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1.
Arthritis Rheumatol ; 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33258547

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to identify key determinants of the interactive osteoarthritis (OA) pathophysiological processes of subchondral bone and cartilage. METHODS: We performed RNA sequencing on macroscopically preserved and lesioned OA subchondral bone of patients that underwent joint replacement surgery due to OA (N=24 pairs; 6 hips, 18 knees, RAAK-study). Unsupervised hierarchical clustering and differential expression analyses were performed. Results were combined with previously identified, differentially expressed genes in cartilage (partly overlapping samples) as well as with recently identified OA risk genes . RESULTS: We identified 1569 genes significantly differentially expressed between lesioned and preserved subchondral bone, including CNTNAP2 (FC=2.4, FDR=3.36x10-5 ) and STMN2 (FC=9.6, FDR=3.36x10-3 ). Among the identified genes, 305 were also differentially expressed and with same direction of effects in cartilage, including IL11 and CHADL, recently acknowledged OA susceptibility genes. Upon differential expression analysis stratifying for joint site, we identified 509 genes exclusively differentially expressed in subchondral bone of the knee, such as KLF11 and WNT4. These exclusive knee genes were enriched for involvement in epigenetic processes, characterized by for instance HIST1H3J and HIST1H3H. CONCLUSION: Among the most consistently differentially expressed genes with OA pathophysiology in both bone and cartilage were IL11 and CHADL. As these genes were recently also identified as robust OA risk genes they classify as attractive druggable targets acting on two OA disease relevant tissues.

2.
J Immunother Cancer ; 8(2)2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32998952

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Neutrophils have been reported to have protumor, antitumor or neutral effects in cancer progression. The underlying causes for this functional variability are not clear. METHODS: We studied the role of neutrophils in six different mouse tumor models by intratumoral injection of antimicrobial peptides or vaccination. Changes in systemic and intratumoral immune cells were analyzed by flow-cytometry and mass-cytometry. The role of neutrophils was studied by antibody-mediated neutrophil depletion. Neutrophils from different mouse strains were compared by RNA sequencing. RESULTS: The antimicrobial peptide Omiganan reduced the growth of TC-1 tumors in BL/6 mice and CT26 tumors in BALB/c mice. No significant effects were observed in B16F10, MC38 and 4T1 tumors. Growth delay was associated with increased abundance of neutrophils in TC-1 but not CT26 tumors. Systemic neutrophil depletion abrogated Omiganan efficacy in TC-1 but further reduced growth of CT26, indicating that neutrophils were required for the antitumor effect in TC-1 but suppressed tumor control in CT26. Neutrophils were also required for a therapeutic vaccine-induced T-cell mediated control of RMA tumors in BL/6 mice. Clearly, the circulating and intratumoral neutrophils differed in the expression of Ly6G and CD62L, between TC-1 and CT26 and between blood neutrophils of tumor-naïve BL/6 and BALB/c mice. RNA-sequencing revealed that neutrophils from BL/6 mice but not BALB/c mice displayed a robust profile of immune activation, matching their opposing roles in TC-1 and RMA versus CT26. CONCLUSIONS: Neutrophil functionality differs strongly between mouse strains and tumor types, with consequences for tumor progression and therapy.

3.
J Int Med Res ; 48(9): 300060520953643, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32962503

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Normokalemic periodic paralysis (NormoKPP) of skeletal muscle is an autosomal dominant disorder caused by mutations in the gene encoding voltage-gated sodium channel protein type 4 subunit alpha (SCN4A), which leads to ion channel dysfunction. Little is known about the relationship between genotype and the clinical symptoms of NormoKPP. The present study aimed to evaluate the genetic variation in a large Chinese family with NormoKPP. The patients in this pedigree did not respond to saline treatment, but calcium gluconate treatment was effective. METHODS: We performed a series of clinical examinations and genetic analyses, using whole-exome and Sanger sequencing, to examine the mutation status of SCN4A in a Chinese family segregating for NormoKPP. RESULTS: Whole-exome sequencing revealed a c.2111C>T substitution in SCN4A in most of the affected family members. This mutation results in the amino acid substitution p.T704M. CONCLUSIONS: These results support a causative role of this mutation in SCN4A in NormoKPP, and provide information about the relationship between genotype and atypical clinical symptoms.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32885253

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To identify OA subtypes based on cartilage transcriptomic data in cartilage tissue and characterize their underlying pathophysiological processes and/or clinically relevant characteristics. METHODS: This study includes n = 66 primary OA patients (41 knees and 25 hips), who underwent a joint replacement surgery, from which macroscopically unaffected (preserved, n = 56) and lesioned (n = 45) OA articular cartilage were collected [Research Arthritis and Articular Cartilage (RAAK) study]. Unsupervised hierarchical clustering analysis on preserved cartilage transcriptome followed by clinical data integration was performed. Protein-protein interaction (PPI) followed by pathway enrichment analysis were done for genes significant differentially expressed between subgroups with interactions in the PPI network. RESULTS: Analysis of preserved samples (n = 56) resulted in two OA subtypes with n = 41 (cluster A) and n = 15 (cluster B) patients. The transcriptomic profile of cluster B cartilage, relative to cluster A (DE-AB genes) showed among others a pronounced upregulation of multiple genes involved in chemokine pathways. Nevertheless, upon investigating the OA pathophysiology in cluster B patients as reflected by differentially expressed genes between preserved and lesioned OA cartilage (DE-OA-B genes), the chemokine genes were significantly downregulated with OA pathophysiology. Upon integrating radiographic OA data, we showed that the OA phenotype among cluster B patients, relative to cluster A, may be characterized by higher joint space narrowing (JSN) scores and low osteophyte (OP) scores. CONCLUSION: Based on whole-transcriptome profiling, we identified two robust OA subtypes characterized by unique OA, pathophysiological processes in cartilage as well as a clinical phenotype. We advocate that further characterization, confirmation and clinical data integration is a prerequisite to allow for development of treatments towards personalized care with concurrently more effective treatment response.

5.
Arthritis Rheumatol ; 72(11): 1845-1854, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32840049

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To identify robustly differentially expressed long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) with osteoarthritis (OA) pathophysiology in cartilage and to explore potential target messenger RNA (mRNA) by establishing coexpression networks, followed by functional validation. METHODS: RNA sequencing was performed on macroscopically lesioned and preserved OA cartilage from patients who underwent joint replacement surgery due to OA (n = 98). Differential expression analysis was performed on lncRNAs that were annotated in GENCODE and Ensembl databases. To identify potential interactions, correlations were calculated between the identified differentially expressed lncRNAs and the previously reported differentially expressed protein-coding genes in the same samples. Modulation of chondrocyte lncRNA expression was achieved using locked nucleic acid GapmeRs. RESULTS: By applying our in-house pipeline, we identified 5,053 lncRNAs that were robustly expressed, of which 191 were significantly differentially expressed (according to false discovery rate) between lesioned and preserved OA cartilage. Upon integrating mRNA sequencing data, we showed that intergenic and antisense differentially expressed lncRNAs demonstrate high, positive correlations with their respective flanking sense genes. To functionally validate this observation, we selected P3H2-AS1, which was down-regulated in primary chondrocytes, resulting in the down-regulation of P3H2 gene expression levels. As such, we can confirm that P3H2-AS1 regulates its sense gene P3H2. CONCLUSION: By applying an improved detection strategy, robustly differentially expressed lncRNAs in OA cartilage were detected. Integration of these lncRNAs with differential mRNA expression levels in the same samples provided insight into their regulatory networks. Our data indicates that intergenic and antisense lncRNAs play an important role in regulating the pathophysiology of OA.

6.
Angiogenesis ; 23(4): 699-714, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32813135

RESUMO

Imbalanced transforming growth factor beta (TGFß) and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling are postulated to favor a pathological pulmonary endothelial cell (EC) phenotype in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). BMP9 is shown to reinstate BMP receptor type-II (BMPR2) levels and thereby mitigate hemodynamic and vascular abnormalities in several animal models of pulmonary hypertension (PH). Yet, responses of the pulmonary endothelium of PAH patients to BMP9 are unknown. Therefore, we treated primary PAH patient-derived and healthy pulmonary ECs with BMP9 and observed that stimulation induces transient transcriptional signaling associated with the process of endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EndMT). However, solely PAH pulmonary ECs showed signs of a mesenchymal trans-differentiation characterized by a loss of VE-cadherin, induction of transgelin (SM22α), and reorganization of the cytoskeleton. In the PAH cells, a prolonged EndMT signaling was found accompanied by sustained elevation of pro-inflammatory, pro-hypoxic, and pro-apoptotic signaling. Herein we identified interleukin-6 (IL6)-dependent signaling to be the central mediator required for the BMP9-induced phenotypic change in PAH pulmonary ECs. Furthermore, we were able to target the BMP9-induced EndMT process by an IL6 capturing antibody that normalized autocrine IL6 levels, prevented mesenchymal transformation, and maintained a functional EC phenotype in PAH pulmonary ECs. In conclusion, our results show that the BMP9-induced aberrant EndMT in PAH pulmonary ECs is dependent on exacerbated pro-inflammatory signaling mediated through IL6.

7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(17)2020 Aug 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32842713

RESUMO

Small non-coding microRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in the regulation of mRNA stability. Their features, including high stability and secretion to biofluids, make them attractive as potential biomarkers for diverse pathologies. This is the first study reporting miRNA as potential biomarkers for oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy (OPMD), an adult-onset myopathy. We hypothesized that miRNA that is differentially expressed in affected muscles from OPMD patients is secreted to biofluids and those miRNAs could be used as biomarkers for OPMD. We first identified candidate miRNAs from OPMD-affected muscles and from muscles from an OPMD mouse model using RNA sequencing. We then compared the OPMD-deregulated miRNAs to the literature and, subsequently, we selected a few candidates for expression studies in serum and saliva biofluids using qRT-PCR. We identified 126 miRNAs OPMD-deregulated in human muscles, but 36 deregulated miRNAs in mice only (pFDR < 0.05). Only 15 OPMD-deregulated miRNAs overlapped between the in humans and mouse studies. The majority of the OPMD-deregulated miRNAs showed opposite deregulation direction compared with known muscular dystrophies miRNAs (myoMirs), which are associated. In contrast, similar dysregulation direction was found for 13 miRNAs that are common between OPMD and aging muscles. A significant age-association (p < 0.05) was found for 17 OPMD-deregulated miRNAs (13.4%), whereas in controls, only six miRNAs (1.4%) showed a significant age-association, suggesting that miRNA expression in OPMD is highly age-associated. miRNA expression in biofluids revealed that OPMD-associated deregulation in saliva was similar to that in muscles, but not in serum. The same as in muscle, miRNA expression levels in saliva were also found to be associated with age (p < 0.05). Moreover, the majority of OPMD-miRNAs were found to be associated with dysphagia as an initial symptom. We suggest that levels of specific miRNAs in saliva can mark muscle degeneration in general and dysphagia in OPMD.

8.
Int J Cancer ; 147(10): 2708-2716, 2020 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32383162

RESUMO

Breast cancer risk is approximately twice as high in first-degree relatives of female breast cancer cases than in women in the general population. Less than half of this risk can be attributed to the currently known genetic risk factors. Recessive risk alleles represent a relatively underexplored explanation for the remainder of familial risk. To address this, we selected 19 non-BRCA1/2 breast cancer families in which at least three siblings were affected, while no first-degree relatives of the previous or following generation had breast cancer. Germline DNA from one of the siblings was subjected to exome sequencing, while all affected siblings were genotyped using SNP arrays to assess haplotype sharing and to calculate a polygenic risk score (PRS) based on 160 low-risk variants. We found no convincing candidate recessive alleles among exome sequencing variants in genomic regions for which all three siblings shared two haplotypes. However, we found two families in which all affected siblings carried the CHEK2*1100delC. In addition, the average normalized PRS of the "recessive" family probands (0.81) was significantly higher than that in both general population cases (0.35, P = .026) and controls (P = .0004). These findings suggest that the familial aggregation is, at least in part, explained by a polygenic effect of common low-risk variants and rarer intermediate-risk variants, while we did not find evidence of a role for novel recessive risk alleles.

9.
Cell Stem Cell ; 26(6): 862-879.e11, 2020 06 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32459996

RESUMO

Cardiomyocytes (CMs) from human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) are functionally immature, but this is improved by incorporation into engineered tissues or forced contraction. Here, we showed that tri-cellular combinations of hiPSC-derived CMs, cardiac fibroblasts (CFs), and cardiac endothelial cells also enhance maturation in easily constructed, scaffold-free, three-dimensional microtissues (MTs). hiPSC-CMs in MTs with CFs showed improved sarcomeric structures with T-tubules, enhanced contractility, and mitochondrial respiration and were electrophysiologically more mature than MTs without CFs. Interactions mediating maturation included coupling between hiPSC-CMs and CFs through connexin 43 (CX43) gap junctions and increased intracellular cyclic AMP (cAMP). Scaled production of thousands of hiPSC-MTs was highly reproducible across lines and differentiated cell batches. MTs containing healthy-control hiPSC-CMs but hiPSC-CFs from patients with arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy strikingly recapitulated features of the disease. Our MT model is thus a simple and versatile platform for modeling multicellular cardiac diseases that will facilitate industry and academic engagement in high-throughput molecular screening.

10.
Forensic Sci Int Genet ; 46: 102257, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32058299

RESUMO

The assessment of microbiome biodiversity is the most common application of metagenomics. While 16S sequencing remains standard procedure for taxonomic profiling of metagenomic data, a growing number of studies have clearly demonstrated biases associated with this method. By using Whole Genome Shotgun sequencing (WGS) metagenomics, most of the known restrictions associated with 16S data are alleviated. However, due to the computationally intensive data analyses and higher sequencing costs, WGS based metagenomics remains a less popular option. Selecting the experiment type that provides a comprehensive, yet manageable amount of information is a challenge encountered in many metagenomics studies. In this work, we created a series of artificial bacterial mixes, each with a different distribution of skin-associated microbial species. These mixes were used to estimate the resolution of two different metagenomic experiments - 16S and WGS - and to evaluate several different bioinformatics approaches for taxonomic read classification. In all test cases, WGS approaches provide much more accurate results, in terms of taxa prediction and abundance estimation, in comparison to those of 16S. Furthermore, we demonstrate that a 16S dataset, analysed using different state of the art techniques and reference databases, can produce widely different results. In light of the fact that most forensic metagenomic analysis are still performed using 16S data, our results are especially important.

11.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 28(2): 253-263, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31558840

RESUMO

Insights into individual differences in gene expression and its heritability (h2) can help in understanding pathways from DNA to phenotype. We estimated the heritability of gene expression of 52,844 genes measured in whole blood in the largest twin RNA-Seq sample to date (1497 individuals including 459 monozygotic twin pairs and 150 dizygotic twin pairs) from classical twin modeling and identity-by-state-based approaches. We estimated for each gene h2total, composed of cis-heritability (h2cis, the variance explained by single nucleotide polymorphisms in the cis-window of the gene), and trans-heritability (h2res, the residual variance explained by all other genome-wide variants). Mean h2total was 0.26, which was significantly higher than heritability estimates earlier found in a microarray-based study using largely overlapping (>60%) RNA samples (mean h2 = 0.14, p = 6.15 × 10-258). Mean h2cis was 0.06 and strongly correlated with beta of the top cis expression quantitative loci (eQTL, ρ = 0.76, p < 10-308) and with estimates from earlier RNA-Seq-based studies. Mean h2res was 0.20 and correlated with the beta of the corresponding trans-eQTL (ρ = 0.04, p < 1.89 × 10-3) and was significantly higher for genes involved in cytokine-cytokine interactions (p = 4.22 × 10-15), many other immune system pathways, and genes identified in genome-wide association studies for various traits including behavioral disorders and cancer. This study provides a thorough characterization of cis- and trans-h2 estimates of gene expression, which is of value for interpretation of GWAS and gene expression studies.

12.
J Mol Cell Biol ; 12(2): 138-151, 2020 02 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31291647

RESUMO

The transforming growth factor-ß (TGF-ß) family controls embryogenesis, stem cell differentiation, and tissue homeostasis. However, how post-translation modifications contribute to fine-tuning of TGF-ß family signaling responses is not well understood. Inhibitory (I)-Smads can antagonize TGF-ß/Smad signaling by recruiting Smurf E3 ubiquitin ligases to target the active TGF-ß receptor for proteasomal degradation. A proteomic interaction screen identified Vpr binding protein (VprBP) as novel binding partner of Smad7. Mis-expression studies revealed that VprBP negatively controls Smad2 phosphorylation, Smad2-Smad4 interaction, as well as TGF-ß target gene expression. VprBP was found to promote Smad7-Smurf1-TßRI complex formation and induce proteasomal degradation of TGF-ß type I receptor (TßRI). Moreover, VprBP appears to stabilize Smurf1 by suppressing Smurf1 poly-ubiquitination. In multiple adult and mouse embryonic stem cells, depletion of VprBP promotes TGF-ß or Activin-induced responses. In the mouse embryo VprBP expression negatively correlates with mesoderm marker expression, and VprBP attenuated mesoderm induction during zebrafish embryogenesis. Our findings thereby uncover a novel regulatory mechanism by which Smurf1 controls the TGF-ß and Activin cascade and identify VprBP as a critical determinant of embryonic mesoderm induction.

13.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer ; 59(5): 295-308, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31846142

RESUMO

Blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm (BPDCN) is a rare and highly aggressive hematological malignancy with a poorly understood pathobiology and no effective therapeutic options. Despite a few recurrent genetic defects (eg, single nucleotide changes, indels, large chromosomal aberrations) have been identified in BPDCN, none are disease-specific, and more importantly, none explain its genesis or clinical behavior. In this study, we performed the first high resolution whole-genome analysis of BPDCN with a special focus on structural genomic alterations by using whole-genome sequencing and RNA sequencing. Our study, the first to characterize the landscape of genomic rearrangements and copy number alterations of BPDCN at nucleotide-level resolution, revealed that IKZF1, a gene encoding a transcription factor required for the differentiation of plasmacytoid dendritic cell precursors, is focally inactivated through recurrent structural alterations in this neoplasm. In concordance with the genomic data, transcriptome analysis revealed that conserved IKZF1 target genes display a loss-of-IKZF1 expression pattern. Furthermore, up-regulation of cellular processes responsible for cell-cell and cell-ECM interactions, which is a hallmark of IKZF1 deficiency, was prominent in BPDCN. Our findings suggest that IKZF1 inactivation plays a central role in the pathobiology of the disease, and consequently, therapeutic approaches directed at reestablishing the function of this gene might be beneficial for patients.


Assuntos
Células Dendríticas/patologia , Neoplasias Hematológicas/genética , Neoplasias Hematológicas/patologia , Fator de Transcrição Ikaros/genética , Plasmocitoma/genética , Plasmocitoma/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Crise Blástica/genética , Crise Blástica/metabolismo , Crise Blástica/patologia , Adesão Celular/fisiologia , Aberrações Cromossômicas , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Células Dendríticas/metabolismo , Feminino , Neoplasias Hematológicas/metabolismo , Humanos , Fator de Transcrição Ikaros/antagonistas & inibidores , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Plasmocitoma/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma/métodos
14.
J Mol Diagn ; 22(2): 196-207, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31837435

RESUMO

Viruses are the main cause of respiratory tract infections. Metagenomic next-generation sequencing (mNGS) enables unbiased detection of all potential pathogens. To apply mNGS in viral diagnostics, sensitive and simultaneous detection of RNA and DNA viruses is needed. Herein, were studied the performance of an in-house mNGS protocol for routine diagnostics of viral respiratory infections with potential for automated pan-pathogen detection. The sequencing protocol and bioinformatics analysis were designed and optimized, including exogenous internal controls. Subsequently, the protocol was retrospectively validated using 25 clinical respiratory samples. The developed protocol using Illumina NextSeq 500 sequencing showed high repeatability. Use of the National Center for Biotechnology Information's RefSeq database as opposed to the National Center for Biotechnology Information's nucleotide database led to enhanced specificity of classification of viral pathogens. A correlation was established between read counts and PCR cycle threshold value. Sensitivity of mNGS, compared with PCR, varied up to 83%, with specificity of 94%, dependent on the cutoff for defining positive mNGS results. Viral pathogens only detected by mNGS, not present in the routine diagnostic workflow, were influenza C, KI polyomavirus, cytomegalovirus, and enterovirus. Sensitivity and analytical specificity of this mNGS protocol were comparable to PCR and higher when considering off-PCR target viral pathogens. One single test detected all potential viral pathogens and simultaneously obtained detailed information on detected viruses.

15.
PLoS One ; 14(10): e0223952, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31647831

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Exacerbations are major contributors to morbidity and mortality in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and respiratory bacterial and viral infections are an important trigger. However, using conventional diagnostic techniques, a causative agent is not always found. Metagenomic next-generation sequencing (mNGS) allows analysis of the complete virome, but has not yet been applied in COPD exacerbations. OBJECTIVES: To study the respiratory virome in nasopharyngeal samples during COPD exacerbations using mNGS. STUDY DESIGN: 88 nasopharyngeal swabs from 63 patients from the Bergen COPD Exacerbation Study (2006-2010) were analysed by mNGS and in-house qPCR for respiratory viruses. Both DNA and RNA were sequenced simultaneously using an Illumina library preparation protocol with in-house adaptations. RESULTS: By mNGS, 24/88 samples tested positive. Sensitivity and specificity, as compared with PCR, were 96% and 98% for diagnostic targets (23/24 and 1093/1120, respectively). Additional viral pathogens detected by mNGS were herpes simplex virus type 1 and coronavirus OC43. A positive correlation was found between Cq value and mNGS viral normalized species reads (log value) (p = 0.002). Patients with viral pathogens had lower percentages of bacteriophages (p<0.001). No correlation was found between viral reads and clinical markers. CONCLUSIONS: The mNGS protocol used was highly sensitive and specific for semi-quantitative detection of respiratory viruses. Excellent negative predictive value implicates the power of mNGS to exclude any pathogenic respiratory viral infectious cause in one test, with consequences for clinical decision making. Reduced abundance of bacteriophages in COPD patients with viral pathogens implicates skewing of the virome during infection, with potential consequences for the bacterial populations, during infection.


Assuntos
Nasofaringe/virologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/complicações , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Viroses/epidemiologia , Vírus/genética , Idoso , Feminino , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Metagenômica , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nasofaringe/patologia , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/virologia , Infecções Respiratórias/patologia , Infecções Respiratórias/virologia , Viroses/patologia , Viroses/virologia , Vírus/classificação
16.
Genome Biol ; 20(1): 194, 2019 09 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31500660

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Single-cell transcriptomics is rapidly advancing our understanding of the cellular composition of complex tissues and organisms. A major limitation in most analysis pipelines is the reliance on manual annotations to determine cell identities, which are time-consuming and irreproducible. The exponential growth in the number of cells and samples has prompted the adaptation and development of supervised classification methods for automatic cell identification. RESULTS: Here, we benchmarked 22 classification methods that automatically assign cell identities including single-cell-specific and general-purpose classifiers. The performance of the methods is evaluated using 27 publicly available single-cell RNA sequencing datasets of different sizes, technologies, species, and levels of complexity. We use 2 experimental setups to evaluate the performance of each method for within dataset predictions (intra-dataset) and across datasets (inter-dataset) based on accuracy, percentage of unclassified cells, and computation time. We further evaluate the methods' sensitivity to the input features, number of cells per population, and their performance across different annotation levels and datasets. We find that most classifiers perform well on a variety of datasets with decreased accuracy for complex datasets with overlapping classes or deep annotations. The general-purpose support vector machine classifier has overall the best performance across the different experiments. CONCLUSIONS: We present a comprehensive evaluation of automatic cell identification methods for single-cell RNA sequencing data. All the code used for the evaluation is available on GitHub ( https://github.com/tabdelaal/scRNAseq_Benchmark ). Additionally, we provide a Snakemake workflow to facilitate the benchmarking and to support the extension of new methods and new datasets.


Assuntos
Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Análise de Sequência de RNA/métodos , Análise de Célula Única/métodos , Máquina de Vetores de Suporte
17.
Mol Plant ; 12(8): 1103-1113, 2019 08 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31059825

RESUMO

In plants, microRNA (miRNA) functions in the post-transcriptional repression of target mRNAs have been well explored. However, the mechanisms regulating the accumulation of miRNAs remain poorly understood. Here, we report that distinct mechanisms regulate accumulation of a monocot-specific miRNA, rice (Oryza sativa) miR528. At the transcriptional level, miR528 accumulated to higher levels in older plants than in young seedlings and exhibited aging-modulated gradual accumulation and diurnal rhythms in leaves; at the post-transcriptional level, aging also modulated miR528 levels by enhancing pri-miR528 alternative splicing. We found that miR528 promotes rice flowering under long-day conditions by targeting RED AND FAR-RED INSENSITIVE 2 (OsRFI2). Moreover, natural variations in the MIR528 promoter region caused differences in miR528 expression among rice varieties, which are correlated with their different binding affinities with the transcription factor OsSPL9 that activates the expression of miR528. Taken together, our findings reveal rice plants have evolved sophisticated modes fine-tuning miR528 levels and provide insight into the mechanisms that regulate MIRNA expression in plants.


Assuntos
Flores/metabolismo , Flores/fisiologia , Oryza/metabolismo , Oryza/fisiologia , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Processamento Alternativo/genética , Processamento Alternativo/fisiologia , Flores/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/fisiologia , MicroRNAs/genética , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Oryza/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética
18.
J Invest Dermatol ; 139(10): 2195-2203, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31042459

RESUMO

Primary cutaneous follicle center lymphoma (PCFCL) is a rare mature B-cell lymphoma with an unknown etiology. PCFCL resembles follicular lymphoma (FL) by cytomorphologic and microarchitectural criteria. FL B cells are selected for N-linked glycosylation motifs in their B-cell receptors (BCRs) that are acquired during continuous somatic hypermutation. The stimulation of mannosylated BCR by lectins on the tumor microenvironment is therefore a candidate driver in FL pathogenesis. We investigated whether the same mechanism could play a role in PCFCL pathogenesis. Full-length functional variable, diversity, and joining gene sequences of 18 PCFCL and 8 primary cutaneous diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, leg-type were identified by unbiased Anchoring Reverse Transcription of Immunoglobulin Sequences and Amplification by Nested PCR and BCR reconstruction from RNA sequencing data. Low BCR variation demonstrated negligible ongoing somatic hypermutation in PCFCL and primary cutaneous diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, leg-type, and indicated that the PCFCL microarchitecture does not act as a functional germinal center. Similar to FL but in contrast to primary cutaneous diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, leg-type, BCR genes of 15 PCFCLs (83%) had acquired N-linked glycosylation motifs. These motifs were located at the BCR positions converted to N-linked glycosylation motifs in normal B-cell repertoires with low prevalence but mostly at different positions than those found in FL. The cutaneous localization of PCFCL might suggest a role for lectins from commensal skin bacteria in PCFCL lymphomagenesis.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Linfoma Folicular/genética , Linfoma Folicular/patologia , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B/genética , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos B/genética , Neoplasias Cutâneas/genética , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biópsia por Agulha , Estudos de Coortes , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , Centro Germinativo/metabolismo , Glicosilação , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Prognóstico , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia , Microambiente Tumoral/genética
19.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2063, 2019 05 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31048693

RESUMO

RELATIVE OF EARLY FLOWERING 6 (REF6/JMJ12), a Jumonji C (JmjC)-domain-containing H3K27me3 histone demethylase, finds its target loci in Arabidopsis genome by directly recognizing the CTCTGYTY motif via its zinc-finger (ZnF) domains. REF6 tends to bind motifs located in active chromatin states that are depleted for heterochromatic modifications. However, the underlying mechanism remains unknown. Here, we show that REF6 preferentially bind to hypo-methylated CTCTGYTY motifs in vivo, and that CHG methylation decreases REF6 DNA binding affinity in vitro. In addition, crystal structures of ZnF-clusters in complex with DNA oligonucleotides reveal that 5-methylcytosine is unfavorable for REF6 binding. In drm1 drm2 cmt2 cmt3 (ddcc) quadruple mutants, in which non-CG methylation is significantly reduced, REF6 can ectopically bind a small number of new target loci, most of which are located in or neighbored with short TEs in euchromatic regions. Collectively, our findings reveal that DNA methylation, likely acting in combination with other epigenetic modifications, may partially explain why REF6 binding is depleted in heterochromatic loci.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/fisiologia , Metilação de DNA/fisiologia , Histonas/metabolismo , Histona Desmetilases com o Domínio Jumonji/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , 5-Metilcitosina/metabolismo , Epigênese Genética/fisiologia , Eucromatina/metabolismo , Heterocromatina/metabolismo , Mutação , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Dedos de Zinco/fisiologia
20.
Fertil Steril ; 111(6): 1186-1193, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30922639

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the levels of DNA methylation in the KvDMR1 (KvLQT1 differentially methylated region 1) in embryonic and extra-embryonic tissues. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: University medical center and clinical hospital. PATIENT(S): Embryonic and/or extraembryonic tissues (umbilical cord, chorionic villus, chorion, decidua, and/or amnion) collected from 27 first-trimester pregnancies (up to 12 weeks of gestation, single embryos) from elective abortions, extravillous trophoblasts (EVTs) from the top of individual chorionic villi, and chorionic villi from 10 normal full-term placentas collected after birth. INTERVENTION(S): None. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): DNA methylation of the KvDMR1 region evaluated using quantitative analysis of DNA methylation followed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (qAMP) and bisulfite sequencing (bis-seq) analysis. RESULT(S): The results showed variability in KvDMR1 DNA methylation in different tissues from the same pregnancy. The average of DNA methylation was not different between the embryo, umbilical cord, amnion, and chorionic villi, despite the relatively low level of methylation observed in the amnion (33.50% ± 14.48%). Chorionic villi from term placentas showed a normal methylation pattern at KvDMR1 (42.60% ± 6.08%). The normal methylation pattern at KvDMR1 in chorionic villi (as well as in EVTs) from first-trimester placentas was confirmed by bis-seq. CONCLUSION(S): Our results highlight an existing heterogeneity in DNA methylation of the KvDMR1 region during first trimester and a consistent hypomethylation in the amnion in this period of gestation.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA , Epigênese Genética , Heterogeneidade Genética , Primeiro Trimestre da Gravidez/genética , Âmnio/química , Córion/química , Estudos Transversais , Embrião de Mamíferos/química , Feminino , Humanos , Placenta/química , Canais de Potássio de Abertura Dependente da Tensão da Membrana/genética , Gravidez , Cordão Umbilical/química
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