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1.
Molecules ; 26(19)2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34641501

RESUMO

Diabetes mellitus is a global threat affecting millions of people of different age groups. In recent years, the development of naturally derived anti-diabetic agents has gained popularity. Okra is a common vegetable containing important bioactive components such as abscisic acid (ABA). ABA, a phytohormone, has been shown to elicit potent anti-diabetic effects in mouse models. Keeping its anti-diabetic potential in mind, in silico study was performed to explore its role in inhibiting proteins relevant to diabetes mellitus- 11ß-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11ß-HSD1), aldose reductase, glucokinase, glutamine-fructose-6-phosphate amidotransferase (GFAT), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPAR-gamma), and Sirtuin family of NAD(+)-dependent protein deacetylases 6 (SIRT6). A comparative study of the ABA-protein docked complex with already known inhibitors of these proteins relevant to diabetes was compared to explore the inhibitory potential. Calculation of molecular binding energy (ΔG), inhibition constant (pKi), and prediction of pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics properties were performed. The molecular docking investigation of ABA with 11-HSD1, GFAT, PPAR-gamma, and SIRT6 revealed considerably low binding energy (ΔG from -8.1 to -7.3 Kcal/mol) and predicted inhibition constant (pKi from 6.01 to 5.21 µM). The ADMET study revealed that ABA is a promising drug candidate without any hazardous effect following all current drug-likeness guidelines such as Lipinski, Ghose, Veber, Egan, and Muegge.

2.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 5585586, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34595238

RESUMO

The main aim of this study was to develop a set of functions that can analyze the genomic data with less time consumption and memory. Epi-gene is presented as a solution to large sequence file handling and computational time problems. It uses less time and less programming skills in order to work with a large number of genomes. In the current study, some features of the Epi-gene R-package were described and illustrated by using a dataset of the 14 Aeromonas hydrophila genomes. The joining, relabeling, and conversion functions were also included in this package to handle the FASTA formatted sequences. To calculate the subsets of core genes, accessory genes, and unique genes, various Epi-gene functions have been used. Heat maps and phylogenetic genome trees were also constructed. This whole procedure was completed in less than 30 minutes. This package can only work on Windows operating systems. Different functions from other packages such as dplyr and ggtree were also used that were available in R computing environment.

3.
Toxicology ; 462: 152957, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34537261

RESUMO

Zearalenone (ZEN), a mycotoxin is frequently detected in different food products and has been widely studied for its toxicity. However, the underlying mechanisms of hepatotoxic effects, relationship between gut microbiome and liver metabolite mediated hepatotoxicity mechanisms induced by ZEN are still not clear. Here, we reported that the different microscopic changes like swelling of hepatocyte, disorganization of hepatocytes and extensive vacuolar degeneration were observed, and the mitochondrial functions decreased in exposed mice. Results exhibited up-regulation in expression of signals of apoptosis and autophagy in liver of treated mice via mitochondrial apoptotic and autophagy pathway (Beclin1/p62). The diversity of gut microbiome decreased and the values of various microbiome altered in treated mice, including 5 phyla (Chloroflexi, Sva0485, Methylomirabilota, MBNT15 and Kryptonia) and genera (Frankia, Lactococcus, Anaerolinea, Halomonas and Sh765B-TzT-35) significantly changed. Liver metabolism showed that the concentrations of 91 metabolite including lipids and lipid like molecules were significantly changed. The values of phosphatidylcholine, 2-Lysophosphatidylcholine and phosphatidate concentrations suggestive of abnormal glycerophosphate metabolism pathway were significantly increased in mice due to exposure to ZEN. In conclusion, the findings suggest that the disorders in gut microbiome and liver metabolites due to exposure to ZEN in mice may affect the liver.

4.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 224: 112662, 2021 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34411823

RESUMO

Fluorine being a well-known and essential element for normal physiological functions of tissues of different organisms is frequently used for growth and development of body. The mechanisms of adverse and injurious impacts of fluoride are not clear and still are under debate. Therefore, this study was executed to ascertain the potential mechanisms of sodium fluoride in liver tissues of ducks. For this purpose, a total of 14 ducks were randomly divided and kept in two groups including control group and sodium fluoride treated group. The ducks in control group were fed with normal diet while the ducks in other group were exposed to sodium fluoride (750 mg/kg) for 28 days. The results showed that exposure to sodium fluoride induced deleterious effects in different liver tissues of ducks. The results indicated that mRNA levels of Cas-3, Cas-9, p53, Apaf-1, Bax and Cyt-c were increased in treated ducks with significantly higher mRNA level of Cas-9 and lower levels of the mRNA level of Bcl-2 as compared to untreated control group (P < 0.01). The results showed that protein expression levels of Bax and p53 were increased while protein expression level of Bcl-2 was reduced in treated ducks. No difference was observed in protein expression level of Cas-3 between treated and untreated ducks. The results of this study suggest that sodium fluoride damages the normal structure of liver and induces abnormal process of apoptosis in hepatocyte, which provide a new idea for elucidating the mechanisms of sodium fluoride induced hepatotoxicity in ducks.

5.
Chemosphere ; 286(Pt 1): 131683, 2021 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34351278

RESUMO

Butachlor being an important member of chloroacetanilide herbicides, is frequently used in agriculture to control unwanted weeds. Exposure to butachlor can induce cancer, human lymphocyte aberration, and immunotoxic effects in animals. The current experimental trial was executed to determine the potential risks of herbicide butachlor to immunotoxicity and its mechanism of adverse effects on the spleen. For this purpose, mice were exposed to 8 mg/kg butachlor for 28 days, and the toxicity of butachlor on the spleen of mice was evaluated. We found that butachlor exposure led to an increase in serum ALB, GLU, TC, TG, and TP and changes in the morphological structure of the spleen of mice. More importantly, results showed that butachlor significantly increased the expression level of ATG-5, decreased the protein expression of LC3B and M-TOR, and significantly decreased the mRNA content of M-TOR and p62. Results revealed that the mRNA contents of APAF-1, CYTC, and CASP-9 related genes were significantly decreased after butachlor treatment. Subsequently, the mRNA levels of inflammatory cytokines (IL-1ß, TNF-α, IL-10) were reduced in the spleen of treated mice. This study suggested that butachlor induce spleen toxicity and activate the immune response of spleen tissue by targeting the CYTC/BCL2/M-TOR pathway and caspase cascading activation of spleen autophagy and apoptosis pathways which may ultimately lead to immune system disorders.

7.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 224: 112711, 2021 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34455184

RESUMO

Paraquat (PQ) is a cheap and an effective herbicide, which is widely being used worldwide to remove weeds in cultivated crop fields. However, it can cause soil and water pollution, and pose serious harm to the environment and organisms. Several countries have started to limit or prohibit the use of PQ because of the increasing number of human deaths. Its toxicity can damage the organisms with a multi-target mechanism, which has not been fully understood yet. That is why it is hard to treat as well. The current research on PQ focuses on its targeted organ, the lungs, in which PQ mostly trigger pulmonary fibrosis. While there is a lack of systematic research, there are few studies published discussing its toxic effects at systematic level. This review summarizes the major damages caused by PQ in different organisms and partial mechanisms by which it causes these damages. For this purpose, we consulted several research articles that studied the toxicity of PQ in various tissues. We also listed some drugs that can be used to alleviate the toxicity of PQ. However, at present, the effectiveness of these drugs is still being explored in animal experiments and the study of their mechanism will also help in understanding the poisoning mechanism of PQ, which will ultimately lead to effective treatment in future.

8.
Toxicology ; 461: 152906, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34450209

RESUMO

Fluoride is one of the most widely distributed elements in nature, while some fluorine-containing compounds are toxic to several vertebrates at certain levels. The current study was performed to evaluate the nephrotoxic effects of fluoride exposure in ducks. The results showed that the renal index was decreased in NaF group, and fluoride exposure significantly decreased the levels of serum Albumin, Glucose, Total cholesterol, Urea, protein and Triglycerides, confirming that NaF exhibited adverse effects on the kidney. The overall structure of renal cells showed damage with the signs of nuclelytic, vacuolar degeneration, atrophy, renal cystic cavity widening after fluoride induction. Renal vascular growth was impaired as the expression of VEGF and HIF-1α decreased (p > 0.05). More importantly, autophagy and apoptosis levels of CYT C, LC3, p62, Beclin, M-TOR, Bax and Caspase-3 were increased (p < 0.05) in the NaF treated group. Interestingly, our results showed that Phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and Phosphatidylcholine (PC) activated the M-TOR autophagy pathway. Meanwhile, the PE acted on Atg5/ LC3 autophagy factor, followed by the auto-phagosome generation and activation of cell autophagy. These results indicate that NaF exposure to duck induced nephron-toxicity by activating autophagy, apoptosis and glucolipid metabolism pathways, which suggest that fluorine exposure poses a risk of poisoning.

9.
Microb Pathog ; 158: 105106, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34311015

RESUMO

This study was ascertained to investigate the adverse effects of pathogenic E. coli on gut microbiota of Tibetan piglets with history of yellow and white dysentery. For this purpose, a total of 18 fecal samples were collected from infected and healthy Tibetan piglets for 16S rRNA gene amplification and sequencing of V3-V4 region. Results showed that Firmicutes, Bacteroidia Fusobacteriota, Proteobacteria and Actinobacteriota were the predominant bacteria in Tibetan piglets at the level of phylum classification. Results on classification at family level showed that Lactobacillus, Bacteroidota, Fusobacteriota and Enterobacteriaceae were the dominant bacteria. Results on classification of bacteria at phylum level compared with normal piglets indicated that Bacteroidota, Actinobacteriota, Euryarchaota and Spirochaetota in fecal microbial community in Tibetan piglets showing yellow dysenteric and diarrhea group were significantly decreased (P ≤ 0.05). Compared with the feces of healthy Tibetan piglets, the abundance of Escherichia-Shigella, Lactobacillus and Enterococcus increased significantly in feces of Tibetan piglets having yellow dysentery and white dysentery. Moreover, results exhibited that the Proteobacteria and Fusobacteriota were significantly increased (P ≤ 0.05) suggesting dominant microbial community. Results revealed that E. coli induced different pathological alterations in intestine including damage to intestinal epithelial cells, infiltration of inflammatory cells, presence of red blood cells in spaces of tissues, hemorrhages and necrosis of intestinal villi in piglets with history of yellow dysentery. This study for the first time reported the composition, characteristics, and differences of the fecal microflora diversity of Tibetan piglets with yellow and white dysentery in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, which can provide a suitable support for effective control of diarrhoeal disease in these animals.


Assuntos
Escherichia coli , Microbiota , Animais , Escherichia coli/genética , Fezes , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Suínos , Tibet
10.
Sci Total Environ ; 795: 148861, 2021 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34247076

RESUMO

Electric vehicles (EVs) can substantially decrease atmospheric pollutant emissions, thereby improving air quality, decreasing global warming, and improving human health. In this study, we performed a comprehensive bibliometric analysis using Web of Science to understand the research developments and future perspectives in EVs between 1974 and 2021. The analysis of indicators such as research trends, publication growth, and keywords revealed that most research in the selected timeframe was focused on applying and optimizing the existing technologies of different types of EVs to decrease air pollution and mortality. The changes in air quality owing to such electrification received special attention, with approximately 441 publications preferably in the English language. Among all the retrieved documents, research articles were most common (n = 295; 66.89% of the global output), dominated by the research domains of environmental sciences, followed by energy fuels and transportation science technology. Journal analysis revealed that Sustainability (n = 19, 4.30%) was the leading journal, followed by Journal of Cleaner Production and Science of the Total Environment. The most frequently used keywords were "electric vehicles," "air quality," and "air pollution." The most highly impactful article was published by Jacobson et al. (2005) in Science, with 620 total citations and 38.82 average annual citations. Furthermore, the United States (n = 118; 26.75% of the global output) had the highest publication rate, followed by China and the United Kingdom. The leading institutions were Tsinghua University (n = 16; 3.62% of the global research output) in China, followed by the University of Michigan and Cornell University in the United States. The current analysis warrants more focus on comprehensive analysis employing transport and chemistry modeling and using the latest technology for long life and sustainable batteries. This study provides a basis for future studies on improving air quality through innovative work in the electrification of vehicles.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar , Poluentes Ambientais , Bibliometria , China , Humanos , Reino Unido , Estados Unidos
11.
Molecules ; 26(12)2021 Jun 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34204669

RESUMO

Abelmoschus esculentus (Okra) is an important vegetable crop, widely cultivated around the world due to its high nutritional significance along with several health benefits. Different parts of okra including its mucilage have been currently studied for its role in various therapeutic applications. Therefore, we aimed to develop and characterize the okra mucilage biopolymer (OMB) for its physicochemical properties as well as to evaluate its in vitro antidiabetic activity. The characterization of OMB using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) revealed that okra mucilage containing polysaccharides lies in the bandwidth of 3279 and 1030 cm-1, which constitutes the fingerprint region of the spectrum. In addition, physicochemical parameters such as percentage yield, percentage solubility, and swelling index were found to be 2.66%, 96.9%, and 5, respectively. A mineral analysis of newly developed biopolymers showed a substantial amount of calcium (412 mg/100 g), potassium (418 mg/100 g), phosphorus (60 mg/100 g), iron (47 mg/100 g), zinc (16 mg/100 g), and sodium (9 mg/100 g). The significant antidiabetic potential of OMB was demonstrated using α-amylase and α-glucosidase enzyme inhibitory assay. Further investigations are required to explore the newly developed biopolymer for its toxicity, efficacy, and its possible utilization in food, nutraceutical, as well as pharmaceutical industries.


Assuntos
Abelmoschus/química , Mucilagem Vegetal/química , Mucilagem Vegetal/isolamento & purificação , Abelmoschus/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/química , Biopolímeros/análise , Biopolímeros/química , Suplementos Nutricionais , Hipoglicemiantes/isolamento & purificação , Hipoglicemiantes/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Polissacarídeos/química , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier/métodos , alfa-Amilases/química , alfa-Glucosidases/química
12.
Chemosphere ; 283: 131226, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34146870

RESUMO

Butachlor is a systemic herbicide widely applied on wheat, rice, beans, and different other crops, and is frequently detected in groundwater, surface water, and soil. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate the potential adverse health risks and the underlying mechanisms of hepatotoxicity caused by exposure to butachlor in invertebrates, other nontarget animals, and public health. For this reason, a total of 20 mice were obtained and randomly divided into two groups. The experimental mice in one group were exposed to butachlor (8 mg/kg) and the mice in control group received normal saline. The liver tissues were obtained from each mice at day 21 of the trial. Results indicated that exposure to butachlor induced hepatotoxicity in terms of swelling of hepatocyte, disorders in the arrangement of hepatic cells, increased concentrations of different serum enzymes such as alkaline phosphate (ALP) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST). The results on the mechanisms of liver toxicity indicated that butachlor induced overexpression of Apaf-1, Bax, Caspase-3, Caspase-9, Cyt-c, p53, Beclin-1, ATG-5, and LC3, whereas decreases the expression of Bcl-2 and p62 suggesting abnormal processes of apoptosis and autophagy. Results on different metabolites (61 differential metabolites) revealed upregulation of PE and LysoPC, whereas downregulation of SM caused by butachlor exposure in mice led to the disruption of glycerophospholipids and lipid metabolism in the liver. The results of our experimental research indicated that butachlor induces hepatotoxic effects through disruption of lipid metabolism, abnormal mechanisms of autophagy, and apoptosis that provides new insights into the elucidation of the mechanisms of hepatotoxicity in mice induced by butachlor.


Assuntos
Herbicidas , Acetanilidas/toxicidade , Animais , Herbicidas/toxicidade , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Fígado , Camundongos
13.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 221: 112442, 2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34166936

RESUMO

Arsenic (As) and antimony (Sb) are commonly accumulated environmental pollutants that often coexist in nature and cause serious widespread biological toxicity. To investigate the nephrotoxicity induced by As and Sb in detail, we explored the mechanism by which As and Sb cotreatment induced autophagy and pyroptosis in vivo and in vitro. In this study, mice were treated with 4 mg/kg arsenic trioxide (ATO) or/and 15 mg/kg antimony trichloride (SbCl3) by intragastric intubation for 60 days. TCMK-1 cells were treated with ATO (12.5 µM), SbCl3 (25 µM) or a combination of As and Sb for 24 h. The results of the in vivo experiment demonstrated that As or/and Sb exposure could induce histopathological changes in the kidneys, and increase the levels of biochemical indicators of nephrotoxicity. In addition, As and Sb can co-induce oxidative stress, which further activate autophagy and pyroptosis. In an in vitro experiment, As and/or Sb coexposure increased ROS generation and decreased MMP. Moreover, the results of related molecular experiments further confirmed that As and Sb coactivated autophagy and pyroptosis. In conclusion, our results indicated that As and Sb co-exposure could cause autophagy and pyroptosis via the ROS pathway, and these two metals might have a synergistic effect on nephrotoxicity.


Assuntos
Antimônio/toxicidade , Trióxido de Arsênio/toxicidade , Cloretos/toxicidade , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Piroptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Rim/fisiopatologia , Camundongos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
14.
Folia Microbiol (Praha) ; 66(5): 809-817, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34143328

RESUMO

Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) is an important foodborne pathogens, known to cause enteric infections especially diarrhea, mainly attributed to Shiga toxins (Stxs). The use of certain antibiotics for treating this infection is controversial, owing to an increased risk for producing Stxs (Stx 1 and Stx 2). Increased antibiotic resistance is also thought to be involved in the pathogenesis of STEC diseases. The purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of antibiotics on induction of Stx 1 and Stx 2 in clinical STEC isolates and to investigate the relationships between increased resistance and Stx production. Fifteen clinical isolates were treated with sub minimum inhibitory concentrations (Sub MIC) of clinically used antibiotics (ciprofloxacin, fosfomycin, tigecycline, and meropenem), and the changes in expression levels of stx1 and stx2 genes were estimated using qRT-PCR. The expressions of Shiga toxins were found to be increased up to 6.5- and eightfold under ciprofloxacin and tigecycline Sub MIC, respectively. Fosfomycin had weak induction effect of up to twofold, whereas meropenem had the weakest influence on such expression. Resistant isolates were found to be more prone to increased expression of toxins.

15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34110590

RESUMO

Toxic metals and particle pollutants in urbanized cities have significantly increased over the past few decades mainly due to rapid urbanization and unplanned infrastructure. This research aimed at estimating the concentration of toxic metals and particle pollutants and the associated risks to public health across different land-use settings including commercial area (CA), urban area (UA), residential area (RA), and industrial area (IA). A total of 47 samples for both soil and air were collected from different land-use settings of Faisalabad city in Pakistan. Mean concentrations of toxic metals such as Mn, Zn, Pb, Ni, Cr, Co, and Cd in all land-use settings were 92.68, 4.06, 1.34, 0.16, 0.07, 0.03, and 0.02 mg kg-1, respectively. Mean values of PM10, PM2.5, and Mn in all land-use settings were found 5.14, 1.34, and 1.9 times higher than the World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines. Mn was found as the most hazardous metal in terms of pollution load index (PLI) and contamination factor (CF) in the studied area. Health risk analysis for particle pollutants using air quality index (AQI) and geoinformation was found in the range between good to very critical for all the land-use settings. The hazard quotient (HQ) and hazard index (HI) were higher for children in comparison to adults, suggesting that children may be susceptible to potentially higher health risks. However, the cancer risk (CR) value for Pb ingestion (1.21 × 10-6) in children was lower than the permissible limit (1 × 10-4 to 1 × 10-6). Nonetheless, for Cr inhalation, CR value (1.09 × 10-8) was close to tolerable limits. Our findings can be of valuable assistance toward advancing our understanding of soil and air pollutions concerning public health in different land-use settings of the urbanized cities of Pakistan.

16.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 5574789, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34046497

RESUMO

Cytochrome (CYP) enzymes catalyze the metabolic reactions of endogenous and exogenous compounds. The superfamily of enzymes is found across many organisms, regardless of type, except for plants. Information was gathered about CYP2D enzymes through protein sequences of humans and other organisms. The secondary structure was predicted using the SOPMA. The structural and functional study of human CYP2D was conducted using ProtParam, SOPMA, Predotar 1.03, SignalP, TMHMM 2.0, and ExPASy. Most animals shared five central motifs according to motif analysis results. The tertiary structure of human CYP2D, as well as other animal species, was predicted by Phyre2. Human CYP2D proteins are heavily conserved across organisms, according to the findings. This indicates that they are descended from a single ancestor. They calculate the ratio of alpha-helices to extended strands to beta sheets to random coils. Most of the enzymes are alpha-helix, but small amounts of the random coil were also found. The data were obtained to provide us with a better understanding of mammalian proteins' functions and evolutionary relationships.


Assuntos
Citocromos/química , Citocromos/classificação , Filogenia , Proteínas/química , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Simulação por Computador , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/química , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/classificação , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/genética , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/metabolismo , Citocromos/genética , Citocromos/metabolismo , Humanos , Ligantes , Camundongos , Modelos Moleculares , Conformação Proteica em alfa-Hélice , Domínios e Motivos de Interação entre Proteínas , Estrutura Secundária de Proteína , Proteínas/classificação , Proteínas/genética , Alinhamento de Sequência , Software
17.
PLoS One ; 16(5): e0251278, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34029342

RESUMO

Recent attacks by the red palm weevil, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Olivier), have become a severe problem for palm species. In present work, fat body transcriptome of adult female red palm weevil was analyzed, focusing on the identification of reproduction control genes. Transcriptome study was completed by means of next-generation sequencing (NGS) using Illumina Hiseq 2000 sequencing system. A total of 105,938,182 raw reads, 102,645,544 clean reads, and 9,238,098,960 clean nucleotides with a guanine-cytosine content of 40.31%, were produced. The processed transcriptome data resulted in 43,789 unique transcripts (with mean lengths of 1,172 bp). It was found that 20% of total unique transcripts shared up to 80%-100% sequence identity with homologous species, mainly the mountain pine beetle Dendroctonus ponderosae (59.9%) and red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum (26.9%). Nearly 25 annotated genes were predicted to be involved in red palm weevil reproduction, including five vitellogenin (Vg) transcripts. Among the five Vg gene transcripts, one was highly expressed compared with the other four (FPKM values of 1.963, 1.471, 1.028, and 1.017, respectively), and the five Vg gene transcripts were designated as RfVg, RfVg-equivalent1, RfVg-equivalent2, RfVg-equivalent3, and RfVg-equivalent4, respectively. The high expression level of RfVg verified by RT-polymerase chain reaction analysis suggested that RfVg is the primary functional Vg gene in red palm weevil. A high similarity of RfVg with other Coleopterans was also reflected in a phylogenetic tree, where RfVg was placed within the clade of the order Coleoptera. Awareness of the major genes that play critical roles in reproduction and proliferation of red palm weevil is valuable to understand their reproduction mechanism at a molecular level. In addition, for future molecular studies, the NGS dataset obtained will be useful and will promote the exploration of biotech-based control strategies against red palm weevil, a primary pest of palm trees.

18.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 5568262, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33997009

RESUMO

Bioinformatics education has been a hot topic in South Asia, and the interest in this education peaks with the start of the 21st century. The governments of South Asian countries had a systematic effort for bioinformatics. They developed the infrastructures to provide maximum facility to the scientific community to gain maximum output in this field. This article renders bioinformatics, measures, and its importance of implementation in South Asia with proper ways of improving bioinformatics education flaws. It also addresses the problems faced in South Asia and proposes some recommendations regarding bioinformatics education. The information regarding bioinformatics education and institutes was collected from different existing research papers, databases, and surveys. The information was then confirmed by visiting each institution's website, while problems and solutions displayed in the article are mostly in line with South Asian bioinformatics conferences and institutions' objectives. Among South Asian countries, India and Pakistan have developed infrastructure and education regarding bioinformatics rapidly as compared to other countries, whereas Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, and Nepal are still in a progressing phase in this field. To advance in a different sector, the bioinformatics industry has to be revolutionized, and it will contribute to strengthening the pharmaceutical, agricultural, and molecular sectors in South Asia. To advance in bioinformatics, universities' infrastructure needs to be on a par with the current international standards, which will produce well-trained professionals with skills in multiple fields like biotechnology, mathematics, statistics, and computer science. The bioinformatics industry has revolutionized and strengthened the pharmaceutical, agricultural, and molecular sectors in South Asia, and it will serve as the standard of education increases in the South Asian countries. A framework for developing a centralized database is suggested after the literature review to collect and store the information on the current status of South Asian bioinformatics education. This will be named as the South Asian Bioinformatics Education Database (SABE). This will provide comprehensive information regarding the bioinformatics in South Asian countries by the country name, the experts of this field, and the university name to explore the top-ranked outputs relevant to queries.


Assuntos
Biologia Computacional/educação , Biologia Computacional/organização & administração , Ásia Ocidental , Países em Desenvolvimento , Humanos , Universidades
20.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 5532864, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33880367

RESUMO

Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is a widespread zoonotic infection targeting the livestock sector, especially in developing countries, and posing a risk to humans and animal populations. Its recent prevalence in river buffaloes has been estimated as higher as 33.7%. In emergent countries like Pakistan, there is likeliness of human-livestock interfaces extensively and lacking of effective preventive measures that illustrate the risk of spreading the infection at a remarkable rate. The river buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) is an upkeep host of Mycobacterium bovis and is responsible for disease transmission among buffaloes and other livestock species. In this study, potential molecular biomarkers in the Interferon-gamma gene (IFNg) were identified after genomic screening of river buffaloes. Unique genomic loci in river buffalo proved the novelty of the genomic structure of this phenomenal animal but also highlighted its significance in natural immunity against the Mycobacterium. A total of eight single nucleotide polymorphisms were identified in the coding region of IFNg. The SNPs in the exonic region were all transitions, i.e., the conversion of purines to purines. These SNPs were analyzed for Hardy Weinberg Equilibrium, chi2 test, gene diversity, and protein structural conformation. Pathway analysis in tuberculosis revealed that IFNg inhibits the antigen-presenting cells (APC) through JAK and STAT pathways. Network analysis of IFNg proteins in both species showed strong associations among the immunity-related proteins (interleukins, tissue necrosis factors) and receptors of interferons. The identified polymorphic sites might be novel-potentiated markers for the selection of animals with superior immune response against bTB and can be exploited as promising genomic sites for breeding the resistant animal herds to combat Mycobacterium infection in a long run.


Assuntos
Búfalos/genética , Búfalos/imunologia , Interferon gama/genética , Tuberculose Bovina/genética , Tuberculose Bovina/imunologia , Animais , Bovinos , Frequência do Gene/genética , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Genoma , Haplótipos/genética , Heterozigoto , Interferon gama/química , Razão de Chances , Estrutura Secundária de Proteína
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