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1.
J Assoc Physicians India ; 69(12): 11-12, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35057603

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a highly hypercoagulable viral infection complicated as COVID-inflicted coagulopathy (CIC), that is associated with increased risk of morbidity and mortality. International guidelines recommend low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) to treat CIC in both in-hospital and in-home settings. However, in India, using subcutaneous LMWH may not be a feasible option for a vast majority of patients under home management. Additionally, while some evidence advocates the use of novel oral anticoagulants (NOACs), in hospitalized settings, most guidelines find no role of NOACs in hospital settings. On the other hand, the resource crunch faced in recent COVID-19 pandemic in India forced physicians to treat many patients in home settings. These patients had been usually prescribed NOACs for ease of administration and adherence. Therefore, there is a need to form a consensus on the use of NOACs to manage CIC in India.

2.
Indian J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg ; 38(1): 71-74, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34898879

RESUMO

Migration of transcatheter aortic valve can occur during or after the deployment of the valve. We report a case of the migrated transcatheter aortic valve that required surgical intervention for its removal. The case highlights the importance of the availability of a cardiac surgical team and cardiopulmonary bypass machine when the percutaneous technique of retrieval is not feasible.

3.
Indian J Crit Care Med ; 25(10): 1093-1107, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34916740

RESUMO

Background: We aimed to study organizational aspects, case mix, and practices in Indian intensive care units (ICUs) from 2018 to 2019, following the Indian Intensive Care Case Mix and Practice Patterns Study (INDICAPS) of 2010-2011. Methods: An observational, 4-day point prevalence study was performed between 2018 and 2019. ICU, patient characteristics, and interventions were recorded for 24 hours, and ICU outcomes till 30 days after the study day. Adherence to selected compliance measures was determined. Data were analyzed for 4,669 adult patients from 132 ICUs. Results: On the study day, mean age, acute physiology and chronic health evaluation (APACHE II), and sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) scores were 56.9 ± 17.41 years, 16.7 ± 9.8, and 4.4 ± 3.6, respectively. Moreover, 24% and 22.2% of patients received mechanical ventilation (MV) and vasopressors or inotropes (VIs), respectively. On the study days, 1,195 patients (25.6%) were infected and 1,368 patients (29.3%) had sepsis during their ICU stay. ICU mortality was 1,092 out of 4,669 (23.4%), including 737 deaths and 355 terminal discharges (TDs) from ICU. Compliance for process measures related to MV ranged between 62.7 and 85.3%, 11.2 and 47.4% for monitoring delirium, sedation, and analgesia, and 7.7 and 25.3% for inappropriate transfusion of blood products. Only 34.8% of ICUs routinely used capnography. Large hospitals with ≥500 beds, closed ICUs, the APACHE II and SOFA scores, medical admissions, the presence of cancer or cirrhosis of the liver, the presence of infection on the study day, and the need for MV or VIs were independent predictors of mortality. Conclusions: Hospital size and closed ICUs are independently associated with worse outcomes. The proportion of TDs remains high. There is a scope for improvements in processes of care.Registered at clinicaltrials.gov (NCT03631927). How to cite this article: Divatia JV, Mehta Y, Govil D, Zirpe K, Amin PR, Ramakrishnan N, et al. Intensive Care in India in 2018-2019: The Second Indian Intensive Care Case Mix and Practice Patterns Study. Indian J Crit Care Med 2021;25(10):1093-1107.

4.
Indian J Crit Care Med ; 25(9): 1055-1058, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34963727

RESUMO

Background: This study presents a real-world scenario for prescription pattern, efficacy, and safety data on the current clinical use of intravenous fosfomycin in critically ill patients in Indian settings. Patients and methods: This was a retrospective cohort study conducted for a period of 10 months among critically ill patients admitted to hospital's critical care unit. The primary objective of the study was to analyze the prescription pattern of intravenous fosfomycin, and the secondary objective was to evaluate the safety profile and patient outcomes. Results: A total of 309 patients were enrolled, and they were diagnosed with bacteremia (45.3%), pneumonia (15.85%), septic shock (14.24%), and urinary tract infections (UTI) (13.91%). The average dose of fosfomycin given was 11.7 ± 4.06 gm/day. The average duration of the therapy was 4.85 ± 3.59 days with a median duration of 4 days. Fosfomycin was given at 8 hourly dosing frequency to maximum (45.6%) cases. Hypokalemia was the most observed adverse event. The overall survival was seen in 55% of patients. Conclusion: Our data suggest that UTI, infection caused by Escherichia coli, and a daily dose of >12 g were associated with better clinical outcomes. The overall survival of critically ill patients receiving fosfomycin was 55%. How to cite this article: Zirpe KG, Mehta Y, Pandit R, Pande R, Deshmukh AM, Patil S, et al. A Real-world Study on Prescription Pattern of Fosfomycin in Critical Care Patients. Indian J Crit Care Med 2021;25(9):1055-1058.

5.
Ann Card Anaesth ; 24(4): 487-489, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34747761

RESUMO

Double-orifice mitral valve is a rare congenital anomaly being associated with other cardiac defects and rarely presented in isolation. Valve function can be preserved for long and it is usually an incidental finding. We present an unusual case of double-orifice mitral valve with mitral regurgitation in a middle-aged man associated with the atrial septal defect, highlighting the role of three-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography.


Assuntos
Cardiopatias Congênitas , Doenças das Valvas Cardíacas , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral , Ecocardiografia Transesofagiana , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valva Mitral/diagnóstico por imagem , Valva Mitral/cirurgia , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/diagnóstico por imagem , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/cirurgia
6.
J Anaesthesiol Clin Pharmacol ; 37(3): 416-418, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34759554

RESUMO

Background and Aims: We aim to study the significance of intraoperative hyperlactatemia in reconstructive oncoplastic surgery. Material and Methods: A retrospective observational study was conducted on a cohort of patients who underwent reconstructive oncoplastic surgery with free flap for oral cancer over a 6-month period. The study population was divided into two groups based on peak lactate levels. Group N with peak lactate level less than 2 mmol/L and Group H peak lactate level more than 2 mmol/L. The various parameter studied were patient's comorbidities; intraoperative events (vasopressor requirement, blood transfusion, and duration of surgery); postoperative parameters including the need for re- exploration and duration of stay in hospital and intensive care unit. Results: The study demonstrates that intraoperative rise of lactate was not influenced by comorbidities. None of the intraoperative parameters studied influenced the lactate levels. Baseline lactate level was found to correlate with peak lactate level intraoperatively. But it was observed that there was normalization of lactate level within 24 hours postoperatively in both the groups. There was no difference in outcome parameters in the two groups. Conclusion: Intraoperative hyperlactatemia is not a significant prognostic factor for outcome in oncoplastic reconstructive surgery.

7.
Indian J Crit Care Med ; 25(8): 839-840, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34733018

RESUMO

Mehta Y, Deswal V. Candida parapsilosis Prosthetic Valve Endocarditis: A Multifaceted Problem. Indian J Crit Care Med 2021;25(8):839-840.

8.
Ann Card Anaesth ; 24(4): 470-472, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34747756

RESUMO

Hydatid infection of the heart is rare and there is always the lethal hazard of cyst perforation. We present an 18-year-old male from Kashmir valley who was admitted to the emergency department of our hospital with fever and chest pain for the last 4 days. Using echocardiography and cardiac tomography (CT), cardiac Echinococcosis was diagnosed. The results of surgical treatment of cardiac Echinococcosis were better than the conservative strategy. Surgical excision was performed. The patient had an uneventful recovery.


Assuntos
Equinococose , Cardiopatias , Adolescente , Dor no Peito , Equinococose/diagnóstico por imagem , Equinococose/cirurgia , Ecocardiografia , Coração , Cardiopatias/diagnóstico por imagem , Cardiopatias/cirurgia , Humanos , Masculino
9.
Crit Care Med ; 49(11): e1063-e1143, 2021 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34605781
10.
Crit Care Med ; 49(11): 1974-1982, 2021 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34643578
12.
Cureus ; 13(9): e18393, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34692364

RESUMO

Immunomodulation has long been an adjunct approach in treating critically ill patients with sepsis, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), and acute pancreatitis (AP). Hyperactive immune response with immunopathogenesis leads to organ dysfunction and alters the clinical outcomes in critically ill. Though the immune response in the critically ill might have been overlooked, it has gathered greater attention during this novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Modulating hyperactive immune response, the cytokine storm, especially with steroids, has shown to improve the outcomes in COVID-19 patients. In this review, we find that immune response pathogenesis in critically ill patients with sepsis, ARDS, and AP is nearly similar. The use of immunomodulators such as steroids, broad-spectrum serine protease inhibitors such as ulinastatin, thymosin alpha, intravenous immunoglobulins, and therapies such as CytoSorb and therapeutic plasma exchange may help in improving the clinical outcomes in these conditions. As the experience of the majority of physicians in using such therapeutics may be limited, we provide our expert comments regarding immunomodulation to optimize outcomes in patients with sepsis/septic shock, ARDS, and AP.

13.
J Med Case Rep ; 15(1): 476, 2021 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34535189

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acute respiratory distress syndrome is an important clinical presentation of respiratory complications caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, a novel coronavirus responsible for the ongoing pandemic. The disease is poorly understood, and immunopathogenesis is constantly evolving. Cytokine release syndrome remains central to pathology of coronavirus disease 2019. Antivirals, anticytokine treatment, and other pharmacological approaches have failed to treat it. CytoSorb, an extracorporeal cytokine adsorber that reduces the cytokine storm and other inflammatory mediators in the blood, seems promising in treating severely ill patients with coronavirus disease 2019. CASE PRESENTATION: This article presents three cases of Asian ethnicity of severely ill adult patients with coronavirus disease 2019 admitted to intensive care unit who were treated with CytoSorb therapy. All patients used single CytoSorb device. During their clinical course, all patients were prescribed tocilizumab (an interleukin-6 receptor blocker), antivirals, hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, and other antibiotics and general antipyretic drugs. No vasopressor treatment was required. The patients' average duration of stay in intensive care unit was 30 days; the average duration of stay in hospital was 31 days. All three patients showed significant improvement in biochemical parameters and clinical outcomes post CytoSorb therapy. C-reactive protein levels decreased by 91.5%, 97.4%, and 55.75 %, and mean arterial pressure improved by 18%, 23%, and 17 % in patient 1, 2, and 3, respectively, on day 7 post-therapy. CONCLUSIONS: All three patients improved clinically and survived.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Estado Terminal , Adulto , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina , Humanos , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Biomedicines ; 9(7)2021 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34356830

RESUMO

Hemodynamic instability due to dysregulated host response is a life-threatening condition requiring vasopressors and vital organ support. Hemoadsorption with Cytosorb has proven to be effective in reducing cytokines and possibly in attenuating the devastating effects of the cytokine storm originating from the immune over-response to the initial insult. We reviewed the PubMed database to assess evidence of the impact of Cytosorb on norepinephrine needs in the critically ill. We further analyzed those studies including data on control cohorts in a comparative pooled analysis, defining a treatment effect as the standardized mean differences in relative reductions in vasopressor dosage at 24 h. The literature search returned 33 eligible studies. We found evidence of a significant reduction in norepinephrine requirement after treatment: median before, 0.55 (IQR: 0.39-0.90); after, 0.09 (0.00-0.25) µg/kg/min, p < 0.001. The pooled effect size at 24 h was large, though characterized by high heterogeneity. In light of the importance of a quick resolution of hemodynamic instability in the critically ill, further research is encouraged to enrich knowledge on the potentials of the therapy.

15.
Ann Card Anaesth ; 24(3): 365-368, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34269270

RESUMO

Severe symptomatic tricuspid regurgitation (TR) with right heart failure is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Medical therapy is often ineffective and surgical correction is not feasible due to prohibitive perioperative risk. Transcatheter caval valve implantation (CAVI) is an evolving therapeutic option for this condition. It refers to the heterotopic placement of a valve into the inferior vena cava alone or with a second valve in the superior vena cava to restrict the backflow from the failing tricuspid valve. We hereby describe a patient with previous mitral valve surgery with chronic severe TR who underwent successful CAVI at our institute.


Assuntos
Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca , Próteses Valvulares Cardíacas , Insuficiência da Valva Tricúspide , Cateterismo Cardíaco , Hemodinâmica , Humanos , Desenho de Prótese , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Resultado do Tratamento , Insuficiência da Valva Tricúspide/diagnóstico por imagem , Insuficiência da Valva Tricúspide/cirurgia , Veia Cava Superior
16.
Cureus ; 13(6): e15422, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34249568

RESUMO

Malnutrition is more prevalent in the critically ill than ambulatory patients due to a variety of factors. Strategies employed in the optimization of nutrition practices rely largely on the review of published literature and guidelines. While the last decade was marked by some landmark large randomized controlled trials taking place and some high-quality systematic reviews, it still has left us with many unanswered questions. The evidence generated by these trials can, to a good extent, extrapolate to the developed countries. However, its implementation in developing and third-world countries needs further elaboration and logistical considerations. With this scoping review, we attempt to provide insights into the landmark developments in the decade 2011-2020. Solutions to employ and implement the results of these developments and ways for their corroboration into a larger population are also discussed.

17.
Indian J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg ; 37(4): 434-437, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34220027

RESUMO

Transcatheter aortic valve implantation has emerged as a therapeutic option for patients with symptomatic severe aortic stenosis who are inoperable, or at very high risk of open-heart surgery. Recently, we encountered a patient with aortic stenosis and Larsen syndrome, who had short stature, obesity, kyphoscoliosis, multiple musculoskeletal deformities, and severe restrictive lung disease. An open-heart surgery in such a patient involves substantial peri-operative risk. A successful transcaval aortic valve implantation was done under general anesthesia.

18.
J Anaesthesiol Clin Pharmacol ; 37(1): 3-13, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34103816

RESUMO

In a developing country like India, with limited resources and access to healthcare facilities, dealing with massive hemorrhage is a major challenge. This challenge gets compounded by pre-existing anemia, hemostatic disorders, and logistic issues of timely transfer of such patients from peripheral hospitals to centers with adequate resources and management expertise. Despite the awareness amongst healthcare providers regarding management modalities of bleeding patients, no uniform Patient Blood Management (PBM) or perioperative bleeding management protocols have been implemented in India, yet. In light of this, an interdisciplinary expert group came together, comprising of experts working in transfusion medicine, hematology, obstetrics, anesthesiology and intensive care, to review current practices in management of bleeding in Indian healthcare institutions and evaluating the feasibility of implementing uniform PBM guidelines. The specific intent was to perform a gap analysis between the ideal and the current status in terms of practices and resources. The expert group identified interdisciplinary education in PBM and bleeding management, bleeding history, viscoelastic and platelet function testing, and the implementation of validated, setting-specific bleeding management protocols (algorithms) as important tools in PBM and perioperative bleeding management. Here, trauma, major surgery, postpartum hemorrhage, cardiac and liver surgery are the most common clinical settings associated with massive blood loss. Accordingly, PBM should be implemented as a multidisciplinary and practically applicable concept in India in a timely manner in order to optimize the use the precious resource blood and to increase patients' safety.

19.
Ann Card Anaesth ; 24(2): 197-202, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33884976

RESUMO

Background: Prospective recipients of liver transplant (LT) have a high prevalence rate of coronary artery disease (CAD) requiring revascularization. In patients of Child Turcot Pugh Class B and C performing LT prior to cardiac revascularization on cardiopulmonary bypass leads to a high risk of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE). Whereas, isolated cardiac surgery prior to LT has perioperative risk of coagulopathy, sepsis, and hepatic decompensation. We present four cases of end stage liver disease who underwent concomitant living donor liver transplant (LDLT) with off pump coronary artery bypass graft (OPCAB) in an effort to decrease the morbidity and mortality. Methods: The cases were performed in a tertiary care centre over two years. Four patients scheduled for LDLT, who were diagnosed with significant CAD, underwent single sitting OPCAB and LDLT. Cardiac surgery was performed first and once patient was stable, it was followed by LDLT. The morbidity parameters in terms of duration of intubation, blood transfusion, hospital stay, ICU stay, requirement of dialysis, atrial fibrillation and sepsis was compared with similar studies. Results: The blood transfusion requirement (median 8 units PRBC), incidence of atrial fibrillation (25%), sepsis (25%), and renal dysfunction (0%) was less than the combined surgery conducted on cardiopulmonary bypass. The rate of median intubation time, length of ICU stay, hospital stay, and one year mortality rate was comparable with other studies. Conclusions: Morbidity with combined OPCAB and LDLT is less than combined on pump coronary artery bypass surgery with LDLT. Combined CABG with LDLT may be performed with acceptable outcomes in CTP class B and C cirrhosis.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial , Ponte de Artéria Coronária sem Circulação Extracorpórea , Transplante de Fígado , Ponte Cardiopulmonar , Ponte de Artéria Coronária , Humanos , Doadores Vivos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
Indian J Anaesth ; 65(Suppl 1): S47-S49, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33814590
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