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1.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 74(22): 2713-2723, 2019 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31779786

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The COMPLETE (Complete vs Culprit-only Revascularization to Treat Multi-vessel Disease After Early PCI for STEMI) trial demonstrated that staged nonculprit lesion percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) reduced major cardiovascular (CV) events in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and multivessel coronary artery disease (CAD). OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of nonculprit-lesion PCI timing on major CV outcomes and also the time course of the benefit of complete revascularization. METHODS: Following culprit-lesion PCI, 4,041 patients with STEMI and multivessel CAD were randomized to staged nonculprit-lesion PCI or culprit-lesion only PCI. Randomization was stratified according to investigator-planned timing of nonculprit-lesion PCI: during or after the index hospitalization. The first coprimary outcome was the composite of CV death or myocardial infarction (MI). In pre-specified analyses, hazard ratios (HRs) were calculated for each time stratum. Landmark analyses of the entire population were performed within 45 days and after 45 days. RESULTS: For nonculprit-lesion PCI planned during the index hospitalization (actual time: median 1 day), CV death or MI was reduced with complete revascularization compared with culprit-lesion only PCI (HR: 0.77; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.59 to 1.00). For nonculprit lesion PCI planned to occur after hospital discharge (actual time: median 23 days), CV death or MI was also reduced with complete revascularization (HR: 0.69; 95% CI: 0.49 to 0.97; interaction p = 0.62). Landmark analyses demonstrated an HR of 0.86 (95% CI: 0.59 to 1.24) during the first 45 days and 0.69 (95% CI: 0.54 to 0.89) from 45 days to the end of follow-up for intended nonculprit lesion PCI versus culprit lesion only PCI. CONCLUSIONS: Among STEMI patients with multivessel disease, the benefit of complete revascularization over culprit-lesion only PCI was consistent irrespective of the investigator-determined timing of nonculprit-lesion intervention. The benefit of complete revascularization on hard clinical outcomes emerged mainly over the long term.

2.
N. Engl. j. med. ; 381(15): 1411-1421, Oct., 2019. tab., graf.
Artigo em Inglês | Sec. Est. Saúde SP, SESSP-IDPCPROD, Sec. Est. Saúde SP | ID: biblio-1023106

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) of the culprit lesion reduces the risk of cardiovascular death or myocardial infarction. Whether PCI of nonculprit lesions further reduces the risk of such events is unclear. METHODS: We randomly assigned patients with STEMI and multivessel coronary artery disease who had undergone successful culprit-lesion PCI to a strategy of either complete revascularization with PCI of angiographically significant nonculprit lesions or no further revascularization. Randomization was stratified according to the intended timing of nonculprit-lesion PCI (either during or after the index hospitalization). The first coprimary outcome was the composite of cardiovascular death or myocardial infarction; the second coprimary outcome was the composite of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, or ischemia-driven revascularization. RESULTS: At a median follow-up of 3 years, the first coprimary outcome had occurred in 158 of the 2016 patients (7.8%) in the complete-revascularization group as compared with 213 of the 2025 patients (10.5%) in the culprit-lesion-only PCI group (hazard ratio, 0.74; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.60 to 0.91; P=0.004). The second coprimary outcome had occurred in 179 patients (8.9%) in the complete-revascularization group as compared with 339 patients (16.7%) in the culprit-lesion-only PCI group (hazard ratio, 0.51; 95% CI, 0.43 to 0.61; P=0.62 and P=0.27 for interaction for the first and second coprimary outcomes, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Among patients with STEMI and multivessel coronary artery disease, complete revascularization was superior to culprit-lesion-only PCI in reducing the risk of cardiovascular death or myocardial infarction, as well as the risk of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, or ischemia-driven revascularization. (Funded by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research and others; COMPLETE ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01740479.). (AU)


Assuntos
Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Infarto do Miocárdio , Revascularização Miocárdica
3.
Lancet ; 394(10204): 1169-1180, 2019 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31484629

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with stable coronary artery disease and diabetes with previous percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), particularly those with previous stenting, are at high risk of ischaemic events. These patients are generally treated with aspirin. In this trial, we aimed to investigate if these patients would benefit from treatment with aspirin plus ticagrelor. METHODS: The Effect of Ticagrelor on Health Outcomes in diabEtes Mellitus patients Intervention Study (THEMIS) was a phase 3 randomised, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial, done in 1315 sites in 42 countries. Patients were eligible if 50 years or older, with type 2 diabetes, receiving anti-hyperglycaemic drugs for at least 6 months, with stable coronary artery disease, and one of three other mutually non-exclusive criteria: a history of previous PCI or of coronary artery bypass grafting, or documentation of angiographic stenosis of 50% or more in at least one coronary artery. Eligible patients were randomly assigned (1:1) to either ticagrelor or placebo, by use of an interactive voice-response or web-response system. The THEMIS-PCI trial comprised a prespecified subgroup of patients with previous PCI. The primary efficacy outcome was a composite of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, or stroke (measured in the intention-to-treat population). FINDINGS: Between Feb 17, 2014, and May 24, 2016, 11 154 patients (58% of the overall THEMIS trial) with a history of previous PCI were enrolled in the THEMIS-PCI trial. Median follow-up was 3·3 years (IQR 2·8-3·8). In the previous PCI group, fewer patients receiving ticagrelor had a primary efficacy outcome event than in the placebo group (404 [7·3%] of 5558 vs 480 [8·6%] of 5596; HR 0·85 [95% CI 0·74-0·97], p=0·013). The same effect was not observed in patients without PCI (p=0·76, pinteraction=0·16). The proportion of patients with cardiovascular death was similar in both treatment groups (174 [3·1%] with ticagrelor vs 183 (3·3%) with placebo; HR 0·96 [95% CI 0·78-1·18], p=0·68), as well as all-cause death (282 [5·1%] vs 323 [5·8%]; 0·88 [0·75-1·03], p=0·11). TIMI major bleeding occurred in 111 (2·0%) of 5536 patients receiving ticagrelor and 62 (1·1%) of 5564 patients receiving placebo (HR 2·03 [95% CI 1·48-2·76], p<0·0001), and fatal bleeding in 6 (0·1%) of 5536 patients with ticagrelor and 6 (0·1%) of 5564 with placebo (1·13 [0·36-3·50], p=0·83). Intracranial haemorrhage occurred in 33 (0·6%) and 31 (0·6%) patients (1·21 [0·74-1·97], p=0·45). Ticagrelor improved net clinical benefit: 519/5558 (9·3%) versus 617/5596 (11·0%), HR=0·85, 95% CI 0·75-0·95, p=0·005, in contrast to patients without PCI where it did not, pinteraction=0·012. Benefit was present irrespective of time from most recent PCI. INTERPRETATION: In patients with diabetes, stable coronary artery disease, and previous PCI, ticagrelor added to aspirin reduced cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, and stroke, although with increased major bleeding. In that large, easily identified population, ticagrelor provided a favourable net clinical benefit (more than in patients without history of PCI). This effect shows that long-term therapy with ticagrelor in addition to aspirin should be considered in patients with diabetes and a history of PCI who have tolerated antiplatelet therapy, have high ischaemic risk, and low bleeding risk. FUNDING: AstraZeneca.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/uso terapêutico , Ticagrelor/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Aspirina/uso terapêutico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Angiografia Coronária , Ponte de Artéria Coronária , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/complicações , Estenose Coronária/diagnóstico por imagem , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Método Duplo-Cego , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Prevenção Secundária , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia
4.
N Engl J Med ; 381(15): 1411-1421, 2019 10 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31475795

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) of the culprit lesion reduces the risk of cardiovascular death or myocardial infarction. Whether PCI of nonculprit lesions further reduces the risk of such events is unclear. METHODS: We randomly assigned patients with STEMI and multivessel coronary artery disease who had undergone successful culprit-lesion PCI to a strategy of either complete revascularization with PCI of angiographically significant nonculprit lesions or no further revascularization. Randomization was stratified according to the intended timing of nonculprit-lesion PCI (either during or after the index hospitalization). The first coprimary outcome was the composite of cardiovascular death or myocardial infarction; the second coprimary outcome was the composite of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, or ischemia-driven revascularization. RESULTS: At a median follow-up of 3 years, the first coprimary outcome had occurred in 158 of the 2016 patients (7.8%) in the complete-revascularization group as compared with 213 of the 2025 patients (10.5%) in the culprit-lesion-only PCI group (hazard ratio, 0.74; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.60 to 0.91; P = 0.004). The second coprimary outcome had occurred in 179 patients (8.9%) in the complete-revascularization group as compared with 339 patients (16.7%) in the culprit-lesion-only PCI group (hazard ratio, 0.51; 95% CI, 0.43 to 0.61; P<0.001). For both coprimary outcomes, the benefit of complete revascularization was consistently observed regardless of the intended timing of nonculprit-lesion PCI (P = 0.62 and P = 0.27 for interaction for the first and second coprimary outcomes, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Among patients with STEMI and multivessel coronary artery disease, complete revascularization was superior to culprit-lesion-only PCI in reducing the risk of cardiovascular death or myocardial infarction, as well as the risk of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, or ischemia-driven revascularization. (Funded by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research and others; COMPLETE ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01740479.).


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana/terapia , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/métodos , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/terapia , Idoso , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Terapia Combinada , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/complicações , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Revascularização Miocárdica/métodos , Antagonistas do Receptor Purinérgico P2Y/uso terapêutico , Recidiva , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/tratamento farmacológico , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/etiologia , Prevenção Secundária , Stents
5.
N Engl J Med ; 381(21): 2032-2042, 2019 11 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31556978

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Monotherapy with a P2Y12 inhibitor after a minimum period of dual antiplatelet therapy is an emerging approach to reduce the risk of bleeding after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). METHODS: In a double-blind trial, we examined the effect of ticagrelor alone as compared with ticagrelor plus aspirin with regard to clinically relevant bleeding among patients who were at high risk for bleeding or an ischemic event and had undergone PCI. After 3 months of treatment with ticagrelor plus aspirin, patients who had not had a major bleeding event or ischemic event continued to take ticagrelor and were randomly assigned to receive aspirin or placebo for 1 year. The primary end point was Bleeding Academic Research Consortium (BARC) type 2, 3, or 5 bleeding. We also evaluated the composite end point of death from any cause, nonfatal myocardial infarction, or nonfatal stroke, using a noninferiority hypothesis with an absolute margin of 1.6 percentage points. RESULTS: We enrolled 9006 patients, and 7119 underwent randomization after 3 months. Between randomization and 1 year, the incidence of the primary end point was 4.0% among patients randomly assigned to receive ticagrelor plus placebo and 7.1% among patients assigned to receive ticagrelor plus aspirin (hazard ratio, 0.56; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.45 to 0.68; P<0.001). The difference in risk between the groups was similar for BARC type 3 or 5 bleeding (incidence, 1.0% among patients receiving ticagrelor plus placebo and 2.0% among patients receiving ticagrelor plus aspirin; hazard ratio, 0.49; 95% CI, 0.33 to 0.74). The incidence of death from any cause, nonfatal myocardial infarction, or nonfatal stroke was 3.9% in both groups (difference, -0.06 percentage points; 95% CI, -0.97 to 0.84; hazard ratio, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.78 to 1.25; P<0.001 for noninferiority). CONCLUSIONS: Among high-risk patients who underwent PCI and completed 3 months of dual antiplatelet therapy, ticagrelor monotherapy was associated with a lower incidence of clinically relevant bleeding than ticagrelor plus aspirin, with no higher risk of death, myocardial infarction, or stroke. (Funded by AstraZeneca; TWILIGHT ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02270242.).


Assuntos
Aspirina/uso terapêutico , Doença das Coronárias/terapia , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/uso terapêutico , Ticagrelor/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Aspirina/efeitos adversos , Doença das Coronárias/tratamento farmacológico , Método Duplo-Cego , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mortalidade , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/efeitos adversos , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Ticagrelor/efeitos adversos
6.
N Engl J Med ; 381(14): 1309-1320, 2019 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31475798

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with stable coronary artery disease and diabetes mellitus who have not had a myocardial infarction or stroke are at high risk for cardiovascular events. Whether adding ticagrelor to aspirin improves outcomes in this population is unclear. METHODS: In this randomized, double-blind trial, we assigned patients who were 50 years of age or older and who had stable coronary artery disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus to receive either ticagrelor plus aspirin or placebo plus aspirin. Patients with previous myocardial infarction or stroke were excluded. The primary efficacy outcome was a composite of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, or stroke. The primary safety outcome was major bleeding as defined by the Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) criteria. RESULTS: A total of 19,220 patients underwent randomization. The median follow-up was 39.9 months. Permanent treatment discontinuation was more frequent with ticagrelor than placebo (34.5% vs. 25.4%). The incidence of ischemic cardiovascular events (the primary efficacy outcome) was lower in the ticagrelor group than in the placebo group (7.7% vs. 8.5%; hazard ratio, 0.90; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.81 to 0.99; P = 0.04), whereas the incidence of TIMI major bleeding was higher (2.2% vs. 1.0%; hazard ratio, 2.32; 95% CI, 1.82 to 2.94; P<0.001), as was the incidence of intracranial hemorrhage (0.7% vs. 0.5%; hazard ratio, 1.71; 95% CI, 1.18 to 2.48; P = 0.005). There was no significant difference in the incidence of fatal bleeding (0.2% vs. 0.1%; hazard ratio, 1.90; 95% CI, 0.87 to 4.15; P = 0.11). The incidence of an exploratory composite outcome of irreversible harm (death from any cause, myocardial infarction, stroke, fatal bleeding, or intracranial hemorrhage) was similar in the ticagrelor group and the placebo group (10.1% vs. 10.8%; hazard ratio, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.86 to 1.02). CONCLUSIONS: In patients with stable coronary artery disease and diabetes without a history of myocardial infarction or stroke, those who received ticagrelor plus aspirin had a lower incidence of ischemic cardiovascular events but a higher incidence of major bleeding than those who received placebo plus aspirin. (Funded by AstraZeneca; THEMIS ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01991795.).


Assuntos
Aspirina/uso terapêutico , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/uso terapêutico , Ticagrelor/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Aspirina/efeitos adversos , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/complicações , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/mortalidade , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/mortalidade , Método Duplo-Cego , Quimioterapia Combinada/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Seguimentos , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Hemorragia/epidemiologia , Hemorragia/mortalidade , Humanos , Incidência , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/prevenção & controle , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/efeitos adversos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle , Ticagrelor/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento
7.
Circ Cardiovasc Interv ; 12(9): e008152, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31451014

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The thin-strut SYNERGY stent has an abluminal everolimus-eluting bioabsorbable polymer coating designed to facilitate vascular healing and reduce risk of stent thrombosis. In the multicenter, randomized EVOLVE II trial (The EVOLVE II Clinical Trial to Assess the SYNERGY Stent System for the Treatment of Atherosclerotic Lesion[s]), SYNERGY was noninferior to the durable polymer PROMUS Element Plus everolimus-eluting stent for the primary end point of 1-year target lesion failure. Longer-term clinical follow-up will support the relative efficacy and safety of SYNERGY. METHODS: Patients with ≤3 native coronary lesions (reference vessel diameter ≥2.25-≤4.00 mm; length ≤34 mm) in ≤2 major epicardial vessels were randomized 1:1 to SYNERGY (N=838) or PROMUS Element Plus (N=846). EVOLVE II included a Diabetes substudy which pooled patients with diabetes mellitus from the randomized controlled trial (n=263) and from a sequential, single-arm substudy (N=203). RESULTS: The 5-year target lesion failure rate was 14.3% for SYNERGY and 14.2% for PROMUS Element Plus (P=0.91). Landmark analysis demonstrated similar rates of target lesion failure from discharge to 1-year (P=0.90) and from 1 to 5 years (P=0.94). Definite/probable stent thrombosis was infrequent in both arms (SYNERGY 0.7% versus PROMUS Element Plus 0.9%; P=0.75). There were no significant differences in the rates of cardiac death, myocardial infarction, or revascularization. Among patients with diabetes mellitus, the target lesion failure rate to 1-year was noninferior to a prespecified performance goal and to 5 years was 17.0%. CONCLUSIONS: SYNERGY demonstrated comparable outcomes to PROMUS Element Plus, with low rates of stent thrombosis and adverse events through 5 years of follow-up. Five-year clinical outcomes were favorable in patients with diabetes mellitus. These data support the long-term safety and effectiveness of SYNERGY in a broad range of patients. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01665053.

8.
Am Heart J ; 215: 157-166, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31326681

RESUMO

A significant proportion of patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) have multivessel coronary artery disease (CAD). Following successful culprit lesion percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for STEMI, the question of whether to routinely revascularize non-culprit lesions or manage them conservatively with optimal medical therapy (OMT) alone is a common dilemma facing clinicians. METHODS: COMPLETE is a prospective, randomized, international, multicenter, parallel group, open-label trial with blinded evaluation of outcomes. Following successful PCI (contemporary drug eluting stents recommended) of the culprit lesion for STEMI, a total of 4041 patients from 140 centers in 31 countries were randomized to receive either complete revascularization, consisting of staged PCI of all suitable non-culprit lesions plus optimal medical therapy (OMT), or to culprit lesion-only PCI, consisting of OMT alone. OMT comprises evidence-based therapy for STEMI, including and dual antiplatelet therapy with ticagrelor, HTN and lipid management. All coronary angiograms in the trial are being evaluated in a central angiographic core lab to assess quality and completeness of revascularization. The co-primary outcomes are (1): the composite of CV death or new non-fatal MI and (2 the composite of CV death, new non-fatal MI or ischemia-driven revascularization at a median follow-up of 3 years. CONCLUSIONS: The COMPLETE trial is an international multicenter randomized trial that will help determine whether complete revascularization involving staged PCI of non-culprit lesions improves outcomes in patients with STEMI and multivessel CAD. (clinicaltrials.govNCT01740479).

10.
Can J Cardiol ; 35(2): 107-132, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30760415

RESUMO

Rapid reperfusion of the infarct-related artery is the cornerstone of therapy for the management of acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Canada's geography presents unique challenges for timely delivery of reperfusion therapy for STEMI patients. The Canadian Cardiovascular Society/Canadian Association of Interventional Cardiology STEMI guideline was developed to provide advice regarding the optimal acute management of STEMI patients irrespective of where they are initially identified: in the field, at a non-percutaneous coronary intervention-capable centre or at a percutaneous coronary intervention-capable centre. We had also planned to evaluate and incorporate sex and gender considerations in the development of our recommendations. Unfortunately, inadequate enrollment of women in randomized trials, lack of publication of main outcomes stratified according to sex, and lack of inclusion of gender as a study variable in the available literature limited the feasibility of such an approach. The Grading Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation system was used to develop specific evidence-based recommendations for the early identification of STEMI patients, practical aspects of patient transport, regional reperfusion decision-making, adjunctive prehospital interventions (oxygen, opioids, antiplatelet therapy), and procedural aspects of mechanical reperfusion (access site, thrombectomy, antithrombotic therapy, extent of revascularization). Emphasis is placed on integrating these recommendations as part of an organized regional network of STEMI care and the development of appropriate reperfusion and transportation pathways for any given region. It is anticipated that these guidelines will serve as a practical template to develop systems of care capable of providing optimal treatment for a wide range of STEMI patients.


Assuntos
Cardiologia , Gerenciamento Clínico , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/normas , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/cirurgia , Sociedades Médicas , Canadá , Humanos
11.
Clin Cardiol ; 42(5): 498-505, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30788847

RESUMO

In the setting of prior myocardial infarction, the oral antiplatelet ticagrelor added to aspirin reduced the risk of recurrent ischemic events, especially, in those with diabetes mellitus. Patients with stable coronary disease and diabetes are also at elevated risk and might benefit from dual antiplatelet therapy. The Effect of Ticagrelor on Health Outcomes in diabEtes Mellitus patients Intervention Study (THEMIS, NCT01991795) is a Phase 3b randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial of ticagrelor vs placebo, on top of low dose aspirin. Patients ≥50 years with type 2 diabetes receiving anti-diabetic medications for at least 6 months with stable coronary artery disease as determined by a history of previous percutaneous coronary intervention, bypass grafting, or angiographic stenosis of ≥50% of at least one coronary artery were enrolled. Patients with known prior myocardial infarction (MI) or stroke were excluded. The primary efficacy endpoint is a composite of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, or stroke. The primary safety endpoint is Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction major bleeding. A total of 19 220 patients worldwide have been randomized and at least 1385 adjudicated primary efficacy endpoint events are expected to be available for analysis, with an expected average follow-up of 40 months (maximum 58 months). Most of the exposure is on a 60 mg twice daily dose, as the dose was lowered from 90 mg twice daily partway into the study. The results may revise the boundaries of efficacy for dual antiplatelet therapy and whether it has a role outside acute coronary syndromes, prior myocardial infarction, or percutaneous coronary intervention.

14.
JACC Cardiovasc Interv ; 11(22): 2274-2275, 2018 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30466825
15.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 72(14): 1589-1596, 2018 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30261959

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Routine thrombus aspiration in patients undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) does not improve clinical outcomes. However, there is remaining uncertainty about the potential benefit in those patients with high thrombus burden, where there is a biological rationale for greater benefit. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the benefit of thrombus aspiration among STEMI patients with high thrombus burden. METHODS: TOTAL (ThrOmbecTomy with PCI vs. PCI ALone in patients with STEMI) was a randomized trial of routine manual thrombectomy versus PCI alone in patients with STEMI (n = 10,732). High thrombus burden (Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction thrombus grade ≥3) was a pre-specified subgroup. RESULTS: The primary outcome of cardiovascular (CV) death, MI, cardiogenic shock, or heart failure was not different at 1 year with thrombus aspiration in patients with high thrombus burden (8.1% vs. 8.3% thrombus aspiration; hazard ratio [HR]: 0.97; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.84 to 1.13) or low thrombus burden (6.0% vs. 5.0% thrombus aspiration; HR: 1.22; 95% CI: 0.73 to 2.05; interaction p = 0.41). However, among patients with high thrombus burden, stroke at 30 days was more frequent with thrombus aspiration (31 [0.7%] thrombus aspiration vs. 16 [0.4%] PCI alone, HR: 1.90; 95% CI: 1.04 to 3.48). In the high thrombus burden group, thrombus aspiration did not significantly improve CV mortality at 30 days (HR: 0.78; 95% CI: 0.61 to 1.01; p = 0.06) and at 1 year (HR: 0.88; 95% CI: 0.72 to 1.09; p = 0.25). Irrespective of treatment assignment, high thrombus burden was an independent predictor of death (HR: 1.78; 95% CI: 1.05 to 3.01). CONCLUSIONS: In patients with high thrombus burden, routine thrombus aspiration did not improve outcomes at 1 year and was associated with an increased rate of stroke. High thrombus burden is still an important predictor of outcome in STEMI. (A Trial of routine aspiration ThrOmbecTomy with PCI vs. PCI ALone in patients with STEMI [TOTAL]; NCT01149044).

16.
CMAJ ; 190(33): E974-E984, 2018 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30127037

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Testing for high-sensitivity cardiac troponin (hs-cTn) may assist triage and clinical decision-making in patients presenting to the emergency department with symptoms of acute coronary syndrome; however, this could result in the misclassification of risk because of analytical variation or laboratory error. We sought to evaluate a new laboratory-based risk-stratification tool that incorporates tests for hs-cTn, glucose level and estimated glomerular filtration rate to identify patients at risk of myocardial infarction or death when presenting to the emergency department. METHODS: We constructed the clinical chemistry score (CCS) (range 0-5 points) and validated it as a predictor of 30-day myocardial infarction (MI) or death using data from 4 cohort studies involving patients who presented to the emergency department with symptoms suggestive of acute coronary syndrome. We calculated diagnostic parameters for the CCS score separately using high-sensitivity cardiac troponin I (hs-cTnI) and high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT). RESULTS: For the combined cohorts (n = 4245), 17.1% of participants had an MI or died within 30 days. A CCS score of 0 points best identified low-risk participants: the hs-cTnI CCS had a sensitivity of 100% (95% confidence interval [CI] 99.5%-100%), with 8.9% (95% CI 8.1%-9.8%) of the population classified as being at low risk of MI or death within 30 days; the hs-cTnT CCS had a sensitivity of 99.9% (95% CI 99.2%-100%), with 10.5% (95% CI 9.6%-11.4%) of the population classified as being at low risk. The CCS had better sensitivity than hs-cTn alone (hs-cTnI < 5 ng/L: 96.6%, 95% CI 95.0%-97.8%; hs-cTnT < 6 ng/L: 98.2%, 95% CI 97.0%-99.0%). A CCS score of 5 points best identified patients at high risk (hs-cTnI CCS: specificity 96.6%, 95% CI 96.0%-97.2%; 11.2% [95% CI 10.3%-12.2%] of the population classified as being at high risk; hs-cTnT CCS: specificity 94.0%, 95% CI 93.1%-94.7%; 13.1% [95% CI 12.1%-14.1%] of the population classified as being at high risk) compared with using the overall 99th percentiles for the hs-cTn assays (specificity of hs-cTnI 93.2%, 95% CI 92.3-94.0; specificity of hs-cTnT 73.8%, 95% CI 72.3-75.2). INTERPRETATION: The CCS score at the chosen cut-offs was more sensitive and specific than hs-cTn alone for risk stratification of patients presenting to the emergency department with suspected acute coronary syndrome. Study registration: ClinicalTrials.gov, nos. NCT01994577; NCT02355457.

17.
Circ Cardiovasc Interv ; 11(6): e006084, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29895599

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Monitoring anticoagulation with activated clotting time (ACT) has been proposed to reduce ischemic or bleeding events. However, the value of using ACT to improve outcomes is uncertain. This study sought to determine the relationship between ACT and outcomes during percutaneous coronary intervention in patients with non-ST-segment-elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTE-ACS) treated by unfractionated heparin with GPIs (glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors). METHODS AND RESULTS: From the randomized TAO trial (Treatment of Acute Coronary Syndromes With Otamixaban), we analyzed the value of ACT to predict ischemic and bleeding outcomes in the 3275 patients receiving unfractionated heparin plus eptifibatide. Ischemic and safety outcomes were analyzed according to ACT to determine the best threshold. Median peak ACT was 225 s. There was no correlation (r=-0.02; P=0.24) between the unfractionated heparin dose received and the ACT value before percutaneous coronary intervention. There was no evidence of a nonlinear association between ACT and either ischemic or bleeding events (P=0.66; P=0.07). No threshold was found to predict ischemic complications. Conversely, increased bleeding was observed with ACT >230 s with an optimal threshold of ACTs ≥250 s (4.53% versus 6.17%; odds ratio, 1.46; 95% confidence interval, 1.04-2.06; P=0.028). This optimal threshold varied according to access site: ≥250 s (6.86% versus 10.18%; odds ratio, 1.57; 95% confidence interval, 1.00-2.45; P=0.047) by femoral approach and ≥290 s (2.86% versus 5.43%; odds ratio, 2.24; 95% confidence interval, 1.05-4.44; P=0.027) by radial approach. CONCLUSIONS: In the TAO trial, peak procedural ACT ≥250 s was associated with increased bleeding risk in non-ST-segment-elevation acute coronary syndrome patients treated with unfractionated heparin plus GPIs. This threshold was increased to 290 s when performing radial approach. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01076764.

18.
Can J Cardiol ; 34(6): 736-743, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29801739

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Trial of Routine Angioplasty and Stenting after Fibrinolysis to Enhance Reperfusion in Acute Myocardial Infarction (TRANSFER-AMI) demonstrated superiority of routine early coronary angiography (and percutaneous coronary intervention [PCI]) compared with standard therapy in fibrinolytic-treated patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) at 30 days. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the long-term (>7 year) effects of an early invasive strategy. METHODS: We linked the study cohort and administrative datasets to assess long-term follow-up status including repeat procedures, hospitalizations, and major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE). Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression analysis were used to evaluate the relationship between randomized treatment and long-term adverse outcomes. RESULTS: A total of 881 patients had long-term follow-up and were included in our study. After a mean follow-up of 7.8 years, there were no significant differences in death, myocardial infarction (MI), unstable angina, stroke, transient ischemic attack (TIA), or heart failure admissions (hazard ratio [HR] 0.91; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.73-1.13]; P = 0.41) between those randomized to an early invasive vs standard treatment strategy. Following the index hospitalization, there were no significant difference in the rates of coronary revascularization between the early invasive and the standard therapy groups (81 [19.3%] vs 76 [17.9%]; P = 0.61). CONCLUSIONS: Despite the short-term benefit and safety of an early invasive strategy in patients with STEMI receiving fibrinolysis, no statistically significant differences in MACE were observed over 7.8 years.

19.
Catheter Cardiovasc Interv ; 92(5): E356-E367, 2018 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29698573

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and cardiogenic shock (CS), percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) of the culprit vessel is associated with improved outcomes. A large majority of these patients have multivessel disease (MVD). Whether or not PCI of non-culprit disease in the acute setting improves outcomes continues to be debated. We evaluated the prognostic impact of revascularization strategy for patients presenting with AMI and CS. METHODS: We compared culprit vessel intervention (CVI) versus multivessel intervention in 649 patients with AMI, CS, and MVD enrolled in the British Columbia Cardiac Registry. We evaluated mortality at 30 days and 1 year. RESULTS: CVI was associated with lower mortality at 30 days (23.7% vs. 34.5%, P = 0.004) and 1 year (32.6% vs. 44.3%, P = 0.003). CVI was an independent predictor for survival at 30 days (HR = 0.63, 95% CI: 0.45-0.88, P = 0.009) and 1 year (HR = 0.72, 95% CI: 0.54-0.96, P = 0.027). These findings were confirmed in propensity-matched cohorts. Subgroup analyses indicated that CVI was associated with lower mortality in patients aged <80 years; non-diabetics; and those presenting with ST-elevation MI. When analyzing non-culprit anatomy, PCI of non-culprit LAD disease was associated with higher 1-year mortality (HR = 1.51, 95% CI: 1.13-2.01, P = 0.006), primarily with non-culprit proximal LAD disease (HR = 1.82, 95% CI: 1.20-2.76, P = 0.005). However, PCI of non-culprit non-proximal LAD, LCx, and RCA disease was not associated with mortality. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with AMI and CS, a strategy of CVI appears to be associated with lower mortality. These findings are consistent with recently published randomized-controlled trial data.

20.
Clin Cardiol ; 41(3): 285-292, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29574993

RESUMO

While divorced or living alone, patients with stable cardiovascular disease are at increased risk for adverse cardiovascular events. The importance of marital status following a myocardial infarction (MI) is less clear. We hypothesized that marital status may affect cardiovascular outcomes following MI. We analyzed outcomes among patients with MI who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention from the Canadian Observational Antiplatelet Study (COAPT). Marital status was categorized into 3 groups: married/common-law patients living together; never married; and divorced, separated, or widowed patients. Patients were followed for 15 months and our primary outcome was the occurrence of a major adverse cardiovascular event (MACE), defined as a composite of mortality, repeat acute MI, stroke, or urgent coronary revascularization. Multivariable logistic regression models were performed, with married/common-law patients living together considered the reference group. Among 2100 patients included in analyses, 1519 (72.3%) were married/common-law patients living together, 358 (17.1%) were separated/divorced/widowed, and 223 (10.6%) patients were never married. Dual antiplatelet therapy use after 15 months was similar across groups (75.4%, 77.8%, and 73.6%, respectively). The risk of MACE after 15 months was similar among married patients living together (12.7%; referent) compared with patients who were never married (13.9%; adjusted odds ratio: 1.09, 95% confidence interval: 0.58-2.07, P = 0.79) and patients separated/divorced/widowed (14.3%; adjusted odds ratio: 0.71, 95% confidence interval: 0.40-1.25, P = 0.23). Similarly, the risk of individual endpoints, including mortality, was similar across the 3 groups. Among patients stabilized following an MI, we found no association between marital status and 15-month outcomes.


Assuntos
Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Estado Civil/estatística & dados numéricos , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Canadá/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Morbidade/tendências , Infarto do Miocárdio/terapia , Razão de Chances , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Taxa de Sobrevida/tendências
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