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1.
J Am Chem Soc ; 2020 Dec 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33382947

RESUMO

The electrochemical CO2 reduction reaction (CO2RR) using Cu-based catalysts holds great potential for producing valuable multi-carbon products from renewable energy. However, the chemical and structural state of Cu catalyst surfaces during the CO2RR remains a matter of debate. Here, we show the structural evolution of the near-surface region of polycrystalline Cu electrodes under in situ conditions through a combination of grazing incidence X-ray absorption spectroscopy (GIXAS) and X-ray diffraction (GIXRD). The in situ GIXAS reveals that the surface oxide layer is fully reduced to metallic Cu before the onset potential for CO2RR, and the catalyst maintains the metallic state across the potentials relevant to the CO2RR. We also find a preferential surface reconstruction of the polycrystalline Cu surface toward (100) facets in the presence of CO2. Quantitative analysis of the reconstruction profiles reveals that the degree of reconstruction increases with increasingly negative applied potentials, and it persists when the applied potential returns to more positive values. These findings show that the surface of Cu electrocatalysts is dynamic during the CO2RR, and emphasize the importance of in situ characterization to understand the surface structure and its role in electrocatalysis.

2.
ACS Comb Sci ; 2020 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33152234

RESUMO

Thin-film continuous composition spreads of Fe-Co-O were fabricated by reactive cosputtering from elemental Fe and Co targets in reactive Ar/O2 atmosphere using deposition temperatures ranging from 300 to 700 °C. Fused silica and platinized Si/SiO2 strips were used as substrates. Ti and Ta were investigated as adhesion layer for Pt and the fabrication of the Fe-Co-O films. The thin-film composition spreads were characterized by high-throughput electron-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and optical transmission spectroscopy. The Fe-content ranged from 28 to 72 at. %. The spinel phases Fe2CoO4 and FeCo2O4 could be synthesized and stabilized at all deposition temperatures with a continuous variation in spinel composition in between. The dependence of the film surface microstructure on the deposition temperature and the composition was mapped. Moreover, the band gap values, ranging from 2.41 eV for FeCo2O4 to 2.74 eV for Fe2CoO4, show a continuous variation with the composition.

3.
ACS Comb Sci ; 2020 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33146510

RESUMO

Thin films of two types of high-entropy oxides (HEOs) have been deposited on 76.2 mm Si wafers using combinatorial sputter deposition. In one type of the oxides, (MgZnMnCoNi)Ox, all the metals have a stable divalent oxidation state and similar cationic radii. In the second type of oxides, (CrFeMnCoNi)Ox, the metals are more diverse in the atomic radius and valence state, and have good solubility in their sub-binary and ternary oxide systems. The resulting HEO thin films were characterized using several high-throughput analytical techniques. The microstructure, composition, and electrical conductivity obtained on defined grid maps were obtained for the first time across large compositional ranges. The crystalline structure of the films was observed as a function of the metallic elements in the composition spreads, that is, the Mn and Zn in (MgZnMnCoNi)Ox and Mn and Ni in (CrFeMnCoNi)Ox. The (MgZnMnCoNi)Ox sample was observed to form two-phase structures, except single spinel structure was found in (MgZnMnCoNi)Ox over a range of Mn > 12 at. % and Zn < 44 at. %, while (CrFeMnCoNi)Ox was always observed to form two-phase structures. Composition-controlled crystalline structure is not only experimentally demonstrated but also supported by density function theory calculation.

4.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5966, 2020 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33235197

RESUMO

Active learning-the field of machine learning (ML) dedicated to optimal experiment design-has played a part in science as far back as the 18th century when Laplace used it to guide his discovery of celestial mechanics. In this work, we focus a closed-loop, active learning-driven autonomous system on another major challenge, the discovery of advanced materials against the exceedingly complex synthesis-processes-structure-property landscape. We demonstrate an autonomous materials discovery methodology for functional inorganic compounds which allow scientists to fail smarter, learn faster, and spend less resources in their studies, while simultaneously improving trust in scientific results and machine learning tools. This robot science enables science-over-the-network, reducing the economic impact of scientists being physically separated from their labs. The real-time closed-loop, autonomous system for materials exploration and optimization (CAMEO) is implemented at the synchrotron beamline to accelerate the interconnected tasks of phase mapping and property optimization, with each cycle taking seconds to minutes. We also demonstrate an embodiment of human-machine interaction, where human-in-the-loop is called to play a contributing role within each cycle. This work has resulted in the discovery of a novel epitaxial nanocomposite phase-change memory material.

5.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 12(40): 45437-45443, 2020 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32852194

RESUMO

The La0.7Sr0.3CoO3-δ/La0.7Sr0.3MnO3-δ (LSCO/LSMO) bilayer system is an ideal perovskite oxide platform for investigating interface reconstruction and its effect on their magnetic properties. Previous studies have shown that LSCO can separate into magnetic sublayers, which possess distinct trends as the total LSCO thickness increases. In this study, we used polarized neutron reflectometry to quantify changes in the magnetic and chemical depth profiles, and it confirms the formation of ∼12 Å-thick interfacial LSCO and LSMO layers, characterized by a decreased nuclear scattering length density compared to the bulk of the layers. This decrease is attributed to the combined effects of oxygen vacancy formation and interfacial charge transfer, which lead to magnetically active Co2+ ions with ionic radii larger than the Co3+/Co4+ ions typically found in bulk LSCO or single-layer films. The interfacial magnetization values, as well as Co2+ ion and oxygen vacancy concentrations, depend strongly on the LSCO layer thickness. These results highlight the sensitive interplay of the cation valence states, oxygen vacancy concentration, and magnetization at interfaces in perovskite oxide multilayers, demonstrating the potential to tune their functional properties via careful design of their structure.

6.
ACS Comb Sci ; 22(11): 641-648, 2020 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32786322

RESUMO

Combinatorial synthesis and high-throughput characterization of a Ni-Ti-Co thin film materials library are reported for exploration of reversible martensitic transformation. The library was prepared by magnetron co-sputtering, annealed in vacuum at 500 °C without atmospheric exposure, and evaluated for shape memory behavior as an indicator of transformation. Composition, structure, and transformation behavior of the 177 pads in the library were characterized using high-throughput wavelength dispersive spectroscopy (WDS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and four-point probe temperature-dependent resistance (R(T)) measurements. A new, expanded composition space having phase transformation with low thermal hysteresis and Co > 10 at. % is found. Unsupervised machine learning methods of hierarchical clustering were employed to streamline data processing of the large XRD and XPS data sets. Through cluster analysis of XRD data, we identified and mapped the constituent structural phases. Composition-structure-property maps for the ternary system are made to correlate the functional properties to the local microstructure and composition of the Ni-Ti-Co thin film library.

7.
J Chem Phys ; 153(1): 014707, 2020 Jul 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32640827

RESUMO

Thin-film material libraries in the ternary and quaternary metal oxide systems Fe-V-O, Cu-V-O, and Cu-Fe-V-O were synthesized using combinatorial reactive co-sputtering with subsequent annealing in air. Their compositional, structural, and functional properties were assessed using high-throughput characterization methods. Prior to the investigation of the quaternary system Cu-Fe-V-O, the compositions (Fe61V39)Ox and (Cu52V48)Ox with promising photoactivity were identified from their ternary subsystems Fe-V-O and Cu-V-O, respectively. Two Cu-Fe-V-O material libraries with (Cu29-72Fe4-27V22-57)Ox and (Cu11-55Fe27-73V12-34)Ox composition spread were investigated. Seven mixed ternary and quaternary phase regions were identified: I (α-Cu3FeV6O26/FeVO4), II (Cu5V2O10/FeVO4/α-Cu3Fe4V6O26), III (Cu5V2O10), IV (Cu5V2O10/FeVO4, V (FeVO4/γ-Cu2V2O7/α-Cu3Fe4V6O26), VI (ß-Cu2V2O7/α-Cu3Fe4V6O26/FeVO4), and VII (ß-Cu3Fe4V6O26/FeVO4). In the investigated composition range, two photoactive regions, (Cu53Fe7V40)Ox and (Cu45Fe21V34)Ox, were identified, exhibiting 103 µA/cm2 and 108 µA/cm2 photocurrent density for the oxygen evolution reaction at 1.63 V vs reversible hydrogen electrode, respectively. The highest photoactive region (Cu45Fe21V34)Ox comprises the dominant α-Cu3Fe4V6O24 phase and minor FeVO4 phase. This photoactive region corresponds to having an indirect bandgap of 1.87 eV and a direct bandgap of 2.58 eV with an incident photon-to-current efficiency of 30% at a wavelength of 310 nm.

8.
ACS Comb Sci ; 22(7): 330-338, 2020 07 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32496755

RESUMO

On the basis of a set of machine learning predictions of glass formation in the Ni-Ti-Al system, we have undertaken a high-throughput experimental study of that system. We utilized rapid synthesis followed by high-throughput structural and electrochemical characterization. Using this dual-modality approach, we are able to better classify the amorphous portion of the library, which we found to be the portion with a full width at half maximum (fwhm) of >0.42 Å-1 for the first sharp X-ray diffraction peak. Proper phase labeling is important for future machine learning efforts. We demonstrate that the fwhm and corrosion resistance are correlated but that, while chemistry still plays a role in corrosion resistance, a large fwhm, attributed to a glassy phase, is necessary for the highest corrosion resistance.

10.
Nature ; 580(7804): 478-482, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32322080

RESUMO

Ultrathin ferroelectric materials could potentially enable low-power perovskite ferroelectric tetragonality logic and nonvolatile memories1,2. As ferroelectric materials are made thinner, however, the ferroelectricity is usually suppressed. Size effects in ferroelectrics have been thoroughly investigated in perovskite oxides-the archetypal ferroelectric system3. Perovskites, however, have so far proved unsuitable for thickness scaling and integration with modern semiconductor processes4. Here we report ferroelectricity in ultrathin doped hafnium oxide (HfO2), a fluorite-structure oxide grown by atomic layer deposition on silicon. We demonstrate the persistence of inversion symmetry breaking and spontaneous, switchable polarization down to a thickness of one nanometre. Our results indicate not only the absence of a ferroelectric critical thickness but also enhanced polar distortions as film thickness is reduced, unlike in perovskite ferroelectrics. This approach to enhancing ferroelectricity in ultrathin layers could provide a route towards polarization-driven memories and ferroelectric-based advanced transistors. This work shifts the search for the fundamental limits of ferroelectricity to simpler transition-metal oxide systems-that is, from perovskite-derived complex oxides to fluorite-structure binary oxides-in which 'reverse' size effects counterintuitively stabilize polar symmetry in the ultrathin regime.

11.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 181(2): 249-254, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32277375

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: HER2-positive breast cancer is an aggressive subtype of breast cancer that overexpresses human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 promoting cancer cell growth. Monoclonal antibodies targeting the HER2 receptor have improved survival for this patient population. Achieving pathologic complete response (pCR) to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) has correlated with disease-free survival in multiple trials, but we do not know why some HER2-positive tumors respond better to these therapies. We evaluated the correlation between HER2/CEP17 ratio and partial versus complete response following NAC. We evaluated whether patients with higher HER2/CEP17 ratios would have higher rates of pCR after NAC. METHODS: Using the National Cancer Database (NCDB), we performed a retrospective review comparing pCR rates after NAC based on HER2 ratio between 2005 and 2014. Patients were excluded if they were HER2 negative, did not undergo NAC, or if the HER2 ratio was not recorded. Trends in percentage of pCR versus partial response were analyzed using SPSS. RESULTS: The NCDB included 237,118 patients with HER2 equivocal or HER2-positive breast tumors. 29,291 of these patients underwent NAC, and HER2/CEP17 ratios were recorded in 14,597 of the NAC cases. A pCR was noted in 9752 patients and 11,402 patients had a partial response. The ratios were significantly different between complete vs. partial response groups (include ratios), P < 0.001. Using linear regression analysis, we identified a direct relationship between increasing the ratio and response to NAC. CONCLUSION: Our study demonstrates a linear relationship between HER2/CEP17 ratio and pCR to NAC in patients included in the NCDB. The NCDB reflects current clinical practices across the country, and in this patient population, higher HER2 ratio is predictive of pCR to NAC and thus may be used in guiding decisions regarding the therapies that a patient receives in order to enhance pCR.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Cromossomos Humanos Par 17/genética , Bases de Dados Factuais , Terapia Neoadjuvante/métodos , Receptor ErbB-2/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Quimioterapia Adjuvante , Feminino , Humanos , Prognóstico
12.
ACS Comb Sci ; 21(5): 350-361, 2019 05 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30888788

RESUMO

High-throughput experimental (HTE) techniques are an increasingly important way to accelerate the rate of materials research and development for many technological applications. However, there are very few publications on the reproducibility of the HTE results obtained across different laboratories for the same materials system, and on the associated sample and data exchange standards. Here, we report a comparative study of Zn-Sn-Ti-O thin films materials using high-throughput experimental methods at National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). The thin film sample libraries were synthesized by combinatorial physical vapor deposition (cosputtering and pulsed laser deposition) and characterized by spatially resolved techniques for composition, structure, thickness, optical, and electrical properties. The results of this study indicate that all these measurement techniques performed at two different laboratories show excellent qualitative agreement. The quantitative similarities and differences vary by measurement type, with 95% confidence interval of 0.1-0.2 eV for the band gap, 24-29 nm for film thickness, and 0.08 to 0.37 orders of magnitude for sheet resistance. Overall, this work serves as a case study for the feasibility of a High-Throughput Experimental Materials Collaboratory (HTE-MC) by demonstrating the exchange of high-throughput sample libraries, workflows, and data.


Assuntos
Ligas/química , Óxidos/química , Estanho/química , Titânio/química , Zinco/química , Técnicas de Química Combinatória , Ensaios de Triagem em Larga Escala , Lasers , Teste de Materiais , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/química
13.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 21(10): 5402-5408, 2019 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30785434

RESUMO

The rational improvement of current and developing electrochemical technologies requires atomistic understanding of electrode-electrolyte interfaces. However, examining these interfaces under operando conditions, where performance is typically evaluated and benchmarked, remains challenging, as it necessitates incorporating an operando probe during full electrochemical operation. In this study, we describe a custom electrochemical flow cell that enables near-surface-sensitive operando investigation of planar thin-film catalysts at significant hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) rates (in excess of -100 mA cm-2) using grazing incidence X-ray methods. Grazing-incidence X-ray spectroscopy and diffraction were implemented on the same sample under identical HER conditions, demonstrating how the combined measurements track changing redox chemistry and structure of Cu thin-film catalyst surfaces as a function of electrochemical conditions. The coupling of these methods with improved mass transport and hydrodynamic control establishes a new paradigm for operando measurement design, enabling unique insights into the key fundamental processes occurring at the catalyst-electrolyte interface.

14.
MRS Commun ; 9(3)2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32166045

RESUMO

The use of advanced data analytics and applications of statistical and machine learning approaches ('AI') to materials science is experiencing explosive growth recently. In this prospective, we review recent work focusing on generation and application of libraries from both experiment and theoretical tools, across length scales. The available library data both enables classical correlative machine learning, and also opens the pathway for exploration of underlying causative physical behaviors. We highlight the key advances facilitated by this approach, and illustrate how modeling, macroscopic experiments and atomic-scale imaging can be combined to dramatically accelerate understanding and development of new material systems via a statistical physics framework. These developments point towards a data driven future wherein knowledge can be aggregated and used collectively, accelerating the advancement of materials science.

15.
J Synchrotron Radiat ; 25(Pt 4): 1261-1270, 2018 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29979189

RESUMO

Xi-cam is an extensible platform for data management, analysis and visualization. Xi-cam aims to provide a flexible and extensible approach to synchrotron data treatment as a solution to rising demands for high-volume/high-throughput processing pipelines. The core of Xi-cam is an extensible plugin-based graphical user interface platform which provides users with an interactive interface to processing algorithms. Plugins are available for SAXS/WAXS/GISAXS/GIWAXS, tomography and NEXAFS data. With Xi-cam's `advanced' mode, data processing steps are designed as a graph-based workflow, which can be executed live, locally or remotely. Remote execution utilizes high-performance computing or de-localized resources, allowing for the effective reduction of high-throughput data. Xi-cam's plugin-based architecture targets cross-facility and cross-technique collaborative development, in support of multi-modal analysis. Xi-cam is open-source and cross-platform, and available for download on GitHub.

16.
Sci Adv ; 4(4): eaaq1566, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29662953

RESUMO

With more than a hundred elements in the periodic table, a large number of potential new materials exist to address the technological and societal challenges we face today; however, without some guidance, searching through this vast combinatorial space is frustratingly slow and expensive, especially for materials strongly influenced by processing. We train a machine learning (ML) model on previously reported observations, parameters from physiochemical theories, and make it synthesis method-dependent to guide high-throughput (HiTp) experiments to find a new system of metallic glasses in the Co-V-Zr ternary. Experimental observations are in good agreement with the predictions of the model, but there are quantitative discrepancies in the precise compositions predicted. We use these discrepancies to retrain the ML model. The refined model has significantly improved accuracy not only for the Co-V-Zr system but also across all other available validation data. We then use the refined model to guide the discovery of metallic glasses in two additional previously unreported ternaries. Although our approach of iterative use of ML and HiTp experiments has guided us to rapid discovery of three new glass-forming systems, it has also provided us with a quantitatively accurate, synthesis method-sensitive predictor for metallic glasses that improves performance with use and thus promises to greatly accelerate discovery of many new metallic glasses. We believe that this discovery paradigm is applicable to a wider range of materials and should prove equally powerful for other materials and properties that are synthesis path-dependent and that current physiochemical theories find challenging to predict.

17.
J Phys Condens Matter ; 30(1): 015805, 2018 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29144279

RESUMO

The extent of interfacial charge transfer and the resulting impact on magnetic interactions were investigated as a function of sublayer thickness in La0.7Sr0.3MnO3/La0.7Sr0.3CoO3 ferromagnetic superlattices. Element-specific soft x-ray magnetic spectroscopy reveals that the electronic structure is altered within 5-6 unit cells of the chemical interface, and can lead to a synthetic ferromagnet with strong magnetic coupling between the sublayers. The saturation magnetization and coercivity depends sensitively on the sublayer thickness due to the length scale of this interfacial effect. For larger sublayer thicknesses, the La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 and La0.7Sr0.3CoO3 sublayers are magnetically decoupled, displaying two independent magnetic transitions with little sublayer thickness dependence. These results demonstrate how interfacial phenomena at perovskite oxide interfaces can be used to tailor their functional properties at the atomic scale.

18.
Nat Commun ; 8(1): 2091, 2017 12 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29233965

RESUMO

Lithium-rich layered transition metal oxide positive electrodes offer access to anion redox at high potentials, thereby promising high energy densities for lithium-ion batteries. However, anion redox is also associated with several unfavorable electrochemical properties, such as open-circuit voltage hysteresis. Here we reveal that in Li1.17-x Ni0.21Co0.08Mn0.54O2, these properties arise from a strong coupling between anion redox and cation migration. We combine various X-ray spectroscopic, microscopic, and structural probes to show that partially reversible transition metal migration decreases the potential of the bulk oxygen redox couple by > 1 V, leading to a reordering in the anionic and cationic redox potentials during cycling. First principles calculations show that this is due to the drastic change in the local oxygen coordination environments associated with the transition metal migration. We propose that this mechanism is involved in stabilizing the oxygen redox couple, which we observe spectroscopically to persist for 500 charge/discharge cycles.

19.
Nano Lett ; 17(12): 7782-7788, 2017 12 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29116799

RESUMO

The in-depth understanding of the minority phases' roles in functional materials, e.g., batteries, is critical for optimizing the system performance and the operational efficiency. Although the visualization of battery electrode under operating conditions has been demonstrated, the development of advanced data-mining approaches is still needed in order to identify minority phases and to understand their functionalities. The present study uses nanoscale X-ray spectromicroscopy to study a functional LiCoO2/Li battery pouch cell. The data-mining approaches developed herein were used to search through over 10 million X-ray absorption spectra that cover more than 100 active cathode particles. Two particles with unanticipated chemical fingerprints were identified and further analyzed, providing direct evidence and valuable insight into the undesired side reactions involving the cation dissolution and precipitation as well as the local overlithiation-caused subparticle domain deactivation. The data-mining approach described in this work is widely applicable to many other structurally complex and chemically heterogeneous systems, in which the secondary/minority phases could critically affect the overall performance of the system, well beyond battery research.

20.
Nano Lett ; 17(12): 7761-7766, 2017 12 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29119791

RESUMO

Modulation of weak interlayer interactions between quasi-two-dimensional atomic planes in the transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) provides avenues for tuning their functional properties. Here we show that above-gap optical excitation in the TMDCs leads to an unexpected large-amplitude, ultrafast compressive force between the two-dimensional layers, as probed by in situ measurements of the atomic layer spacing at femtosecond time resolution. We show that this compressive response arises from a dynamic modulation of the interlayer van der Waals interaction and that this represents the dominant light-induced stress at low excitation densities. A simple analytic model predicts the magnitude and carrier density dependence of the measured strains. This work establishes a new method for dynamic, nonequilibrium tuning of correlation-driven dispersive interactions and of the optomechanical functionality of TMDC quasi-two-dimensional materials.

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