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1.
Obstet Gynecol ; 2021 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34619694

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the rate of immediate postpartum long-acting reversible contraceptive (LARC) use in a multihospital health care system 2 years before and after the policy was implemented, and to assess factors associated with LARC use and repeat pregnancy rates within 12 months after delivery. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective chart review of all patients giving birth at three Cleveland Clinic Ohio hospitals from July 1, 2015, to June 30, 2019. We reviewed the inpatient medication reconciliation to identify the LARC initiation rate. We compared all patients who received inpatient postpartum LARC to a 1:3 matched sample of patients who did not receive LARC, matched by delivery date and location, to identify patient characteristics associated with LARC use. The electronic medical record (Epic) was reviewed to identify new pregnancies occurring within 12 months postdelivery. RESULTS: We identified 17,848 deliveries prepolicy and 18,555 deliveries postpolicy. Immediate postpartum LARC was used by 0.5% (monthly range 0-2.1%) of patients prepolicy and 11.6% (monthly range 8.3-15.4%) of patients postpolicy. Levonorgestrel intrauterine devices (IUDs) were used by 56.5%, implants by 29.1%, and copper IUDs by 14.5% of LARC users. Characteristics associated with LARC use included younger age, public insurance, non-White race, Hispanic or Latina ethnicity, higher body mass index, sexually transmitted infection in pregnancy, and tobacco use. Long-acting reversible contraceptive users had a lower rate of repeat pregnancy at 12 months postpartum compared with the non-LARC group (1.9% vs 3.6%, P<.001). CONCLUSION: Immediate postpartum LARC use increased after a state policy change mandated universal access and was associated with decreased pregnancy rates in the first year postdelivery.

2.
J Biomed Sci ; 28(1): 66, 2021 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34610835

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Influenza A virus (IAV) evolves strategies to counteract the host antiviral defense for establishing infection. The influenza A virus (IAV) non-structural protein 1 (NS1) is a key viral factor shown to counteract type I IFN antiviral response mainly through targeting RIG-I signaling. Growing evidence suggests that viral RNA sensors RIG-I, TLR3, and TLR7 function to detect IAV RNA in different cell types to induce type I IFN antiviral response to IAV infection. Yet, it remains unclear if IAV NS1 can exploit a common mechanism to counteract these RNA sensing pathways to type I IFN production at once, then promoting viral propagation in the host. METHODS: Luciferase reporter assays were conducted to determine the effect of NS1 and its mutants on the RIG-I and TLR3 pathways to the activation of the IFN-ß and NF-κB promoters. Coimmunoprecipitation and confocal microscopic analyses were used to the interaction and colocalization between NS1 and TRAF3. Ubiquitination assays were performed to study the effect of NS1 and its mutants on TRAF3 ubiquitination. A recombinant mutant virus carrying NS1 E152A/E153A mutations was generated by reverse genetics for biochemical, ex vivo, and in vivo analyses to explore the importance of NS1 E152/E153 residues in targeting the RNA sensing-TRAF3-type I IFN axis and IAV pathogenicity. RESULTS: Here we report that NS1 subverts the RIG-I, TLR3, and TLR7 pathways to type I IFN production through targeting TRAF3 E3 ubiquitin ligase. NS1 harbors a conserved FTEE motif (a.a. 150-153), in which the E152/E153 residues are critical for binding TRAF3 to block TRAF3 ubiquitination and type I IFN production by these RNA sensing pathways. A recombinant mutant virus carrying NS1 E152A/E153A mutations induces higher type I IFN production ex vivo and in vivo, and exhibits the attenuated phenotype in infected mice, indicating the importance of E152/E153 residues in IAV pathogenicity. CONCLUSIONS: Together our work uncovers a novel mechanism of IAV NS1-mediated immune evasion to promote viral infection through targeting the RNA sensing-TRAF3-type I IFN axis.

3.
ACS Chem Biol ; 2021 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34609851

RESUMO

The search for new antimalarial drugs with unexplored mechanisms of action is currently one of the main objectives to combat the resistance already in the clinic. New drugs should target specific mechanisms that once initiated lead inevitably to the parasite's death and clearance and cause minimal toxicity to the host. One such new mode of action recently characterized is to target the parasite's calcium dynamics. Disruption of the calcium homeostasis is associated with compromised digestive vacuole membrane integrity and release of its contents, leading to programmed cell death-like features characterized by loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and DNA degradation. Intriguingly, chloroquine (CQ)-treated parasites were previously reported to exhibit such cellular features. Using a high-throughput phenotypic screen, we identified 158 physiological disruptors (hits) of parasite calcium distribution from a small subset of approximately 3000 compounds selected from the GSK TCAMS (Tres Cantos Anti-Malarial Set) compound library. These compounds were then extensively profiled for biological activity against various CQ- and artemisinin-resistant Plasmodium falciparum strains and stages. The hits were also examined for cytotoxicity, speed of antimalarial activity, and their possible inhibitory effects on heme crystallization. Overall, we identified three compounds, TCMDC-136230, -125431, and -125457, which were potent in inducing calcium redistribution but minimally inhibited heme crystallization. Molecular superimposition of the molecules by computational methods identified a common pharmacophore, with the best fit assigned to TCMDC-125457. There were low cytotoxicity or CQ cross-resistance issues for these three compounds. IC50 values of these three compounds were in the low micromolar range. In addition, TCMDC-125457 demonstrated high efficacy when pulsed in a single-dose combination with artesunate against tightly synchronized artemisinin-resistant ring-stage parasites. These results should add new drug options to the current armament of antimalarial drugs as well as provide promising starting points for development of drugs with non-classical modes of action.

4.
Med Oncol ; 38(11): 131, 2021 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34554338

RESUMO

Apigenin, a natural flavonoid compound present in a variety of edible plants and health foods, has an anti-tumor effect and inhibits hypoxia inducible factor-lα (HIF-1α) expression in hypertrophic cardiac tissues. However, whether or not apigenin has a radiosensitization effect on glioma stem cells (GSCs) is unknown. Our present study aimed to investigate the effect of apigenin and its possible mechanisms. The human GSCs SU3 and its radioresistance line SU3-5R were treated with apigenin, radiation, or their combination, and the cell proliferation, migration, colony formation, and intracellular lactic acid and glycolytic related protein expressions were determined. Additionally, a cell model with hypoxia-induced HIF-1α expression was used and treated with apigenin. The current results displayed that the combination of apigenin and radiation could synergically reduce the viability, colony formation, and migration of the both GSCs. Moreover, this combination could also decrease the radiation-induced increments of glycolytic production lactic acid in the both GSCs and related protein expressions, including HIF-1α, glucose transporter (GLUT)-1/3, nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) p65, and pyruvate kinase isozyme type M2 (PKM2). Further study confirmed that after treatment of hypoxia-cultured SU3 or SU3-5R cells with apigenin, the expression levels of HIF-1α, GLUT-1/3, NF-κB p65, and PKM2 proteins were reduced. These results demonstrated that apigenin could increase the radiosensitivity of GSCs and its radiosensitization mechanisms were attributable to the attenuation of glycolysis, which might result from the inhibition of HIF-1α expression and subsequent reductions of GLUT-1/3, NF-κB, and PKM2 expressions.

5.
J Control Release ; 338: 719-730, 2021 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34509586

RESUMO

Given the difficulties of biodegradation of mesoporous silica nanoparticles (NPs), enrichment and penetration of tumor sites, and real-time monitoring of the treatment process, we developed a kind of mannose-doping doxorubicin-loading mesoporous silica nanoparticle (MSN-Man-DOX) and coated by polydopamine-Gd3+ (PDAGd) metal-phenolic networks, as well as modified by poly (2-Ethyl-2-Oxazoline) (PEOz), constructing a novel nanomedicine MSN-Man-DOX@PDA-Gd-PEOz. Its pH-responsive charge reversal, photothermal, biodegradation, drug release, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) properties were evaluated in vitro. Cellular uptake, tumor penetration, lysosomal escape properties, as well as cell safety and toxicity of the nanoplatform were investigated through cell experiments. Finally, the MRI, organ distribution, photothermal condition, and comprehensive anti-tumor therapy in vivo were evaluated comprehensively through animal experiments. Research results showed that MSN-Man-DOX@PDA-Gd-PEOz had outstanding tumor enrichment and penetration abilities, which can produce excellent treatment effects through the synergistic effect of chemotherapy and photothermal therapy (PTT) with the function of magnetic resonance imaging contrast agent for disease monitoring. Besides, after finishing the therapeutic effect MSN-Man-DOX@PDA-Gd-PEOz can be biodegraded, so it had a good prospect of clinical application.

6.
Immun Inflamm Dis ; 2021 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34473901

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Three-dimensional (3D) structures of MHC class I exert some influence by the MHC-peptide interaction over host resistance to the virus. The thesis aims at studying the connection between MHC-peptide interaction of B2/B21 haplotype and MHC-related resistance to the virus. METHODS: The structure of chicken MHC class I BF2*0201 from B2 haplotype was studied and contrasted with that of BF2*2101 from B21 haplotype by using DNAMAN and PyMol software. RESULTS: The amino acid difference resulted in the difference in size and changeability of the binding groove of the two, resulting in different choices on the binding polypeptide. 3bew's (the crystal structure of BF2*2101 bound to peptide RV10) small side chain His111 replaces the short side chain Tyr111 of 4cvx (the crystal structure of BF2*0201 bound to peptide YL9), and the very small amino acid of Ser69 and Ser97 make the middle of the 3bew's binding groove become apparently broad and bound restrictive of amino acid smaller. Moreover, due to the specific amino acids-Arg9, Asp24, and Asp73 of 4cvx and Arg9, Asp24, and His111 of 3bew, the effect of the polypeptide and the binding groove differ between the two, and 3bew tends to bind polypeptides with negatively charged amino acids, but the large space in the middle can also accommodate other amino acids. Contrasted with the binding groove characteristic of 4cvx, it can be said that the selectivity of 3bew is higher than that of 4cvx in the amino acid type of the binding polypeptide, so the B21 haplotype has more host resistance to the virus than that of the B2 haplotype in chicken. CONCLUSION: There are usually various kinds of peptides presented by the BF2*2101 molecules of B21 haplotypes, resulting in resistance to pathogenic microorganisms, such as Rous sarcoma virus and/or Marek's disease virus. These findings may have an important theoretical foundation for screening of virus antigen, vaccine design, and genetic resistance breeding.

7.
Contemp Clin Trials ; 109: 106525, 2021 Aug 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371163

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The SARS CoV-2 virus has caused one of the deadliest pandemics in recent history, resulting in over 170 million deaths and global economic disruption. There remains an urgent need for clinical trials to test therapies for treatment and prevention. DESIGN: An online research platform was created to support a registry community of healthcare workers (HCWs) to understand their experiences and conduct clinical studies to address their concerns. The first study, HERO-HCQ, was a double-blind, multicenter, randomized, pragmatic trial to evaluate the superiority of hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) vs placebo for pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) of COVID-19 clinical infection in HCWs. Secondary objectives were to assess the efficacy of HCQ in preventing viral shedding of COVID-19 among HCWs and to assess the safety and tolerability of HCQ. METHODS: HCWs joined the Registry and were pre-screened for trial interest and eligibility. Trial participants were randomized 1:1 to receive HCQ or placebo. On-site baseline assessment included a COVID-19 nasopharyngeal PCR and blood serology test. Weekly follow-up was done via an online portal and included screening for symptoms of COVID-19, self-reported testing, adverse events, and quality of life assessments. The on-site visit was repeated at Day 30. DISCUSSION: The HERO research platform offers an approach to rapidly engage, screen, invite and enroll into clinical studies using a novel participant-facing online portal interface and remote data collection, enabling limited onsite procedures for conduct of a pragmatic clinical trial. This platform may be an example for future clinical trials of common conditions to enable more rapid evidence generation.

8.
Acta Biomater ; 133: 257-267, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34407475

RESUMO

Combined cell vaccines of tumor whole cells and dendritic cells (DCs) provide an effective individualized immunotherapy for malignant tumors. We propose an innovative strategy termed "biomaterial-mediated combined cell vaccines for immunotherapy," which combines tumor cell and DC vaccines with a cyclodextrin-polyethylene glycol hydrogel and a cytosine-phosphate-guanine (CpG) nanoadjuvant. The nanoadjuvant promotes antigen presentation and amplifies immune-eliciting potency by co-delivery of antigens and adjuvants. The hydrogel scaffold provides a better growth microenvironment for injected exogenous DCs and recruits endogenous DCs to maintain their viability for synergistic effect. The results indicated that, relative to live tumor cells, the immunogenically dying tumor cells activated DC maturation effectively with the auxiliary effect of immune adjuvant CpG nanoparticles. The increased T cell percentage, proliferation ability, cytokine secretion, and cytotoxic effect revealed the enhanced immunogenicity of the combined cell vaccines. The combined hydrogel/nanoadjuvant system showed the best efficiency in inhibiting tumor growth. Moreover, vaccination with a single dose of hydrogel-based combined vaccines significantly delayed the development of tumors. The biomaterial-mediated combined cell vaccines remarkably increased the infiltration of effector T cells, alleviated the intratumoral immunosuppressive microenvironment, and maximized the immune effect of the vaccines, thus improving cancer immunotherapy. STATEMENT OF SIGNIFICANCE: Cell-based vaccines, including tumor whole-cell vaccine or DC vaccine, have attracted wide attention as an effective method for cancer immunotherapy. However, it is difficult to gain satisfactory outcomes in clinical trials because of the low immunogenicity of tumor whole cell vaccine and the short-term survival of transferred DC vaccine. Therefore, improving the ability of cell-based vaccines to induce a strong and durable immune response is the primary objective for vaccine development. Biomaterial-mediated combined cell vaccines is an innovative strategy for cancer immunotherapy. The combined hydrogel/ nanoadjuvant system comprises immunogenically dying tumor cells, DCs, and nanoadjuvants. Nanoadjuvant-loaded immunogenically dying tumor cells can induce efficient immune response as the tumor cell vaccine. The hydrogel-based combined tumor cell/DC vaccine could be used for individualized immunotherapy.

9.
Front Immunol ; 12: 702877, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34335616

RESUMO

Background: Acute rheumatic fever (ARF) is a serious sequela of Group A Streptococcus (GAS) infection associated with significant global mortality. Pathogenesis remains poorly understood, with the current prevailing hypothesis based on molecular mimicry and the notion that antibodies generated in response to GAS infection cross-react with cardiac proteins such as myosin. Contemporary investigations of the broader autoantibody response in ARF are needed to both inform pathogenesis models and identify new biomarkers for the disease. Methods: This study has utilised a multi-platform approach to profile circulating autoantibodies in ARF. Sera from patients with ARF, matched healthy controls and patients with uncomplicated GAS pharyngitis were initially analysed for autoreactivity using high content protein arrays (Protoarray, 9000 autoantigens), and further explored using a second protein array platform (HuProt Array, 16,000 autoantigens) and 2-D gel electrophoresis of heart tissue combined with mass spectrometry. Selected autoantigens were orthogonally validated using conventional immunoassays with sera from an ARF case-control study (n=79 cases and n=89 matched healthy controls) and a related study of GAS pharyngitis (n=39) conducted in New Zealand. Results: Global analysis of the protein array data showed an increase in total autoantigen reactivity in ARF patients compared with controls, as well as marked heterogeneity in the autoantibody profiles between ARF patients. Autoantigens previously implicated in ARF pathogenesis, such as myosin and collagens were detected, as were novel candidates. Disease pathway analysis revealed several autoantigens within pathways linked to arthritic and myocardial disease. Orthogonal validation of three novel autoantigens (PTPN2, DMD and ANXA6) showed significant elevation of serum antibodies in ARF (p < 0.05), and further highlighted heterogeneity with patients reactive to different combinations of the three antigens. Conclusions: The broad yet heterogenous elevation of autoantibodies observed suggests epitope spreading, and an expansion of the autoantibody repertoire, likely plays a key role in ARF pathogenesis and disease progression. Multiple autoantigens may be needed as diagnostic biomarkers to capture this heterogeneity.

10.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4777, 2021 08 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34362904

RESUMO

The modulation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels is crucial for cellular homeostasis and determination of cellular fate. A sublethal level of ROS sustains cell proliferation, differentiation and promotes tumor metastasis, while a drastic ROS burst directly induces apoptosis. Herein, surface-oxidized arsenene nanosheets (As/AsxOy NSs) with type II heterojunction are fabricated with efficient ·O2- and 1O2 production and glutathione consumption through prolonging the lifetime of photo-excited electron-hole pairs. Moreover, the portion of AsxOy with oxygen vacancies not only catalyzes a Fenton-like reaction, generating ·OH and O2 from H2O2, but also inactivates main anti-oxidants to cut off the "retreat routes" of ROS. After polydopamine (PDA) and cancer cell membrane (M) coating, the engineered As/AsxOy@PDA@M NSs serve as an intelligent theranostic platform with active tumor targeting and long-term blood circulation. Given its narrow-band-gap-enabled in vivo fluorescence imaging properties, As/AsxOy@PDA@M NSs could be applied as an imaging-guided non-invasive and real-time nanomedicine for cancer therapy.


Assuntos
Nanomedicina , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Células A549 , Animais , Apoptose , Arsênio , Catálise , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Glutationa/metabolismo , Homeostase , Humanos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio , Indóis , Células MCF-7 , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Nanopartículas , Oxigênio , Fotoquimioterapia/métodos , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/uso terapêutico , Polímeros , Medicina de Precisão , Nanomedicina Teranóstica/métodos
11.
Biomed Environ Sci ; 34(7): 520-527, 2021 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34353415

RESUMO

Objective: Although benzene is a confirmed environmental carcinogen, the mechanism of its carcinogenicity remains largely unclear. The suggested oncogene, miR-221, is elevated and plays important roles in various tumors, but its role in benzene-induced carcinogenesis remains unknown. Methods: In the present study, we constructed hydroquinone (HQ, a representative metabolite of benzene with biological activity)-transformed malignant cell line (16HBE-t) and analyzed the level of miR-221 in it with qRT-PCR. Exosomes from 16HBE-t cells incubated with or without an miR-221 inhibitor were isolated by ultracentrifugation, characterized by transmission electron microscopy and laser scanning confocal microscope, and then transfected into 16HBE cells. The effects of exosomal miR-221 on apoptosis induced by HQ in recipient cells were determined using flow cytometry. Results: The amount of miR-221 in 16HBE-t was significantly increased compared with controls. When recipient cells ingested exosomes derived from 16HBE-t, miR-221 was increased, and apoptosis induced by HQ was inhibited. Blocking miR-221 in 16HBE-t using an inhibitor did not significantly alter miR-221 or apoptosis in recipient cells. Conclusion: Exosomal miR-221 secreted by 16HBE-t inhibits apoptosis induced by HQ in normal recipient cells.


Assuntos
Apoptose , Exossomos , Hidroquinonas , MicroRNAs , Brônquios/citologia , Linhagem Celular Transformada , Células Epiteliais , Humanos
12.
Molecules ; 26(14)2021 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34299577

RESUMO

Magnolol (MAG), a biphenolic neolignan, has various biological activities including antitumor effects. In this study, 15 MAG derivatives were semi-synthesized and evaluated for their in vitro anticancer activities. From these derivatives, compound 6a exhibited the best cytotoxic activity against four human cancer cell lines, with IC50 values ranging from 20.43 to 28.27 µM. Wound-healing and transwell assays showed that compound 6a significantly inhibited the migration and invasion of MDA-MB-231 cells. In addition, Western blotting experiments, performed using various concentrations of 6a, demonstrated that it downregulates the expression of HIF-1α, MMP-2, and MMP-9 in a concentration-dependent manner. Overall, these results suggest that substituting a benzyl group having F atoms substituted at the C2 position on MAG is a viable strategy for the structural optimization of MAG derivatives as anticancer agents.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/química , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Compostos de Bifenilo/química , Compostos de Bifenilo/farmacologia , Lignanas/química , Lignanas/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/síntese química , Compostos de Bifenilo/síntese química , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Feminino , Humanos , Lignanas/síntese química , Invasividade Neoplásica/prevenção & controle , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/tratamento farmacológico
13.
Drug Metab Dispos ; 49(9): 856-868, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34326139

RESUMO

Infigratinib (INF) is a promising selective inhibitor of fibroblast growth factor receptors 1-3 that has recently been accorded both orphan drug designation and priority review status by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of advanced cholangiocarcinoma. Its propensity to undergo bioactivation to electrophilic species was recently expounded upon. However, other than causing aberrant idiosyncratic toxicities, these reactive intermediates may elicit mechanism-based inactivation of cytochrome P450 enzymes. In this study, we investigated the interactions between INF and the most abundant hepatic CYP3A. Our findings revealed that, apart from being a potent noncompetitive reversible inhibitor of CYP3A4, INF inactivated CYP3A4 in a time-, concentration- and NADPH-dependent manner with inactivator concentration at half-maximum inactivation rate constant, maximum inactivation rate constant, and partition ratio of 4.17 µM, 0.068 minute-1, and 41, respectively, when rivaroxaban was employed as the probe substrate. Coincubation with testosterone (alternative CYP3A substrate) or ketoconazole (direct CYP3A inhibitor) attenuated the rate of inactivation, whereas the inclusion of glutathione and catalase did not confer such protection. The lack of enzyme activity recovery after dialysis for 4 hours and oxidation with potassium ferricyanide, coupled with the absence of the characteristic Soret peak signature collectively substantiated that inactivation of CYP3A4 by INF was not mediated by the formation of quasi-irreversible metabolite-intermediate complexes but rather through irreversible covalent adduction to the prosthetic heme and/or apoprotein. Finally, glutathione trapping and high-resolution mass spectrometry experimental results unraveled two plausible bioactivation mechanisms of INF arising from the generation of a p-benzoquinonediimine and epoxide reactive intermediate. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT: The potential of INF to cause MBI of CYP3A4 was unknown. This study reports the reversible noncompetitive inhibition and irreversible covalent MBI of CYP3A4 by INF and proposes two potential bioactivation pathways implicating p-benzoquinonediimine and epoxide reactive intermediates, following which a unique covalent docking methodology was harnessed to elucidate the structural and molecular determinants underscoring its inactivation. Findings from this study lay the groundwork for future investigation of clinically relevant drug-drug interactions between INF and concomitant substrates of CYP3A4.

14.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(13)2021 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34203338

RESUMO

Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage (DAH) in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is associated with significant mortality, requiring a thorough understanding of its complex mechanisms to develop novel therapeutics for disease control. Activated p53-dependent apoptosis with dysregulated long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) expression is involved in the SLE pathogenesis and correlated with clinical activity. We examined the expression of apoptosis-related p53-dependent lncRNA, including H19, HOTAIR and lincRNA-p21 in SLE-associated DAH patients. Increased lincRNA-p21 levels were detected in circulating mononuclear cells, mainly in CD4+ and CD14+ cells. Higher expression of p53, lincRNA-p21 and cell apoptosis was identified in lung tissues. Lentivirus-based short hairpin RNA (shRNA)-transduced stable transfectants were created for examining the targeting efficacy in lncRNA. Under pristane stimulation, alveolar epithelial cells had increased p53, lincRNA-p21 and downstream Bax levels with elevated apoptotic ratios. After pristane injection, C57/BL6 mice developed DAH with increased pulmonary expression of p53, lincRNA-p21 and cell apoptosis. Intra-pulmonary delivery of shRNA targeting lincRNA-p21 reduced hemorrhage frequencies and improved anemia status through decreasing Bax expression and cell apoptosis. Our findings demonstrate increased p53-dependent lncRNA expression with accelerated cell apoptosis in the lungs of SLE-associated DAH patients, and show the therapeutic potential of targeting intra-pulmonary lncRNA expression in a pristane-induced model of DAH.


Assuntos
RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/metabolismo , Animais , Apoptose/fisiologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Hemorragia/genética , Hemorragia/metabolismo , Humanos , Pulmão/metabolismo , Pulmão/microbiologia , Pneumopatias/genética , Pneumopatias/metabolismo , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/genética , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/metabolismo , Masculino , Alvéolos Pulmonares/metabolismo , Alvéolos Pulmonares/microbiologia , RNA Interferente Pequeno/genética , RNA Interferente Pequeno/metabolismo , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética
15.
Int Heart J ; 62(4): 752-755, 2021 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34276017

RESUMO

This study aimed to evaluate the concentration of plasma elabela (ELA) in patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) and its correlation with the disease classification.We enrolled 238 patients diagnosed by coronary angiography as CHD and 86 controls. The CHD group was divided into three subgroups: stable angina (SA), unstable angina (UAP), and acute myocardial infarction (AMI). The plasma levels of ELA were measured in all participants and compared among different groups. The relationship between ELA and CHD classification was analyzed.ELA levels were markedly higher by 10.71% in patients with CHD than in controls (P < 0.05). The concentration of ELA in UAP and AMI subgroups were higher than in controls and SA subgroup. The former difference was significant (P < 0.05), but the latter was not. In addition, the ELA concentration was not correlated with SYNTAX score, left ventricular ejection fraction, and other biochemical variables.The newfound hormone, ELA, significantly increased in patients with UAP and AMI. There is a tendency that ELA levels might be correlated with CHD classification, but not with lesion severity. ELA may play a role in acute coronary syndrome.


Assuntos
Isquemia Miocárdica/sangue , Hormônios Peptídicos/sangue , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Isquemia Miocárdica/classificação
16.
Neurology ; 97(10): e975-e987, 2021 09 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34233932

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: To determine whether human anti-LRP4/agrin antibodies are pathogenic in mice and to investigate underpinning pathogenic mechanisms. METHODS: Immunoglobulin (Ig) was purified from a patient with myasthenia gravis (MG) with anti-LRP4/agrin antibodies and transferred to mice. Mice were characterized for body weight, muscle strength, twitch and tetanic force, neuromuscular junction (NMJ) functions including compound muscle action potential (CMAP) and endplate potentials, and NMJ structure. Effects of the antibodies on agrin-elicited muscle-specific tyrosine kinase (MuSK) activation and AChR clustering were studied and the epitopes of these antibodies were identified. RESULTS: Patient Ig-injected mice had MG symptoms, including weight loss and muscle weakness. Decreased CMAPs, reduced twitch and tetanus force, compromised neuromuscular transmission, and NMJ fragmentation and distortion were detected in patient Ig-injected mice. Patient Ig inhibited agrin-elicited MuSK activation and AChR clustering. The patient Ig recognized the ß3 domain of LRP4 and the C-terminus of agrin and reduced agrin-enhanced LRP4-MuSK interaction. DISCUSSION: Anti-LRP4/agrin antibodies in the patient with MG is pathogenic. It impairs the NMJ by interrupting agrin-dependent LRP4-MuSK interaction.


Assuntos
Agrina , Miastenia Gravis , Animais , Anticorpos , Humanos , Proteínas Relacionadas a Receptor de LDL , Camundongos , Junção Neuromuscular
17.
Adv Sci (Weinh) ; 8(12): 2001801, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34194924

RESUMO

Neighboring carbon and sandwiched between non-metals and metals in the periodic table of the elements, boron is one of the most chemically and physically versatile elements, and can be manipulated to form dimensionally low planar structures (borophene) with intriguing properties. Herein, the theoretical research and experimental developments in the synthesis of borophene, as well as its excellent properties and application in many fields, are reviewed. The decade-long effort toward understanding the size-dependent structures of boron clusters and the theory-directed synthesis of borophene, including bottom-up approaches based on different foundations, as well as up-down approaches with different exfoliation modes, and the key factors influencing the synthetic effects, are comprehensively summarized. Owing to its excellent chemical, electronic, mechanical, and thermal properties, borophene has shown great promise in supercapacitor, battery, hydrogen-storage, and biomedical applications. Furthermore, borophene nanoplatforms used in various biomedical applications, such as bioimaging, drug delivery, and photonic therapy, are highlighted. Finally, research progress, challenges, and perspectives for the future development of borophene in large-scale production and other prospective applications are discussed.

18.
Ecotoxicology ; 2021 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34269924

RESUMO

In this study, Illumina MiSeq sequencing of the 16 S rRNA gene was used to describe the bacterial communities in the South China Sea (SCS) during the southwest monsoon period. We targeted different regions in the SCS and showed that bacterial community was driven by the effects of the river, upwelling, and mesoscale eddy through changing the environmental factors (salinity, temperature, and nutrients). Distinct bacterial communities were observed among different chemical conditions, especially between the estuary and the open sea. The abundance of Burkholderiales, Frankiales, Flavobacteriales, and Rhodobacterales dominated the estuary and its adjacent waters. Bacteria in cyclonic eddy were dominated by Methylophilales and Pseudomonadales, whereas Prochlorococcus, SAR11 clade, and Oceanospirillales had relatively high abundance in the anticyclonic eddy. Overall, the abundance of specific phylotypes significantly varied among samples with different chemical conditions. Chemical conditions probably act as a driver that shapes and controls the diversity of bacteria in the SCS. This study suggests that the interaction between microbial and environmental conditions needs to be further considered to fully understand the diversity and function of marine microbes.

19.
Curr Biol ; 31(15): 3330-3342.e7, 2021 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34143959

RESUMO

Dopamine (DA) transmission is critical to motivation, movement, and emotion. Unlike glutamatergic and GABAergic synapses, the development of DA synapses is less understood. We show that bassoon (BSN) clusters along DA axons in the core of nucleus accumbens (NAcc) were increased in neonatal stages and reduced afterward, suggesting DA synapse elimination. Remarkably, DA neuron-specific ablating neuregulin 3 (NRG3), a protein whose levels correlate with BSN clusters, increased the clusters and impaired DA release and behaviors related to DA transmission. An unbiased screen of transmembrane proteins with the extracellular domain (ECD) of NRG3 identified Caspr3 (contactin associate-like protein 3) as a binding partner. Caspr3 was enriched in striatal medium spiny neurons (MSNs). NRG3 and Caspr3 interact in trans, which was blocked by Caspr3-ECD. Caspr3 null mice displayed phenotypes similar to those in DAT-Nrg3f/f mice in DA axonal BSN clusters and DA transmission. Finally, in vivo disruption of the NRG3-Caspr3 interaction increased BSN clusters. Together, these results demonstrate that DA synapse development is controlled by trans interaction between NRG3 in DA neurons and Caspr3 in MSNs, identifying a novel pair of cell adhesion molecules for brain circuit wiring.

20.
Sci Transl Med ; 13(599)2021 06 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34162754

RESUMO

Increasing clinical evidence has demonstrated that the deletion or mutation of tumor suppressor genes such as the gene-encoding phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) in cancer cells may correlate with an immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment (TME) and poor response or resistance to immune checkpoint blockade (ICB) therapy. It is largely unknown whether the restoration of functional PTEN may modulate the TME and improve the tumor's sensitivity to ICB therapy. Here, we demonstrate that mRNA delivery by polymeric nanoparticles can effectively induce expression of PTEN in Pten-mutated melanoma cells and Pten-null prostate cancer cells, which in turn induces autophagy and triggers cell death-associated immune activation via release of damage-associated molecular patterns. In vivo results illustrated that PTEN mRNA nanoparticles can reverse the immunosuppressive TME by promoting CD8+ T cell infiltration of the tumor tissue, enhancing the expression of proinflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin-12, tumor necrosis factor-α, and interferon-γ, and reducing regulatory T cells and myeloid-derived suppressor cells. The combination of PTEN mRNA nanoparticles with an immune checkpoint inhibitor, anti-programmed death-1 antibody, results in a highly potent antitumor effect in a subcutaneous model of Pten-mutated melanoma and an orthotopic model of Pten-null prostate cancer. Moreover, the combinatorial treatment elicits immunological memory in the Pten-null prostate cancer model.


Assuntos
Melanoma/imunologia , Nanopartículas , PTEN Fosfo-Hidrolase , Neoplasias da Próstata/imunologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Genes Supressores de Tumor , Humanos , Masculino , PTEN Fosfo-Hidrolase/genética , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Microambiente Tumoral
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