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1.
Addict Behav ; 102: 106180, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31785477

RESUMO

AIMS: To examine differences in high-intensity drinking (HID) by parental status, parent age, and parent sex, including two- and three-way interaction effects of these parent demographic categories. METHODS: The present study included individuals ages 18-50 from the National Epidemiologic Study of Alcohol and Related Conditions-III (2012-13), a sample of non-institutionalized adults in the US (N = 22,278). We calculated weighted estimates of past-year HID (≥10/≥8 standard drinks for men/women on a single occasion) for each parental status group (parents of young children <5, parents of children 5-17, not parents of children <18) overall and stratified by sex and stratified by age. We then examined the overall association of parental status and HID and tested for interactions of parental status × sex, parental status × age, and parental status × age × sex, while controlling for other relevant sociodemographic characteristics. RESULTS: Prevalence of HID varied considerably by parental status, with 14.84% of parents with kids under age 5, 12.72% of parents with kids 5 to 17, and 23.15% of non-parents reporting HID. The strength of the associations of parenthood and HID were strongest for females and for older parents. CONCLUSIONS: While parents engage in HID less than those who are not parents, a portion of parents of young and adolescent children do report heavy drinking. Younger parents and male parents, in particular, are at high risk for HID. Given the risks to children and parents, interventions focused on preventing HID among parents, especially fathers, could have significant public health impacts.

2.
Fam Syst Health ; 37(3): 244-248, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31318230

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study was to investigate parents' interest in additional primary care-based resources for their children's behavioral health, including parenting support. METHOD: We surveyed 264 English- or Spanish-speaking parents (80% mothers) of children between the ages of 3 and 11 years as they arrived for an appointment at an urban, pediatric primary care clinic. Measures included demographics, the Pediatric Symptom Checklist (PSC-17) as a parent report of the child's behavioral health, and interest in behavioral resources (e.g., a parenting class, online videos). We used multiple regression to evaluate the predictors of resource interest. RESULTS: Most parents reported interest in behavioral health resources, including many parents not reporting behavioral symptoms high enough to meet criteria for a positive PSC-17. Overall, 82% of parents reported interest in at least 1 resource item; 28% reported interest in all 7 resource items. The resource item with the most interest was online videos and resources (64%). More behavioral health issues (indicated by higher PSC-17 total scores) were positively related to interest in resources; 20% screened positive for behavioral health concerns. DISCUSSION: Parental report of child behavioral health issues was related to greater interest in resources for children's behavioral health; of note, much of the interest came from parents reporting levels of behavioral health concerns that would be scored as negative on the screening tool in practice. These results provide support for efforts to increase parenting and behavioral health resources through primary care, and raise questions about how to best direct resources. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).

3.
J Sch Nurs ; : 1059840519863094, 2019 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31337243

RESUMO

Research on enacted stigma, or stigma- and bias-based victimization, including bullying and harassment, among lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) youth often focuses on one context (e.g., school) or one form (e.g., bullying or microaggressions), which limits our understanding of these experiences. We conducted qualitative go-along interviews with 66 LGBTQ adolescents (14-19 years) in urban, suburban, town, and rural locations in the United States and Canada identified through purposive and snowball sampling. Forty-six participants (70%) described at least one instance of enacted stigma. Three primary themes emerged: (1) enacted stigma occurred in many contexts; (2) enacted stigma restricted movement; and (3) second-hand accounts of enacted stigma shaped perceptions of safety. Efforts to improve well-being among LGBTQ youth must address the diverse forms and contexts of enacted stigma that youth experience, which limit freedom of movement and potential access to opportunities that encourage positive youth development. School nurses can play a critical role in reducing enacted stigma in schools and in collaboration with community partners.

4.
J Adolesc ; 68: 146-151, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30077899

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Poor family management and antisocial peer associations are related risk factors for negative outcomes such as adolescent substance misuse and conduct disorders. The relationship between family management and antisocial peer associations is complex. The purpose of this study was to test the reciprocal relationships between youth-reports of poor family management and antisocial peer associations over multiple time-points. METHODS: We used four data points (5th-11th grade) from the Australian arm of the longitudinal International Youth Development Study (IYDS) to test a random-intercepts cross-lagged path model (N = 922). RESULTS: The model fit the data well with path estimates showing that poor family management predicted greater antisocial peer associations at the next wave but not the reverse. A second model included a third autoregressive path to control for youth's own antisocial behavior; the direction of the relationships between poor family management and antisocial peer associations did not change. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that across adolescence poor family management predicts greater antisocial peer association, which provides evidence that family-focused interventions are an important prevention strategy even in adolescence.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Conduta/etiologia , Relações Pais-Filho , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Grupo Associado , Adolescente , Austrália , Criança , Transtorno da Conduta/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Fatores de Risco
5.
Children (Basel) ; 5(8)2018 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30049962

RESUMO

There is a need for developmental screening that is easily administered in resource-poor settings. We hypothesized that known risk factors would predict failed developmental screening on an adapted screening tool in East African children living in poverty. The sample included 100 healthy Ugandan children aged 6⁻59 months. We adapted a parent-reported developmental screener based on the Child Development Review chart. The primary outcome was failure to meet age-appropriate milestones for any developmental domain. Venous blood was analyzed for lead, and caregivers completed a demographics questionnaire. We used multivariate logistic regression models to determine if elevated blood lead and stunting predicted failure on the screener, controlling for maternal education level, age in months past the lower bound of the child's developmental age group, and absence of home electricity. In the sample, 14% (n = 14) of children failed one or more milestones on the screener. Lead levels or stunting did not predict failing the screener after controlling for covariates. Though this tool was feasibly administered, it did not demonstrate preliminary construct validity and is not yet recommended for screening in high-risk populations. Future research should include a larger sample size and cognitive interviews to ensure it is contextually relevant.

6.
Subst Use Misuse ; 53(11): 1859-1868, 2018 09 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29509085

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Parents and peers both influence the development of adolescent substance misuse, and the Social Interaction Learning (SIL) model provides a theoretical explanation of the paths through which this occurs. OBJECTIVE: The SIL model has primarily been tested with conduct outcomes and in US samples. This study adds to the literature by testing the SIL model with four substance use outcomes in a sample of Australian youth. METHOD: We used structural equation modeling to test the fit of the SIL model to a longitudinal sample (n = 907) of students recruited in grade 5 in Victoria, Australia participating in the International Youth Development Study, who were resurveyed in grades 6 and 10. RESULTS: The model fit was good (χ2(95) = 248.52, p < .001; RMSEA = .04 [90% CI: .036 - .049]; CFI = .94; SRMR = .04). Path estimates from parenting to antisocial behavior and from antisocial behavior to antisocial peers were significant. In turn, having antisocial peers was significantly related to alcohol use, binge drinking, tobacco use, and marijuana use. From parenting, only the direct path to marijuana use was significant, but indirect effects were significant. CONCLUSIONS: The SIL model illustrates that parenting plays an early role in the formation of adolescent peer relations that influence substance misuse and identifies etiological pathways that can guide the targets of prevention. The SIL pathways appear robust to the Australian social and policy context.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Relações Interpessoais , Modelos Psicológicos , Comportamento Social , Estudantes/psicologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/psicologia , Adolescente , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fumar Maconha/psicologia , Poder Familiar , Grupo Associado , Uso de Tabaco/psicologia , Vitória
7.
J Homosex ; 65(8): 969-989, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28820667

RESUMO

LGBTQ youth are at increased risk of poor health outcomes. This qualitative study gathered data from LGBTQ adolescents regarding their communities and describes the resources they draw on for support. We conducted 66 go-along interviews with diverse LGBTQ adolescents (mean age = 16.6) in Minnesota, Massachusetts, and British Columbia in 2014-2015, in which interviewers accompanied participants in their communities to better understand those contexts. Their responses were systematically organized and coded for common themes, reflecting levels of the social ecological model. Participants described resources at each level, emphasizing organizational, community, and social factors such as LGBTQ youth organizations and events, media presence, and visibility of LGBTQ adults. Numerous resources were identified, and representative themes were highly consistent across locations, genders, orientations, racial/ethnic groups, and city size. Findings suggest new avenues for research with LGBTQ youth and many opportunities for communities to create and expand resources and supports for this population.


Assuntos
Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Apoio Social , Adolescente , Colúmbia Britânica , Redes Comunitárias , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Massachusetts , Minnesota , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Adulto Jovem
8.
J Fam Nurs ; 23(2): 175-200, 2017 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28795897

RESUMO

It is well known that parental and community-based support are each related to healthy development in lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer, and questioning (LGBTQ) youth, but little research has explored the ways these contexts interact and overlap. Through go-along interviews (a method in which participants guide the interviewer around the community) with 66 youth in British Columbia, Massachusetts, and Minnesota, adolescents (aged 14-19 years) reported varying extent of overlap between their LGBTQ experiences and their parent-youth experiences; parents and youth each contributed to the extent of overlap. Youth who reported high overlap reported little need for resources outside their families but found resources easy to access if wanted. Youth who reported little overlap found it difficult to access resources. Findings suggest that in both research and practice, considering the extent to which youth feel they can express their authentic identity in multiple contexts may be more useful than simply evaluating parental acceptance or access to resources.


Assuntos
Bissexualidade/psicologia , Identidade de Gênero , Relações Pais-Filho , Pais/psicologia , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero/psicologia , Pessoas Transgênero/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Colúmbia Britânica , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Massachusetts , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Minnesota , Adulto Jovem
9.
J Sch Health ; 87(7): 489-497, 2017 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28580677

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gay-Straight Alliances (GSAs) are school-based clubs that can contribute to a healthy school climate for lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and questioning (LGBTQ) youth. While positive associations between health behaviors and GSAs have been documented, less is known about how youth perceive GSAs. METHODS: A total of 58 LGBTQ youth (14-19 years old) mentioned GSAs during go-along interviews in 3 states/provinces in North America. These 446 comments about GSAs were thematically coded and organized using Atlas.ti software by a multidisciplinary research team. RESULTS: A total of 3 themes describe youth-perceived attributes of GSAs. First, youth identified GSAs as an opportunity to be members of a community, evidenced by their sense of emotional connection, support and belonging, opportunities for leadership, and fulfillment of needs. Second, GSAs served as a gateway to resources outside of the GSA, such as supportive adults and informal social locations. Third, GSAs represented safety. CONCLUSIONS: GSAs positively influence the physical, social, emotional, and academic well-being of LGBTQ young people and their allies. School administrators and staff are positioned to advocate for comprehensive GSAs. Study findings offer insights about the mechanisms by which GSAs benefit youth health and well-being.


Assuntos
Bissexualidade/psicologia , Heterossexualidade/psicologia , Relações Interpessoais , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero/psicologia , Estudantes/psicologia , Pessoas Transgênero/psicologia , Adolescente , Canadá , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Instituições Acadêmicas , Apoio Social , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
10.
J Adolesc ; 56: 107-112, 2017 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28212504

RESUMO

Attention toward who can use which gender binary, multi-stall bathroom has brought to the forefront, once again, the ways in which youth are supported or marginalized. No study has documented sexual and gender minority youths' experiences with and perspectives about bathrooms. We collected qualitative data in 2014-2015. Participants were 25 lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer/questioning (LGBTQ) youth, aged 14-19, in the United States and Canada. Their comments describe first- and second-hand bathroom experiences, identify advocacy efforts, and highlight the roles of peers and adults in making bathrooms safe (or not). Youth emphasized the importance of gender-neutral bathrooms in fostering a sense of safety and inclusivity. Adult support and gay-straight alliances (GSAs) were important contributors to a welcoming environment and fostered advocacy efforts for gender-neutral bathrooms. We encourage purposeful inclusivity of youths' voices when enacting bathroom-specific policies and legislation that directly influence their health and well-being.


Assuntos
Atitude , Segurança/normas , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero/psicologia , Toaletes/normas , Adolescente , Canadá , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Grupos de Autoajuda , Toaletes/classificação , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
11.
Am J Prev Med ; 51(4 Suppl 2): S106-18, 2016 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27498167

RESUMO

Family-focused prevention programs have been shown to effectively reduce a range of negative behavioral health outcomes but have had limited reach. Three key barriers must be overcome to expand the reach of family-focused prevention programs and thereby achieve a significant public health impact. These barriers are (1) current social norms and perceptions of parenting programs; (2) concerns about the expertise and legitimacy of sponsoring organizations to offer parenting advice; and (3) a paucity of stable, sustainable funding mechanisms. Primary healthcare settings are well positioned to overcome these barriers. Recent changes within health care make primary care settings an increasingly favorable home for family-focused prevention and suggest possibilities for sustainable funding of family-focused prevention programs. This paper discusses the existing advantages of primary care settings and lays out a plan to move toward realizing the potential public health impact of family-focused prevention through widespread implementation in primary healthcare settings.


Assuntos
Terapia Familiar/métodos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Serviços Preventivos de Saúde/economia , Atenção Primária à Saúde/tendências , Humanos , Poder Familiar , Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act , Normas Sociais , Estados Unidos
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