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1.
World J Gastrointest Oncol ; 13(11): 1725-1740, 2021 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34853646

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is characterized by dysregulation of the immune microenvironment and the development of chemoresistance. Specifically, expression of the programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1)/programmed cell death 1 ligand 1 (PD-L1) axis, an immune checkpoint, may lead to tumour immune escape, resulting in disease progression. The latest research shows that tumour immune escape may be caused by the upregulation of PD-L1 mediated by hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1α), and simultaneous inhibition of HIF-1α and PD-L1 has the potential to enhance the host's antitumour immunity. Moreover, inhibition of the PD-1/PD-L1 axis may mitigate tumour chemoresistance. Shuyu pills (SYPs) contain immunity-enhancing and antitumour components, making them a potential HCC treatment. AIM: To investigate the efficacy of SYPs for HCC treatment via simultaneous HIF-1α and PD-L1 inhibition and the mechanism involved. METHODS: A subcutaneous xenograft tumour model was first established in BALB/c nude mice by the subcutaneous injection of 1 × 107 SMMC-7721 cells. Male mice (male, 5 weeks old; n = 24) were then randomly divided into the following four groups (n = 6): Control (0.9% normal saline), SYP (200 mg/kg), SYP + cisplatin (DDP) (200 mg/kg + 5 mg/kg DDP weekly via intraperitoneal injection), and DDP (5 mg/kg cisplatin weekly via intraperitoneal injection). The dose of saline or SYPs for the indicated mouse groups was 0.2 mL/d via intragastric administration. The tumour volumes and body weights of the mice were measured every 2 d. The mice were euthanized by cervical dislocation after 14 d of continuous treatment, and the xenograft tissues were excised and weighed. Western blot assays were used to measure the protein expression of HIF-1α, PD-1, PD-L1, CD4+ T cells, and CD8+ T cells in HCC tumours from mice. Quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction was used for real-time quantitative detection of PD-1, PD-L1, and HIF-1α mRNA expression. An immunofluorescence assay was conducted to examine the expression of CD4+ T cells and CD8+ T cells. RESULTS: Compared to mice in the control group, those in the SYP and SYP + DDP groups exhibited reduced tumour volumes and tumour weights. Moreover, the protein and mRNA expression levels of the oncogene HIF-1α and that of the negative immunomodulatory factors PD-1 and PD-L1 were decreased in both the SYP and SYP + DDP groups, with the decrease effects being more prominent in the SYP + DDP group than in the SYP group (HIF-1α protein: Control vs SYP, P = 0.0129; control vs SYP + DDP, P = 0.0004; control vs DDP, P = 0.0152, SYP + DDP vs DDP, P = 0.0448; HIF-1α mRNA: control vs SYP, P = 0.0009; control vs SYP + DDP, P < 0.0001; control vs DDP, P = 0.0003, SYP vs SYP + DDP, P = 0.0192. PD-1 protein: Control vs SYP, P = 0.0099; control vs SYP + DDP, P < 0.0001, SPY vs SYP + DDP, P = 0.0009; SYP + DDP vs DDP, P < 0.0001; PD-1 mRNA: control vs SYP, P = 0.0002; control vs SYP + DDP, P < 0.0001; control vs DDP, P = 0.0003, SPY vs SYP + DDP, P = 0.0003; SYP + DDP vs DDP, P = 0.0002. PD-L1 protein: control vs SYP, P < 0.0001; control vs SYP + DDP, P < 0.0001; control vs DDP, P < 0.0001, SPY vs SYP + DDP, P = 0.0040; SYP + DDP vs DDP, P = 0.0010; PD-L1 mRNA: Control vs SYP, P < 0.0001; control vs SYP + DDP, P < 0.0001; control vs DDP, P < 0.0001, SPY vs SYP + DDP, P < 0.0001; SYP + DDP vs DDP, P = 0.0014). Additionally, the quantitative and protein expression levels of CD4+ T cells and CD8+ T cells were simultaneously upregulated in the SYP + DDP group, whereas only the expression of CD4+ T cells was upregulated in the SYP group. (CD4+ T cell quantitative: Control vs SYP + DDP, P < 0.0001, SYP vs SYP + DDP, P = 0.0005; SYP + DDP vs DDP, P = 0.0002. CD4+ T cell protein: Control vs SYP, P = 0.0033; Control vs SYP + DDP, P < 0.0001; Control vs DDP, P = 0.0021, SYP vs SYP + DDP, P = 0.0004; SYP + DDP vs DDP, P = 0.0006. Quantitative CD8+ T cells: Control vs SYP + DDP, P = 0.0013; SYP vs SYP + DDP, P = 0.0347; SYP + DDP vs DDP, P = 0.0043. CD8+ T cell protein: Control vs SYP + DDP, P < 0.0001; SYP vs SYP + DDP, P < 0.0001; SYP + DDP vs DDP, P < 0.0001). Finally, expression of HIF-1α was positively correlated with that of PD-1/PD-L1 and negatively correlated with the expression of CD4+ T cells and CD8+ T cells. CONCLUSION: SYPs inhibit immune escape and enhance chemosensitization in HCC via simultaneous inhibition of HIF-1α and PD-L1, thus inhibiting the growth of subcutaneous xenograft HCC tumours.

2.
Biomol Ther (Seoul) ; 2021 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34815367

RESUMO

The present study focused on the potential mechanism of betulin (BT), a pentacyclic triterpenoid isolated from the bark of white birch (Betula pubescens), against chronic alcohol-induced lipid accumulation and metaflammation. AML-12 and RAW 264.7 cells were administered ethanol (EtOH), lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or BT. Male C57BL/6 mice were fed Lieber-DeCarli liquid diets containing 5% EtOH for 4 weeks, followed by single EtOH gavage on the last day and simultaneous treatment with BT (20 or 50 mg/kg) by oral gavage once per day. In vitro, MTT showed that 0-25 mM EtOH and 0-25 µM BT had no toxic effect on AML-12 cells. BT could regulate sterolregulatory-element-binding protein 1 (SREBP1), lipin1/2, P2X7 receptor (P2X7r) and NOD-like receptor family, pyrin domains-containing protein 3 (NLRP3) expressions again EtOH-stimulation. Oil Red O staining also indicated that BT significantly reduced lipid accumulation in EtOH-stimulated AML-12 cells. Lipin1/2 deficiency indicated that BT might mediate lipin1/2 to regulate SREBP1 and P2X7r expression and further alleviate lipid accumulation and inflammation. In vivo, BT significantly alleviated histopathological changes, reduced serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and triglyceride (TG) levels, and regulated lipin1/2, SREBP1, peroxisome proliferator activated receptor α/γ (PPARα/γ) and PGC-1α expression compared with the EtOH group. BT reduced the secretion of inflammatory factors and blocked the P2X7r-NLRP3 signaling pathway. Collectively, BT attenuated lipid accumulation and metaflammation by regulating the lipin1/2-mediated P2X7r signaling pathway.

3.
Transplant Cell Ther ; 2021 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34775146

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Randomized clinical trials offer the highest quality data for modifying clinical practice. Results of a phase III randomized trial of non-myeloablative transplantation for adults with high- risk hematologic malignancies with two umbilical cord blood (UCB) units (n=183) or HLA-haploidentical relative bone marrow (Haplo-BM) (n=154) revealed 2-year progression-free survival (PFS) of 41% and 35% after Haplo-BM and two-unit UCB transplantation, respectively (p=0.41); overall survival was 57% and 46%, respectively (p=0.04), BMT CTN 1101; NCT01597778. OBJECTIVES: We sought to examine the generalizability of BMT CTN 1101 to a contemporaneous cohort beyond the trial's pre-specified 2-year outcomes. All transplantation occurred between June 2012 and June 2018 in the United States. We hypothesized that the results of a rigorous phase III randomized trial will be generalizable. Changes in graft selection for HLA-haploidentical relative transplantation during the trial period allowed comparison of outcomes after transplantation with Haplo-BM to those after haploidentical peripheral blood (Haplo-PB). STUDY DESIGN: The trial's broad eligibility criteria were applied to the data source of the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research to select non-trial subjects. Extended follow up of trial subjects was obtained from this data source. Three separate analyses were performed: 1) trial subjects beyond the trial's 2-year endpoint 2) comparison of trial subjects to a contemporaneous cohort of non-trial subjects (195 two-unit UCB, 358 Haplo-BM, 403 Haplo-PB) and 3) comparison of non-trial subjects by donor and graft type. Multivariate analyses were performed using Cox proportional hazards models for comparison of outcomes by treatment groups. RESULTS: With longer follow up of the trial cohorts, 5-year PFS (37% versus 29%, p=0.08) and overall survival (42% versus 36%, p=0.06) were not significantly different between treatment groups. We then compared the trial results to comparable real-world transplantations. Five-year overall survival after trial and non-trial two-unit UCB (36% versus 41%, p=0.48) and trial and non-trial Haplo-BM (42% versus 47%, p=0.80) transplantation were not different confirming generalizability. The randomized trial did not accrue as planned and therefore lacked the statistical power to detect a 15% difference in progression-free survival. With substantially larger numbers of non-trial Haplo-BM transplantations, 5-year survival was higher after non-trial Haplo-BM compared to trial two-unit UCB (47% versus 36%, p=0.012). Non-trial patients who received Haplo-PB transplantation had higher 5-year survival (54%) compared to trial (HR 0.76, p=0.044) and non-trial (HR 0.78, p=0.026) Haplo-BM. Similarly, survival was higher after Haplo-PB compared to trial (HR 0.57, p<0.0001) and non-trial UCB (HR 0.63, p=0.0002). CONCLUSION: When considering alternative donor low intensity conditioning regimen transplantation, a haploidentical relative is preferred. Further, PB is the preferred graft.

4.
Adv Drug Deliv Rev ; 180: 114046, 2021 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34767863

RESUMO

The occurrence and development of tumors depend on the tumor microenvironment (TME), which is made of various immune cells, activated fibroblasts, basement membrane, capillaries, and extracellular matrix. Tumor associated macrophages (TAMs) and microbes are important components in TME. Tumor cells can recruit and educate TAMs and microbes, and the hijacked TAMs and microbes can promote the progression of tumor reciprocally. Tumor vaccine delivery remodeling TME by targeting TAM and microbes can not only enhance the specificity and immunogenicity of antigens, but also contribute to the regulation of TME. Tumor vaccine design benefits from nanotechnology which is a suitable platform for antigen and adjuvant delivery to catalyze new candidate vaccines applying to clinical therapy at unparalleled speed. In view of the characteristics and mechanisms of TME development, vaccine delivery targeting and breaking the malignant interactions among tumor cells, TAMs, and microbes may serve as a novel strategy for tumor therapy.

5.
Hepatobiliary Surg Nutr ; 10(5): 631-645, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34760967

RESUMO

Background: To compare the treatment effectiveness and safety among transarterial infusion chemotherapy (TAI) with FOLFOX regimen, transarterial chemoembolization (TACE), and sorafenib in patients with BCLC stage C hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Methods: The data of consecutive patients with BCLC stage C HCC treated with TAI, TACE, or sorafenib from January 2015 to December 2018 at three centers were retrospectively analyzed. Propensity-score matched (PSM) analysis was pairwise performed to reduce selection bias. Treatment effectiveness and safety were evaluated and compared using the Kaplan-Meier method, log-rank test, Cox regression models, and χ2 test. Results: The median overall survival (OS) in the matched TAI cohort was significantly longer than the sorafenib cohort (19.6 vs. 7.5 months, P=0.009), and the TACE cohort (estimated 27.8 vs. 6.6 months, P<0.001). The difference in median progression-free survival (PFS) between the matched TAI and sorafenib cohorts was not significant (5.8 vs. 2.3 months, P=0.219). The median PFS in the matched TAI cohort was significantly longer than the TACE cohort (6.5 vs. 2.8 months, P<0.001). The objective response rate (ORR) in the matched TAI cohort was significantly higher than the sorafenib cohort (36.4% vs. 0.0%, P<0.001) and the TACE cohort (48.7% vs. 4.7%, P<0.001). The incidences of adverse events (AEs) were similar among these three cohorts. Conclusions: TAI with FOLFOX regimen was an effective and safe therapy that improved survival of patients with BCLC stage C HCC.

6.
Ann Transl Med ; 9(20): 1601, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34790807

RESUMO

Objective: This paper reviews the association between transforming growth factor-ß (TGF-ß) and its receptor and tumor, focusing on gynecological malignant tumors. we hope to provide more methods to help increase the potential of TGF-ß signaling targeted treatment of specific cancers. Background: The occurrence of a malignant tumor is a complex process of multi-step, multi-gene regulation, and its progression is affected by various components of the tumor cells and/or tumor microenvironment. The occurrence of gynecological diseases not only affect women's health, but also bring some troubles to their normal life. Especially when gynecological malignant tumors occur, the situation is more serious, which will endanger the lives of patients. Due to differences in environmental and economic conditions, not all women have access to assistance and treatment specifically meeting their needs. TGF-ß is a multi-potent growth factor that maintains homeostasis in mammals by inhibiting cell growth and promoting apoptosis in vivo. TGF-ß signaling is fundamental to inflammatory disease and favors the emergence of tumors, and it also plays an important role in immunosuppression in the tumor microenvironment. In the early stages of the tumor, TGF-ß acts as a tumor inhibitor, whereas in advanced tumors, mutations or deletion of the TGF-ß signaling core component initiate neogenesis. Methods: Literatures about TGF-ß and gynecological malignant tumor were extensively reviewed to analyze and discuss. Conclusions: We discussed the role of TGF-ß signaling in different types of gynecological tumor cells, thus demonstrating that targeted TGF-ß signaling may be an effective tumor treatment strategy.

7.
Sci Total Environ ; : 151172, 2021 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34710412

RESUMO

In the context of global climatic changes, marine organisms have been exposed to environmental stressors including heat and hypoxia. This calls for the design of multi-stressors to uncover the impact of oceanic factors on aquatic organisms. So far, little is known about the metabolic response of marine organisms, especially bivalves, to the combined effects of heat and hypoxia. In this study, we employed widely targeted metabolomic analysis to study the metabolic response of gills in hard clam, a heat- and hypoxia-tolerant bivalve. A total of 810 metabolites were identified. Results showed that the heat group (HT) and heat plus hypoxia group (HL) had a higher number of differential metabolites than the hypoxia group (LO). Glycolysis was affected by the heat and heat plus hypoxia stress. Moreover, anaerobic metabolic biomarkers were accumulated marking the onset of anaerobic metabolism. Environmental stresses may affect Tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. Accumulation of carnitine and glycerophospholipid may promote fatty acid ß oxidation and maintain cell membrane stability, respectively. The high content of oxidized lipids (i.e., Leukotriene) in HL and HT groups implied that the organisms were under ROS stress. The significantly differential metabolites of organic osmolytes and vitamins might relieve ROS stress. Moreover, accumulation of thermoprotective osmolytes (monosaccharide, Trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO)) accumulation was helpful to maintain protein homeostasis. This investigation provided new insights into the adaptation mechanisms of hard clam to heat, hypoxia and combined stress at the metabolite level and highlighted the roles of molecules and protectants.

8.
IEEE Trans Image Process ; 30: 8540-8552, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34618672

RESUMO

Extracting roads from satellite imagery is a promising approach to update the dynamic changes of road networks efficiently and timely. However, it is challenging due to the occlusions caused by other objects and the complex traffic environment, the pixel-based methods often generate fragmented roads and fail to predict topological correctness. In this paper, motivated by the road shapes and connections in the graph network, we propose a connectivity attention network (CoANet) to jointly learn the segmentation and pair-wise dependencies. Since the strip convolution is more aligned with the shape of roads, which are long-span, narrow, and distributed continuously. We develop a strip convolution module (SCM) that leverages four strip convolutions to capture long-range context information from different directions and avoid interference from irrelevant regions. Besides, considering the occlusions in road regions caused by buildings and trees, a connectivity attention module (CoA) is proposed to explore the relationship between neighboring pixels. The CoA module incorporates the graphical information and enables the connectivity of roads are better preserved. Extensive experiments on the popular benchmarks (SpaceNet and DeepGlobe datasets) demonstrate that our proposed CoANet establishes new state-of-the-art results. The source code will be made publicly available at: https://mmcheng.net/coanet/.

9.
Asian J Androl ; 2021 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34708718

RESUMO

The present study aimed to evaluate the clinical outcomes of magnetic-activated cell sorting (MACS) in sperm preparation for male subjects with a sperm DNA fragmentation index (DFI) ≥30%. A total of 86 patients who had undergone their first long-term long protocol were selected. The protocol involved in vitro fertilization (IVF) and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycles, and the patients were divided into the MACS or control groups. The MACS group included sperm samples analyzed with MACS that were combined with density gradient centrifugation (DGC) and the swim-up (SU) technique (n = 39), and the control group included sperm samples prepared using standard techniques (DGC and SU; n = 41). No differences were noted with regard to basic clinical characteristics, number of oocytes retrieved, normal fertilization rate, cleavage rate, or transplantable embryo rate between the two groups in IVF/ICSI. In addition, the clinical pregnancy and implantation rates of the first embryo transfer cycles indicated no significant differences between the two groups. However, there was a tendency to improve the live birth rate (LBR) of the first embryo transfer cycle (63.2% vs 53.9%) and the cumulative LBR (79.5% vs 70.7%) in the MACS group compared with the control group. Moreover, the number of transferred embryos (mean ± standard deviation [s.d.]: 1.7 ± 0.7 vs 2.3 ± 1.6) and the transfer number of each retrieved cycle (mean ± s.d.: 1.2 ± 0.5 vs 1.6 ± 0.8) were significantly lower in the MACS group than those in the control group. Thus, the selection of nonapoptotic spermatozoa by MACS for higher sperm DFI could improve assisted reproductive clinical outcomes.

10.
Pharmazie ; 76(10): 503-506, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34620279

RESUMO

Discovering compounds with anti-cervical cancer effect and clarifying their targets will help promoting the precise treatment of cervical cancer. The present study intended to clarify the effect of osthole on cervical cancer cells, and to explore the possibility of DCLK1 as its target. Annexin V-PE staining and flow cytometry methods were used to determine cell apoptosis. Meanwhile, apoptosis related biomarkers were probed by immunoblotting. The MTT assay was employed to study the effect of osthole in combined with or without LRRK2-IN-1 (a DCLK1 inhibitor) on cell proliferation. Then, combination index was determined. To examine the interaction of osthole with DCLK1, molecular docking was carried out. Based on the biological database from cBioPortal, the association between DCLK1 and clinical manifestations of cervical cancer were evaluated. The results showed that osthole can significantly induce apoptosis of HeLa and Me-180. When combined with LRRK2-IN-1, the effect of osthole on cell proliferation was antagonized, suggesting that it might competitive binding to DCLK1. Furthermore, molecular docking showed that osthole interacts with Val468 residues of DCLK1 to form hydrogen bonds. The analysis of database showed that DCLK1 frequently mutant and deleted in cervical cancer, and is related to cell survival, tumor progression and recurrence. However, no obvious correlations were found between DCLK1 and lymphatic metastasis/differentiation. In conclusion, osthole significantly inhibits the survival of cervical cancer cells. It's probably target DCLK1 mechanistically via interacting with Val468. DCLK1 could be a potential therapeutic target for cervical cancer.

11.
Front Pharmacol ; 12: 738689, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34690775

RESUMO

Allium victorialis L. (AVL) is a traditional medicinal plant recorded in the Compendium of Materia Medica (the Ming Dynasty). In general, it is used for hemostasis, analgesia, anti-inflammation, antioxidation, and to especially facilitate hepatoprotective effect. In recent years, it has received more and more attention due to its special nutritional and medicinal value. The present study investigates the effect and potential mechanism of AVL against alcoholic liver disease (ALD). C57BL/6 mice were fed Lieber-DeCarli liquid diet containing 5% ethanol plus a single ethanol gavage (5 g/kg), and followed up with the administration of AVL or silymarin. AML12 cells were stimulated with ethanol and incubated with AVL. AVL significantly reduced serum transaminase and triglycerides in the liver and attenuated histopathological changes caused by ethanol. AVL significantly inhibited SREBP1 and its target genes, regulated lipin 1/2, increased PPARα and its target genes, and decreased PPARγ expression caused by ethanol. In addition, AVL significantly enhanced FXR, LXRs, Sirt1, and AMPK expressions compared with the EtOH group. AVL also inhibited inflammatory factors, NLRP3, and F4/80 and MPO, macrophage and neutrophil markers. In vitro, AVL significantly reduced lipid droplets, lipid metabolism enzymes, and inflammatory factors depending on FXR activation. AVL could ameliorate alcoholic steatohepatitis, lipid deposition and inflammation in ALD by targeting FXR activation.

13.
Ann Surg Oncol ; 2021 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34637058

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with intermediate to advanced stage hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC; Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer [BCLC] stage B/C) have few choices of curable treatments and thus suffer from dismal outcomes. Although surgical resection could prolong survival in certain selected patients with BCLC stage B/C HCC, the frequent postoperative recurrence and poor survival of these patients need to be improved by combining other therapies perioperatively. OBJECTIVE: This study was conducted to investigate the survival associations of adjuvant portal vein perfusion chemotherapy (PVC) and neoadjuvant hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy (HAIC) in patients with resectable BCLC stage B/C HCC. METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted in consecutive patients who underwent R0 resection for intermediate to advanced stage HCC, combined with either PVC or HAIC perioperatively between January 2017 and December 2018. Patients treated with PVC or HAIC were analyzed according to intention-to-treat (ITT) and per protocol (PP) principles, respectively. The chemotherapy regimen of adjuvant PVC and neoadjuvant HAIC included 5-fluorouracil/leucovorin/oxaliplatin. Survival analysis and Cox regression for overall survival (OS) and event-free survival (EFS) were used to compare the outcomes. RESULTS: Among all 64 patients enrolled in this study, 28 received perioperative PVC and 36 received HAIC for ITT analysis. Age (median 44.00 vs. 46.50 years; p = 0.364), sex (male: 25/28 vs. 35/36; p = 0.435), and tumor size (median 9.55 vs. 8.10 cm; p = 0.178) were comparable between the two groups. In the ITT analysis, the median OS was significantly longer in patients in the HAIC group compared with the PVC group (median OS not reached vs. 19.47 months; p = 0.004); in the PP analysis, patients who received neoadjuvant HAIC followed by hepatectomy presented with much better EFS than patients in the PVC group (modified EFS 16.90 vs. 3.17 months; p = 0.022); and in the multivariate analysis, neoadjuvant HAIC presented as a significant predictor for enhanced EFS (hazard ratio [HR] 0.296; p = 0.007) and OS (HR 0.095; p = 0.007) for BCLC stage B/C HCC patients who received hepatectomy. CONCLUSIONS: Compared with adjuvant PVC, neoadjuvant HAIC treatment was associated with better survival and fewer recurrences in HCC patients who received R0 resection at the intermediate to advanced stage. These results need to be further validated prospectively.

14.
Bone Marrow Transplant ; 56(12): 3068-3077, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34584240

RESUMO

Cytogenetic and molecular abnormalities are known to influence post-transplant outcomes in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) but data assessing the prognostic value of combined genetic models in the HCT setting are limited. We developed an adapted European LeukemiaNet (aELN) risk classification based on available genetic data reported to the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research, to predict post-transplant outcomes in 2289 adult AML patients transplanted in first remission, between 2013 and 2017. Patients were stratified according to aELN into three groups: favorable (Fav, N = 181), intermediate (IM, N = 1185), and adverse (Adv, N = 923). Univariate analysis demonstrated significant differences in 2-year overall survival (OS) (Fav: 67.7%, IM: 64.9% and Adv: 53.9%; p < 0.001); disease-free survival (DFS) (Fav: 57.8%, IM: 55.5% and Adv: 45.3; p < 0.001) and relapse (Fav: 28%, IM: 27.5% and Adv: 37.5%; p < 0.001). Multivariate analysis (MVA) revealed no differences in outcomes between the Fav and IM groups, thus they were combined. On MVA, patients in the Adv risk group had the highest risk of relapse (HR 1.47 p ≤ 0.001) and inferior DFS (HR 1.35 p < 0.001) and OS (HR 1.39 p < 0.001), even using myeloablative conditioning or in those without the pre-HCT measurable-residual disease. Novel approaches to mitigate relapse in this high-risk group are urgently needed.

15.
Genes (Basel) ; 12(9)2021 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34573287

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In recent years, metabolic reprogramming has been identified as a hallmark of cancer. Accumulating evidence suggests that glutamine metabolism plays a crucial role in oncogenesis and the tumor microenvironment. In this study, we aimed to perform a systematic and comprehensive analysis of six key metabolic node genes involved in the dynamic regulation of glutamine metabolism (referred to as GLNM regulators) across 33 types of cancer. METHODS: We analyzed the gene expression, epigenetic regulation, and genomic alterations of six key GLNM regulators, including SLC1A5, SLC7A5, SLC3A2, SLC7A11, GLS, and GLS2, in pan-cancer using several open-source platforms and databases. Additionally, we investigated the impacts of these gene expression changes on clinical outcomes, drug sensitivity, and the tumor microenvironment. We also attempted to investigate the upstream microRNA-mRNA molecular networks and the downstream signaling pathways involved in order to uncover the potential molecular mechanisms behind metabolic reprogramming. RESULTS: We found that the expression levels of GLNM regulators varied across cancer types and were related to several genomic and immunological characteristics. While the immune scores were generally lower in the tumors with higher gene expression, the types of immune cell infiltration showed significantly different correlations among cancer types, dividing them into two clusters. Furthermore, we showed that elevated GLNM regulators expression was associated with poor overall survival in the majority of cancer types. Lastly, the expression of GLNM regulators was significantly associated with PD-L1 expression and drug sensitivity. CONCLUSIONS: The elevated expression of GLNM regulators was associated with poorer cancer prognoses and a cold tumor microenvironment, providing novel insights into cancer treatment and possibly offering alternative options for the treatment of clinically refractory cancers.

16.
Mutagenesis ; 36(5): 369-379, 2021 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34467992

RESUMO

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is still one of the most common malignancies worldwide. The accuracy of biomarkers for predicting the prognosis of HCC and the therapeutic effect is not satisfactory. N6-methyladenosine (m6A) methylation regulators play a crucial role in various tumours. Our research aims further to determine the predictive value of m6A methylation regulators and establish a prognostic model for HCC. In this study, the data of HCC from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database was obtained, and the expression level of 15 genes and survival was examined. Then we identified two clusters of HCC with different clinical factors, constructed prognostic markers and analysed gene set enrichment, proteins' interaction and gene co-expression. Three subgroups by consensus clustering according to the expression of the 13 genes were identified. The risk score generated by five genes divided HCC patients into high-risk and low-risk groups. In addition, we developed a prognostic marker that can identify high-risk HCC. Finally, a novel prognostic nomogram was developed to accurately predict HCC patients' prognosis. The expression levels of 13 m6A RNA methylation regulators were significantly upregulated in HCC samples. The prognosis of cluster 1 and cluster 3 was worse. Patients in the high-risk group show a poor prognosis. Moreover, the risk score was an independent prognostic factor for HCC patients. In conclusion, we reveal the critical role of m6A RNA methylation modification in HCC and develop a predictive model based on the m6A RNA methylation regulators, which can accurately predict HCC patients' prognosis and provide meaningful guidance for clinical treatment.

17.
Blood Adv ; 2021 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34551064

RESUMO

Little is known about whether risk classification at diagnosis predicts post-hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) outcomes for acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients. We evaluated 8709 AML patients from the CIBMTR database and, after selection and manual curation of cytogenetics data, 3779 patients in CR1 were included in the final analysis: 2384 with intermediate-risk, 969 with adverse-risk, and 426 with KMT2A-rearranged disease. An adjusted multivariable analysis compared to intermediate-risk patients detected an increased risk of relapse for KMT2A-rearranged and adverse-risk patients (HR 1.27, p = 0.01 and HR 1.71, p < 0.001, respectively). Leukemia-free survival (LFS) was similar for KMT2A and adverse-risk patients (HR 1.26, p = 0.002 and HR 1.47, p < 0.001), as was overall survival (OS) (HR 1.32, p < 0.001 and HR 1.45, p < 0.001). No differences in outcome could be detected when patients were stratified by KMT2A fusion partner. This is the largest study conducted to date on post-HCT outcomes in AML using manually curated cytogenetics for risk stratification. Our work demonstrates that risk classification at diagnosis remains predictive of post-HCT outcomes in AML. It also highlights the critical need to develop novel treatment strategies for patients with KMT2A rearrangements and adverse-risk disease.

18.
Small ; 17(40): e2102825, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34499425

RESUMO

As possible alternatives to traditional thermoelectric (TE) materials, carbon nanomaterials and their hybrid materials have great potential in the future application of flexible and lightweight temperature detection. In this work, an integrated, highly flexible, and tailorable TE temperature detector with high performance has been fabricated based on a continuous single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) fiber. The detector consists of more than one pairs of thermocouples composed of p-type SWCNT fiber and n-type SWCNT hybrid fiber in situ doped by polyethylenimine. Due to the node contact mechanism of the detection, the sensitivity of the detector can be improved with the increase of the number of p-n thermocouples, independent of the length of the thermocouple. The temperature detection process of the detector has been studied in detail. In particular, the integrated and flexible detector can be divided into several sub-detectors easily by cutting, illustrating the prospect of large-scale preparation of this kind of novel temperature detectors. Its high flexibility ensures the detector to maintain excellent detection performance after 15 000 bending circles. Furthermore, the as-designed TE type temperature detector demonstrates a great application promise for real-time temperature detection and temperature change sensing even in complex surface and harsh environment.

19.
Blood Adv ; 2021 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34547770

RESUMO

The role of haploidentical hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) using post-transplant cyclophosphamide (PTCy) for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is being defined. We performed a retrospective, multivariate analysis comparing outcomes of HCT approaches by donor for adults with ALL in remission. The primary objective was to compare overall survival (OS) between haploidentical HCT using PTCy and HLA-matched sibling donor (MSD), 8/8 HLA-matched unrelated donor (MUD) , 7/8 HLA-matched UD, or umbilical cord blood (UCB) HCT. Comparing haploidentical to MSD HCT, OS, leukemia-free survival (LFS), non-relapse mortality (NRM), relapse, and acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) were not different but chronic GVHD (cGVHD) was higher with MSD HCT. Compared to MUD HCT, OS, LFS, and relapse were not different but MUD HCT had increased NRM (HR 1.42, P=0.02), grade 3-4 aGVHD (HR 1.59, P=0.005), and cGVHD. Compared to 7/8 UD HCT, LFS and relapse were not different, but 7/8 UD HCT had worse OS (HR 1.38, P=0.01) and increased NRM (HR 2.13, P=<0.001), grade 3-4 aGVHD (HR 1.86, P=0.003), and cGVHD (HR 1.72, P=<0.001). Compared to UCB HCT, late OS , late LFS, relapse, and cGVHD were not different but UCB HCT had worse early OS (≤18 months, HR 1.93, P<0.001), worse early LFS (HR 1.40, P=0.007) and increased incidences of NRM (HR 2.08, P<0.001) and grade 3-4 aGVHD (HR 1.97, P<0.001). Haploidentical HCT using PTCy showed no difference in survival but less GVHD compared to traditional MSD and MUD HCT and is the preferred alternative donor HCT option for adults with ALL in CR.

20.
J Phys Condens Matter ; 34(1)2021 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34584028

RESUMO

In this work, we study the band structures and intrinsic anomalous Hall conductivity (AHC) of the ferromagnetic multiorbital tight-binding (TB) model derived from the transition metal compound Sr2RuO4under periodic driving of monochromatic polarized light. Within the framework of the Floquet theory, we adopt the continued fraction technique to attain the effective Hamiltonian valid in the weak-driving and low-frequency regimes, and the related Green's functions which are further employed for the transport calculations based on the Kubo formalism. The high-frequency circularly and linearly polarized light has limited impacts on the band structures, while the low-frequency light with the photon energy smaller than the bandwidth of the system opens up bandgaps at the edges of the Floquet-Brillouin zone since the transitions between Floquet sidebands become significant. For intrinsic AHC, the left-handed circularly polarized (LCP) light plays a distinct role on AHC compared to the right-handed circularly polarized (RCP) light. Furthermore, it reveals that the roles of LCP and RCP light can be interchanged by altering the incident plane of light. Finally, the intrinsic AHC with the interplay between the short-range disorder and circularly polarized light is also investigated.

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