obstruction. We briefly review the existing literature and discuss the confounding factors that we encountered during the diagnostic evaluation of this rare phenomenon.

14.
J Clin Tuberc Other Mycobact Dis ; 17: 100131, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31788572

RESUMO

Background: Diagnosing intestinal (Luminal) tuberculosis is challenging due to limited yield of diagnostic modalities like CT scan, colonoscopy with blind ileal biopsies. GeneXpert MTB/RIF (Xpert) assays for diagnosing tuberculosis have been performed in the body secretions with excellent results. Its yield in stool is tested in this study. Objective: The study aims to evaluate the yield of GeneXpert assay in stool of suspected cases of intestinal tuberculosis. Methods: Hundred patients with suspected intestinal tuberculosis underwent routine biochemical tests, radiological investigations, colonoscopy with caecal and blind ileal biopsies for histopathology. Fresh stool samples were collected, processed for DNA extraction, tested using 2:1 ratio of GeneXpert reagent to sample to give positive or negative results for Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Rifampicin resistance. Results: Out of hundred participants, 52% were female. Mean age was 28.21 ± 12.13. CT scan and colonoscopy findings suggestive of TB were present in 47% and 43% participants respectively. GeneXpert in stool was positive in 20% cases. Considering mucosal biopsy with histopathology of intestinal specimens as diagnostic of abdominal Tuberculosis, sensitivity and specificity of GeneXpert was 39.1% and 85.7% respectively. Conclusion: Stool GeneXpert assay offers an alternative approach to detect intestinal tuberculosis rapidly with good diagnostic accuracy. Although it cannot replace the AFB culture and histopathology but contribute for early diagnosis and management.

15.
Biomolecules ; 9(12)2019 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31779199

RESUMO

Tibial dyschondroplasia (TD) negatively affects broilers all over the world, in which the accretion of the growth plate (GP) develops into tibial proximal metaphysis. Plastrum testudinis extract (PTE) is renowned as a powerful antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and bone healing agent. The current study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of PTE for the treatment of thiram-induced TD chickens. Broilers (day old; n = 300) were raised for 3 days with normal feed. On the 4th day, three groups (n = 100 each) were sorted, namely, the control (normal diet), TD, and PTE groups (normal diet+ thiram 50 mg/kg). On the 7th day, thiram was stopped in the TD and PTE group, and the PTE group received a normal diet and PTE (30 mg/kg/day). Plastrum testudinis extract significantly restored (p < 0.05) the liver antioxidant enzymes, inflammatory cytokines, serum biochemicals, GP width, and tibia weight as compared to the TD group. The PTE administration significantly increased (p < 0.05) growth performance, vascularization, AKT (serine/threonine-protein kinase), and PI3K expressions and the number of hepatocytes and chondrocytes with intact nuclei were enhanced. In conclusion, PTE has the potential to heal TD lesions and act as an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory drug in chickens exposed to thiram via the upregulation of AKT and PI3K expressions.

16.
BMC Genomics ; 20(1): 883, 2019 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31752675

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The almond moth, Cadra cautella is a destructive pest of stored food commodities including dates that causes severe economic losses for the farming community worldwide. To date, no genetic information related to the molecular mechanism/strategies of its reproduction is available. Thus, transcriptome analysis of C. cautella female abdominal tissues was performed via next-generation sequencing (NGS) to recognize the genes responsible for reproduction. RESULTS: The NGS was performed with an Illumina Hiseq 2000 sequencer (Beijing Genomics Institute: BGI). From the transcriptome data, 9,804,804,120 nucleotides were generated and their assemblage resulted in 62,687 unigenes. The functional annotation analyses done by different databases, annotated, 27,836 unigenes in total. The transcriptome data of C. cautella female abdominal tissue was submitted to the National Center for Biotechnology Information (accession no: PRJNA484692). The transcriptome analysis yielded several genes responsible for C. cautella reproduction including six Vg gene transcripts. Among the six Vg gene transcripts, only one was highly expressed with 3234.95 FPKM value (fragments per kilobase per million mapped reads) that was much higher than that of the other five transcripts. Higher differences in the expression level of the six Vg transcripts were confirmed by running the RT-PCR using gene specific primers, where the expression was observed only in one transcript it was named as the CcVg. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study to explore C. cautella reproduction control genes and it might be supportive to explore the reproduction mechanism in this pest at the molecular level. The NGS based transcriptome pool is valuable to study the functional genomics and will support to design biotech-based management strategies for C. cautella.

17.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 2019 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31765064

RESUMO

Leptospirosis is one of the most common and neglected tropical waterborne diseases in China, causing serious economic losses, and constituting a significant public health threat. Leptospirosis has recently received increased attention and is considered a re-emerging infectious disease in many countries. The incidence of leptospirosis among people suggests that occupation, age, season, sex and water recreational activities are significant risk factors. The aim of this study was to describe the epidemiological profiles of leptospirosis in China during the 2007-2018 period. The morbidity data of leptospirosis by age, season (month), gender, occupation and geographic location (different provinces) were obtained from the public health science data centre of China for subsequent epidemiological analysis. The results indicate that the incidence of leptospirosis has shown a slow downward trend from 2007 to 2018, but morbidity rates were still relatively high (0.0660-0.0113). The incidence of leptospirosis varied in different provinces of China; cases localized mainly to the Southern and Central provinces, areas with warm weather and ample rainfall. Older people (aged 60-75), males, farmers, students and field workers were high-risk populations. During the 2007-2018 observation period, morbidity rates increased beginning in May, remained at high levels in August and September and decreased after November. The present investigation highlights the re-emergence of leptospirosis in some provinces of China (especially in Yunnan and Fujian) and shows that leptospirosis remains a serious public health threat. The results of this study should enhance measures taken for the prevention, control, and surveillance of leptospirosis in China.

18.
Drug Discov Ther ; 13(5): 274-279, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31723099

RESUMO

Hemodialysis (HD) is the most commonly used treatment in patients with end-stage renal failure or disease (ESRD) worldwide. Blood-borne viral diseases are the major causes of mortality and morbidity in patients on HD. This study aims to analyze the prevalence and to concentrate on the key risk factors that are responsible for hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in patients on HD visiting two dialysis centers in the city of Quetta in southwestern Pakistan. The overall incidence of HBV was found to be 16.1%, the overall incidence of HCV was found to be 43.2%, and two patients (1.6%) were found to be positive for both HBV and HCV. HIV was not found among patients seen at both hospitals during the study period. The main risk factors for development of a viral infection were the length of time on HD (p = 0.007), number of sessions (p = 0.001), and level of education (p = 0.092). Biochemical and hematological parameters including urea, creatinine, uric acid, and calcium levels, red blood cell count, white blood cell count, hemoglobin levels, and platelet count were also studied in patients on HD. HD is becoming one of the major factors causing a viral infection because a patient can possibly become infected during an HD session via a blood transfusion, dialysis machines, instruments and/or other contaminated equipment. In order to control the spread of viral infections, increased public awareness, vaccinations, and health education programs for both health care providers and patients are needed, and proper screening programs should be instituted before dialysis is performed.

19.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 14: 7809-7822, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31576125

RESUMO

Introduction: Nanoparticles (NPs) can be toxic due to their nano-range sizes. Zinc oxide (ZnO) has good biocompatibility and is commercially used in cosmetics. Moreover, ZnO NPs have potential biomedical uses, but their safety remains unclear. Methods: A range of doped ZnO NPs was evaluated for antileishmanial activity and in vitro toxicity in brine shrimp and human macrophages, and N-doped ZnO NPs were evaluated for in vivo toxicity in male BALB/C mice. N-doped ZnO NPs were administered via two routes: intra-peritoneal injection and topically as a paste. The dosages were 10, 50, and 100 mg/kg/day for 14 days. Results: Topical administration was safe at all dosages, but intra-peritoneal injection displayed toxicity at higher doses, namely, 50 and 100 mg/kg/day. The pathological results for the i.p. dose groups were mild to severe degenerative changes in parenchyma cells, increases in Kupffer cells, disappearance of hepatic plates, increases in cell size, ballooning, cytoplasmic changes, and nuclear pyknosis in the liver. Kidney histology was also altered in the i.p. administration group (dose 100 mg/kg/day), with inflammatory changes in the focal area. We associate pathological abnormalities with the presence of doped ZnO NPs at the diseased site, which was verified by PIXE analysis of the liver and kidney samples of the treated and untreated mice groups. Conclusion: The toxicity of the doped ZnO NPs can serve as an essential determinant for the effects of ZnO NPs on environmental toxicity and can be used for guidelines for safer use of ZnO-based nanomaterials in topical treatment of leishmaniasis and other biomedical applications.


Assuntos
Anti-Helmínticos/farmacologia , Nanopartículas/toxicidade , Óxido de Zinco/farmacologia , Óxido de Zinco/toxicidade , Animais , Artemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Morte Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Rim/patologia , Leishmania/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/patologia , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C
20.
Microb Pathog ; 137: 103760, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31562897

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial potential of Lactobacillus screened from Tibetan yaks on clinical symptoms and intestinal microflora in enteroinvasive Escherichia coli (EIEC) induced mice model. In vitro study, Lactobacillus reuteri (LR1) exhibited stronger resistance to acid and bile and inhibited the growth of EIEC than Lactobacillus mucosae (LM1). The mice were randomly divided into four groups i.e. the LR1 group (LR1 1 × 109 CFU/day), LM1 group (LM1 1 × 109 CFU/day), blank control group and control group. Mice in control, LR1, and LM1 groups were challenged with EIEC on day 23. The body weight in the control and LM1 groups were significantly decreased after the infection with EIEC (P < 0.05), whereas the body weight of mice in the LR1 group did not change significantly (P > 0.05). The lowest diarrhea rate was recorded in the LR1 group after infection with EIEC. The results showed that the number of pathogens in the control group was higher than that in the experimental groups. The sequence analysis and OTU classification showed that the duodenum, ileum, and cecum of mice in the LR1 group had the highest number of OTUs compared with other groups. Whereas, the diversity analysis showed that in duodenum, ileum and cecum of mice in the LR1 group had the highest abundance and diversity. The composition of intestinal microbes indicated the presence of high proportions of Firmicutes, Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes. Heat map analysis indicated high abundance of Bdello vibrio in the duodenum of mice in the LR1 group, while many pathogens were found in the different part of intestines in the control group, such as Streptococcus, Clostridium and Pseudomonas. In conclusion, pre-supplementation of LR1 alleviate the clinical symptoms caused by E. coli, and promote a healthy gut flora.

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