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2.
J Clin Sleep Med ; 15(11): 1613-1620, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31739851

RESUMO

STUDY OBJECTIVES: Drowsy driving related to obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) represents an important public health problem with limited data on the effect of positive airway pressure (PAP) therapy. We hypothesize that PAP therapy will reduce self-reported drowsy driving in a large clinic-based OSA cohort. METHODS: Drowsy driving (self-reported near-accidents/accidents) incidents from baseline to after PAP therapy (stratified by adherence) were compared in a cohort of 2,059 patients with OSA who initiated PAP therapy from January 1, 2010 to December 31, 2014. Multivariable logistic regression models evaluated the dependence of change in drowsy driving incidents on other factors, including change in Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) and Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ9) scores. RESULTS: In the entire cohort (age 56.0 ± 13.1 years, 45.4% female, 76.0% white, average follow-up 124.4 ± 67.3 days), drowsy driving incidents reduced from 14.2 to 6.9% after PAP therapy (P < .001). In subgroups, drowsy driving incidents reduced from 14% to 5.3% (P < .001) in patients who self-reported adherence to PAP therapy and 14.1% to 5.3% (P < .001) in patients objectively adherent to PAP therapy. For each one-point improvement in Epworth Sleepiness Scale score, the odds of drowsy driving decreased by about 14% (odds ratio 0.86, 95% confidence interval 0.82 to 0.90). CONCLUSIONS: In this clinic-based cohort, drowsy driving improved after adherent PAP usage, with greater drowsy driving risk for those with greater sleep propensity. This highlights the importance of and need for routine drowsy driving assessments and careful clinical attention to PAP adherence and sleep propensity in this population. Our findings should be confirmed and may be used to provide support for initiatives to address the public health issue of drowsy driving.

3.
Sleep ; 42(11)2019 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31585012

RESUMO

STUDY OBJECTIVES: Both periodic limb movements during sleep (PLMS) and arousals are associated with sympathetic nervous system activation and may be arrhythmogenic. We hypothesize a temporal relationship exists between individual PLMS, particularly with arousal, and nonsustained ventricular tachycardia (NSVT) events. METHODS: A bidirectional time-stratified case-crossover design was used to assess temporal associations between PLMS and NSVT during sleep in 49 Osteoporotic Fractures in Men Sleep Study participants with NSVT in a community-based cohort (n = 2,911). Sleep time was divided into approximate 30-min segments. For each NSVT (n = 141), we selected a preceding 30-s hazard period and three randomly chosen 30-s control periods from sleep within the same segment and evaluated for PLMS, respiratory events, minimum saturation, and arousals. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals-OR (95% CI)-were determined by conditional logistic regression; covariates included EEG arousals, minimum saturation, and respiratory events in the same hazard/control period. RESULTS: Participants with NSVT were 79.5 ± 6.2 years with a PLMS index of 32.1 (IQR: 10.1, 61.4) and apnea-hypopnea index of 17.1 (IQR: 9.4, 26.1). PLMS without arousal were not significantly associated with NSVT (OR = 0.80, 95% CI: 0.41-1.59). PLMS with arousal were associated with NSVT in unadjusted analyses (OR = 2.50, 95% CI: 1.11-5.65) and after adjustment (OR = 2.31, 95% CI: 1.02-5.25). Arousals associated with PLMS were associated with NSVT in unadjusted (OR = 2.84, 95% CI: 1.23-6.56) and adjusted analyses (OR = 2.61, 95% CI: 1.13-6.05). CONCLUSIONS: PLMS with (but not without) arousals are temporally associated with a greater than twofold higher odds of subsequent NSVT episodes. PLMS-related arousals may be physiologically important ventricular arrhythmia triggers. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00070681.

4.
J Clin Sleep Med ; 2019 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31588893

RESUMO

STUDY OBJECTIVES: Drowsy driving related to obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) represents an important public health problem with limited data on the effect of positive airway pressure (PAP) therapy. We hypothesize that PAP therapy will reduce self-reported drowsy driving in a large clinic-based OSA cohort. METHODS: Drowsy driving (self-reported near-accidents/accidents) incidents from baseline to after PAP therapy (stratified by adherence) were compared in a cohort of 2,059 patients with OSA who initiated PAP therapy from January 1, 2010 to December 31, 2014. Multivariable logistic regression models evaluated the dependence of change in drowsy driving incidents on other factors, including change in Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) and Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ9) scores. RESULTS: In the entire cohort (age 56.0 ± 13.1 years, 45.4% female, 76.0% white, average follow-up 124.4 ± 67.3 days), drowsy driving incidents reduced from 14.2 to 6.9% after PAP therapy (P < .001). In subgroups, drowsy driving incidents reduced from 14% to 5.3% (P < .001) in patients who self-reported adherence to PAP therapy and 14.1% to 5.3% (P < .001) in patients objectively adherent to PAP therapy. For each one-point improvement in Epworth Sleepiness Scale score, the odds of drowsy driving decreased by about 14% (odds ratio 0.86, 95% confidence interval 0.82 to 0.90). CONCLUSIONS: In this clinic-based cohort, drowsy driving improved after adherent PAP usage, with greater drowsy driving risk for those with greater sleep propensity. This highlights the importance of and need for routine drowsy driving assessments and careful clinical attention to PAP adherence and sleep propensity in this population. Our findings should be confirmed and may be used to provide support for initiatives to address the public health issue of drowsy driving.

5.
Cleve Clin J Med ; 86(9 Suppl 1): 10-18, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31509499

RESUMO

The normal sleep-wake cycle is characterized by diurnal variations in blood pressure, heart rate, and cardiac events. Sleep apnea disrupts the normal sleep-heart interaction, and the pathophysiology varies for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and central sleep apnea (CSA). Associations exist between sleep-disordered breathing (which encompasses both OSA and CSA) and heart failure, atrial fibrillation, stroke, coronary artery disease, and cardiovascular mortality. Treatment options include positive airway pressure as well as adaptive servo-ventilation and phrenic nerve stimulation for CSA. Treatment improves blood pressure, quality of life, and sleepiness, the last particularly in those at risk for cardiovascular disease. Results from clinical trials are not definitive in terms of hard cardiovascular outcomes.

7.
Handb Clin Neurol ; 161: 345-352, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31307612

RESUMO

Understanding the clinical neurophysiology of apnea generation encompasses discussion of the neuroanatomic aspects of central respiratory rhythm and pattern generation, including the central respiratory control networks, central and peripheral chemoreceptors, mechanisms of respiratory muscles, and sleep state dependent differences. Anatomical and functional links to apnea also involve central respiratory motor output recruited from the hypoglossal nerve, which has led to novel treatments for obstructive sleep apnea. Autonomic fluctuations occur in relation to sleep-wake and sleep states (i.e., REM vs NREM sleep), with both parasympathetic and sympathetic contributions. Finally, our understanding of the pathophysiology of obstructive sleep apnea now includes concepts of critical closing pressure of the upper airway, increased loop gain as reflected by high responsiveness to external perturbations, inadequate responsiveness of upper airway muscle recruitment, and reductions in arousal threshold leading to ventilatory instability. In turn, these concepts have led to the development of novel therapies such as hypoglossal nerve stimulation and targeting key culprit physiologic mechanisms specific to the individual.

8.
Chest ; 2019 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31299245

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Positive airway pressure (PAP) and upper airway stimulation (UAS) are approved OSA treatment options. Although the effect of PAP on improvement in BP and daytime sleepiness (defined according to the Epworth Sleepiness Scale [ESS]) has been established, the impact of UAS on BP remains unclear. This study hypothesized that PAP and UAS will confer improvements in BP and daytime sleepiness. METHODS: Clinic-based BP and ESS scores were compared between 517 patients with OSA (apnea-hypopnea index, 15-65) and BMI ≤ 35 kg/m2 initiating PAP therapy (2010-2014) at the Cleveland Clinic and 320 patients with UAS implantation (2015-2017) via an international registry with 2- to 6-month follow-up. Mixed effect models were used to compare outcomes in 201 patients in each arm following propensity matching. RESULTS: PAP showed greater improvement in diastolic BP (mean difference of change between groups, 3.7 mm Hg; P < .001) and mean arterial pressure (mean difference of change between groups, 2.8 mm Hg; P = .008) compared with UAS. UAS showed greater improvement in ESS scores vs PAP (mean difference of change between PAP and UAS groups, -0.8; P = .046). UAS therapy usage was 6.2 h/week greater than PAP-treated patients (95% CI, 3.3-9.0). Results were consistent following adjustment for therapy adherence. CONCLUSIONS: PAP showed greater improvement in BP, potentially reflecting an enhanced ability of PAP to exert beneficial mechanical intrathoracic cardiac and vascular influences. BP measurement error in the UAS group may also have accounted for findings. Greater improvement in sleepiness symptoms was noted with UAS compared with PAP.

9.
Handb Clin Neurol ; 160: 371-379, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31277861

RESUMO

Actigraphy involves acquisition of data using a movement sensor worn continuously on the nondominant wrist, typically for a week or more. Computer-based algorithms estimate sleep episodes by analysis of continuous minutes of no to low movement, or spans of time when movement is relatively low compared with movements during presumed ambulatory wakefulness. Inherent advantages of actigraphy over polysomnography include its noninvasive nature, cost-effectiveness, lesser burden on patients/research participants, and ability to collect data over multiple days/nights, thereby allowing examination of sleep-wake patterning. Therefore, actigraphy is emerging as a common method to objectively assess sleep parameters providing estimates of sleep duration and continuity. Modes of actigraphy data collection, scoring algorithms, sleep quality/disturbance measures, validation studies, and clinical and research applications are discussed.

10.
Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg ; 161(5): 897-903, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31234734

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine whether previous palate or hypopharyngeal surgery was associated with efficacy of treatment of obstructive sleep apnea with hypoglossal nerve stimulation. STUDY DESIGN: Cohort (retrospective and prospective). SETTING: Eleven academic medical centers. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Adults treated with hypoglossal nerve stimulation were enrolled in the ADHERE Registry. Outcomes were defined by the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI), in 3 ways: change in the AHI and 2 definitions of therapy response requiring ≥50% reduction in the AHI to a level <20 events/h (Response20) or 15 events/h (Response15). Previous palate and hypopharyngeal (tongue, epiglottis, or maxillofacial) procedures were documented. Linear and logistic regression examined the association between previous palate or hypopharyngeal surgery and outcomes, with adjustment for age, sex, and body mass index. RESULTS: The majority (73%, 217 of 299) had no previous palate or hypopharyngeal surgery, while 25% and 9% had previous palate or hypopharyngeal surgery, respectively, including 6% with previous palate and hypopharyngeal surgery. Baseline AHI (36.0 ± 15.6 events/h) decreased to 12.0 ± 13.3 at therapy titration (P < .001) and 11.4 ± 12.6 at final follow-up (P < .001). Any previous surgery, previous palate surgery, and previous hypopharyngeal surgery were not clearly associated with treatment response; for example, any previous surgery was associated with a 0.69 (95% CI: 0.37, 1.27) odds of response (Response20 measure) at therapy titration and a 0.55 (95% CI: 0.22, 1.34) odds of response (Response20 measure) at final follow-up. CONCLUSION: Previous upper airway surgery was not clearly associated with efficacy of hypoglossal nerve stimulation.

11.
Eur Respir J ; 54(1)2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31151958

RESUMO

Respiratory frequency (f R) predicts in-hospital and short-term mortality in patients with a variety of pathophysiological conditions, but its predictive value for long-term cardiovascular and all-cause mortality in the general population is unknown. Here, we investigated the relationship between mean nocturnal f R and mortality in community-dwelling older men and women.We measured mean nocturnal f R during sleep from overnight polysomnography in 2686 men participating in the Osteoporotic Fractures in Men Study (MrOS) Sleep study and 406 women participating in the Study of Osteoporotic Fractures (SOF) to investigate the relationship between mean nocturnal f R and long-term cardiovascular and all-cause mortality.166 (6.1%) men in the MrOS cohort (8.9±2.6 years' follow-up) and 46 (11.2%) women in the SOF cohort (6.4±1.6 years' follow-up) died from cardiovascular disease. All-cause mortality was 51.2% and 26.1% during 13.7±3.7 and 6.4±1.6 years' follow-up in the MrOS Sleep study and the SOF cohorts, respectively. Multivariable Cox regression analysis adjusted for significant covariates demonstrated that f R dichotomised at 16 breaths·min-1 was independently associated with cardiovascular mortality (MrOS: hazard ratio (HR) 1.57, 95% CI 1.14-2.15; p=0.005; SOF: HR 2.58, 95% CI 1.41-4.76; p=0.002) and all-cause mortality (MrOS: HR 1.18, 95% CI 1.04-1.32; p=0.007; SOF: HR 1.50, 95% CI 1.02-2.20; p=0.04).In community-dwelling older men and women, polysomnography-derived mean nocturnal f R ≥16 breaths·min-1 is an independent predictor of long-term cardiovascular and all-cause mortality. Whether nocturnal mean f R can be used as a risk marker warrants further prospective studies.

13.
Behav Sleep Med ; : 1-11, 2019 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30829067

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Observational data demonstrate increased risk of recurrent acute coronary syndrome in patients with comorbid insomnia. We conducted a pragmatic randomized controlled pilot study to address knowledge gaps and inform future large-scale randomized trials to test the impact of Web-based cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia (wCBT-I) on coronary heart disease (CHD) outcomes. PARTICIPANTS: Thirty-five adults recruited from Brigham and Women's and Cleveland Clinic Hospitals with insomnia, defined by Insomnia Severity Index (ISI) score ≥ 10 and symptoms of at least 3 months, and comorbid CHD identified from medical records. METHODS: We randomized 34 patients to either general sleep education coupled with wCBT-I or general sleep education alone followed by an opportunity for treatment after the study (a wait-list control) to evaluate feasibility and uptake of insomnia treatment in patients with heart disease. Participants completed the ISI at baseline and 6 weeks to assess insomnia severity. RESULTS: Twenty-nine adults completed the trial, yielding an 85% retention rate, and adherence rate in the treatment arm was 80%. Mean age was 71.6 ± 9.5 years, 75% were male, and mean body mass index (BMI) was 29 ± 4.5 kg/m2. Baseline ISI scores were 15.6. There was a 6.2 ± 5.3 point reduction in ISI scores in the intervention arm and a 3.3 ± 5.1 reduction in the control arm (p value 0.1). CONCLUSION: Web-based CBT-I intervention was feasible in an older sample with prevalent CHD and resulted in clinically meaningful improvement in insomnia severity, though statistical significance was limited by lack of power.

15.
Chest ; 154(5): 1013-1014, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30409358
16.
Chest ; 154(5): e139-e142, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30409368

RESUMO

CASE PRESENTATION: A 48-year-old athletic man with history of dyslipidemia and second-degree atrioventricular block (Mobitz type I 2:1 atrioventricular block) endorses sleep-related difficulties at his annual physical examination. Mobitz type I block was diagnosed 11 years earlier when the patient presented to his primary care physician with left-sided chest pain for 2 months. He was evaluated by cardiology, with a normal stress echocardiogram. The impression was that the chest pain was nonanginal. He describes sleeping for only a few hours at a time and has nighttime awakenings. He does not wake up feeling refreshed. He experiences passive daytime sleepiness and evening somnolence. He is very active, runs every day, and has participated in several half-marathons. He currently undergoes high-intensity interval training, including running and lifting. Per his wife, the patient snores loudly and has apneic episodes during sleep. One of his siblings has OSA. He denies excessive sleepiness, with an Epworth Sleepiness Scale score of 2.

17.
Eur Respir J ; 2018 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30487205

RESUMO

Upper airway stimulation (UAS) has been shown to reduce severity of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). The aim of this registry was to identify predictors of UAS therapy response in an international multicenter registry. Patients who underwent UAS implantation in the US and Germany were enrolled in an observational registry. Data collected included patient characteristics, apnea-hypopnea index (AHI), Epworth Sleepiness Scale, objective adherence, adverse events, and patient satisfaction measures. Post hoc univariate and multiple logistic regression were performed to evaluate factors associated with treatment success. Between October 2016 and January 2018, 508 participants were enrolled from 14 centers. Median AHI was reduced from 34.0 to 7.0 events·h-1, median ESS reduced from 12 to 7 from baseline to final visit at 12-month post-implant. In post hoc analyses, for each 1-year increase in age, there was a 4% increase in odds of treatment success. For each 1 unit increase in BMI, there was 9% reduced odds of treatment success. In the multivariable model, age persisted in serving as statistically significant predictor of treatment success.In a large multicenter international registry, UAS is an effective treatment option with high patient satisfaction and low adverse events. Increasing age and reduced BMI are predictors of treatment response.

18.
20.
Anesth Analg ; 127(5): e87-e88, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30198921
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