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1.
J Cell Physiol ; 2020 Feb 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32052427

RESUMO

N6-methyladenosine (m6A) modification regulatory proteins are involved in the development of many types of cancer. KIAA1429 serves as a scaffold in bridging the catalytic core components of the m6A methyltransferase complex. The role of KIAA1429 in gastric cancer and its related mechanism has not been reported upon. The expression of KIAA1429 was detected in human gastric cancer tissues and cell lines by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and western blot. The effects of KIAA1429 on gastric cancer proliferation were evaluated by cell counting kit assays, colony formation assays, flow cytometry assay, and in vivo experiments with nude mice. And messenger RNA (mRNA) high-throughput sequencing, RNA immunoprecipitation assay (RIP), luciferase assay, and a rescue experiment were used to identify the relationship between KIAA1429 and its specific targeted gene, c-Jun. We found that KIAA1429 was upregulated in gastric cancer tissues, and expressed lower in adjacent tissues. The upregulated KIAA1429 promoted proliferation and downregulated KIAA1429 was proved to inhibit proliferation of gastric cancer in vitro and in vivo. Then, we identified the potential KIAA1429 regulating gene as c-Jun by mRNAs high-throughput sequencing and RIP assay. By luciferase assay, we verified that KIAA1429 regulated the expression of c-Jun in an m6A-independent manner. Finally, the overexpression of c-Jun rescued the inhibition of proliferation caused by KIAA1429 knockdown in gastric cancer cells. KIAA1429 could act as an oncogene in gastric cancer by stabilizing c-Jun mRNA in an m6A-independent manner. This highlights the functional role for KIAA1429 as a potential prognostic biomarker and therapeutic target in gastric cancer.

2.
J Control Release ; 321: 71-83, 2020 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32035191

RESUMO

Oxidative-stress defense system stands for the vulnerability of tumor cells because of the stronger oxidative stress existing in tumor sites. TRPA-1 has been found to be overexpressed in various tumors, related to the tumor proliferation and metastasis, and promote reactive oxygen species (ROS) and chemotherapy tolerance through Ca2+-dependent anti-apoptotic pathway in recent studies, which provides a new anti-tumor approach to target oxidative-stress defense system. However, there are few studies on the mechanisms of TRPA-1 inhibition increasing the effectiveness of chemotherapy and inhibiting tumor metastasis. Here, in order to deliver drugs to the deep tumor where is full of stronger oxidative stress, a dual receptors-targeting and size-switchable "cluster bomb" co-loading doxorubicine (DOX) and TRPA-1 inhibitor AP-18 (DA-tMN) was designed. DSPE-PEG2000 micelles (M, ~10 nm) were connected to the master core of hyaluronic acid nanogels (N, ~100 nm) to realize HAase-responsive size-switchable and acquired targeting characteristics. Besides, tumor homing peptide tLyP-1 (t) was modified on the surface of micelles to further increase tumor accumulation. Our study showed that tLyP-1 modification enhanced tumor-targeting delivery of tLyP-1-modified micelles @ nanogels (tMN) in vitro and in vivo. Then, HAase responsive nanogel core realized the deep penetration of tMN in 4 T1 3D tumor spheres models and 4 T1 tumor-bearing mice models. In vitro anti-tumor and anti-metastasis mechanism studies indicated that AP-18 increased the sensitivity of tumor cells to DOX by inhibiting Ca2+ influx and AKT phosphorylation caused by DOX. Compared with DOX-loaded tLyP-1-modified micelles @ nanogels (D-tMN), DA-tMN had the enhanced anti-tumor and anti-metastasis effect in vitro and vivo. Furthermore, the further anti-metastasis mechanism studies showed that TRPA-1 inhibition downregulate the expression of N-cadherin and vimentin and upregulate the expression of E-cadherin, which suggested that metastases inhibition caused by TRPA-1 inhibition may be related to the inhibition of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) process.

3.
Biofabrication ; 2020 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31952065

RESUMO

Tumor resection is widely used to prevent tumor growth. However, the defected tissue at the original tumor site also causes tissue or organ dysfunction which lowers the patient's life quality. Therefore, regenerating the tissue and prevent tumor recurrence are highly important. Herein, according to the concept of "first kill and then regenerate", a versatile scaffold-based tissue engineering strategy based on cryogenic 3D printing of water-in-oil polyester emulsion inks containing multiple functional agents was developed,in order to realize the elimination of tumor cells with recurrence suppression and improved tissue regeneration sequentially. To illustrate our strategy, water/poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)/dichloromethane emulsions containing ß-tricalcium phosphate (ß-TCP), 2D black phosphorus (BP) nanosheets, low-dose doxorubicin hydrochloride (DOX) and high-dose osteogenic peptide were cryogenically 3D printed into hierarchically porous and mechanically strong nanocomposite scaffolds,with multiple functions to treat bone tumor resection-induced tissue defects. Prompt tumor ablation and long-term suppression of tumor recurrence could be achieved due to the synergistic effects of photothermotherapy and chemotherapy, and improved bone regeneration was obtained eventually due to the presence of bony environment and sustained peptide release. Notably, BP nanosheets in scaffolds significantly reduced the long-term toxicity phenomenon of released DOX during in vivo bone regeneration. Our study also provides insights for the design of multi-functional tissue engineering scaffolds for treating other tumor resection-induced tissue defects.

4.
Drug Alcohol Rev ; 2020 Jan 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31984591

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: Few smokers use smoking cessation pharmacotherapies during pregnancy. It is hypothesised that health-care providers' reluctance due to safety concerns contributes to their low use. This study examined the extent of providers' concern regarding smoking cessation pharmacotherapies, relative to other medications in the same and other pregnancy risk categories. Calls made to a teratology information service (MotherSafe, Australia) were taken as a proxy indicator of concern regarding safety during pregnancy. DESIGN AND METHODS: The primary exposure discussed in 66 687 calls made to MotherSafe between 2001 and 2016 was categorised as nicotine replacement therapy (NRT), bupropion, varenicline or category A (low risk), B1, B2, B3, C, D or X (teratogenic). Separate logistic regression models estimated the odds that calls regarding pharmacotherapies were from providers, relative to medications in the same and other risk categories. Models adjusted for caller remoteness and socio-economic status. RESULTS: Calls regarding bupropion were more likely to be made by providers than calls regarding other medications in its corresponding risk category [B2, adjusted odds ratio (aOR): 2.77, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.17, 6.59]. Calls about varenicline were also more likely to be from providers than calls regarding other category B3 medications (aOR 95% CI 2.33:1.30, 4.17). Calls regarding NRT were not more or less likely to be from providers than calls regarding other category D medications. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: Providers were more concerned about bupropion and varenicline than other medications within the same pregnancy risk categories. As this overestimation of risk may limit cessation pharmacotherapy use during pregnancy, research investigating strategies for correcting this imbalance is warranted.

5.
J Mater Chem B ; 2020 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31970379

RESUMO

The increasing prevalence of antibiotic resistance highlights the need for new antibacterial drugs and, in particular, the development of alternative approaches such as photodynamic therapy (PDT) and photothermal therapy (PTT) to manage this growing issue. In the present study, a broad-spectrum antibacterial system was produced in which Ag nanoparticle-conjugated graphene quantum dots (GQD-AgNP) were utilised as a blue light-enhanced nanotherapeutic for efficient ternary-mode antimicrobial therapy. The successful conjugation of AgNPs onto the surface of GQDs can significantly improve the production of reactive oxygen species in light-activatable GQDs and the transformation of light energy to hyperthermia with high efficiency. There was a remarkable increase in the sample temperature of nearly 40 °C via photoexcitation after only 10 min of 450 nm laser exposure (14.2 mW cm-2). The hybrids exhibited much more efficient bactericidal capability against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria compared with GQDs alone, using 450 nm light irradiation. This is likely a consequence of their enhanced PDT, concomitant PTT, and the synergistic function of AgNPs. The antibacterial mechanism of the new-style nanocomposites was found to irreversibly destroy the bacterial membrane structure, leading to the leaking out of the cytoplasmic contents and the death of the bacteria. At low doses, the biocompatible GQD-AgNP hybrids promoted healing in bacteria-infected rat wounds, with negligible adverse impact to the normal tissue, indicating a promising future for combined photodynamic and photothermal antibacterial applications in clinical medicine.

6.
Phytochem Anal ; 2020 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31990133

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Recently, the fresh leaves of Aquilaria trees have been processed as food products such as agarwood tea due to its beneficial medicinal properties. However, there have not been any reported analytical methods to quantify the bioactive principles in the processed products. OBJECTIVE: A rapid and sensitive ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) coupled with electrospray ionisation (ESI) tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) method was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of 10 bioactive components in Aquilaria leaf tea. METHODS: The UHPLC-MS/MS was used for quantification operated in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The optimised chromatographic parameters were conducted on a Shim-pack XR-ODS II column and mobile phases consisted of acetonitrile and 0.1% formic acid in water. RESULTS: All the samples were analysed within 20 min. The established method showed excellent linearity (R2 > 0.9988), good repeatability with all the relative standard deviation values lower than 3.27%, and satisfactory recovery (79.72-119.22%). The matrix effect factors ranged from 87.65 to 97.27% in the examination. The developed method was applied to the determination of 10 bioactive principles (1-10) in six different Aquilaria leaf tea samples. Among the analytes, mangiferin (1) and iriflophenone 2-O-α-l-rhamnopyranoside (2) were the most abundant compounds in the extracts of Aquilaria leaf tea, and it indicated that these biotech products may possess laxative effects. CONCLUSION: This proposed method appeared to be a useful tool for the quality control of commercial products of Aquilaria leaf tea and thus provided an analytical reference for herbal drinks.

7.
Theranostics ; 10(1): 281-299, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31903120

RESUMO

RNA molecules (e.g., siRNA, microRNA, and mRNA) have shown tremendous potential for immunomodulation and cancer immunotherapy. They can activate both innate and adaptive immune system responses by silencing or upregulating immune-relevant genes. In addition, mRNA-based vaccines have recently been actively pursued and tested in cancer patients, as a form of treatment. Meanwhile, various nanomaterials have been developed to enhance RNA delivery to the tumor and immune cells. In this review article, we summarize recent advances in the development of RNA-based therapeutics and their applications in cancer immunotherapy. We also highlight the variety of nanoparticle platforms that have been used for RNA delivery to elicit anti-tumor immune responses. Finally, we provide our perspectives of potential challenges and opportunities of RNA-based nanotherapeutics in clinical translation towards cancer immunotherapy.

8.
Cell Death Differ ; 2020 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31907392

RESUMO

Vps35 (vacuolar protein sorting 35) is a key component of retromer that regulates transmembrane protein trafficking. Dysfunctional Vps35 is a risk factor for neurodegenerative diseases, including Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases. Vps35 is highly expressed in developing pyramidal neurons, and its physiological role in developing neurons remains to be explored. Here, we provide evidence that Vps35 in embryonic neurons is necessary for axonal and dendritic terminal differentiation. Loss of Vps35 in embryonic neurons results in not only terminal differentiation deficits, but also neurodegenerative pathology, such as cortical brain atrophy and reactive glial responses. The atrophy of neocortex appears to be in association with increases in neuronal death, autophagosome proteins (LC3-II and P62), and neurodegeneration associated proteins (TDP43 and ubiquitin-conjugated proteins). Further studies reveal an increase of retromer cargo protein, sortilin1 (Sort1), in lysosomes of Vps35-KO neurons, and lysosomal dysfunction. Suppression of Sort1 diminishes Vps35-KO-induced dendritic defects. Expression of lysosomal Sort1 recapitulates Vps35-KO-induced phenotypes. Together, these results demonstrate embryonic neuronal Vps35's function in terminal axonal and dendritic differentiation, reveal an association of terminal differentiation deficit with neurodegenerative pathology, and uncover an important lysosomal contribution to both events.

9.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 522(3): 553-559, 2020 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31785815

RESUMO

A heterozygous frameshift PRRT2 mutation (c.649_650InsC) has been identified as the major causative mutation in several paroxysmal disorders, including paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia (PKD). Since PKD is an autosomal dominant disorder and since the frameshift mutations of PRRT2 may create a truncated protein, it remains unclear whether this mutation causes toxic gain of function or loss of function. By generating Prrt2 knock-in (KI) mice that express human PRRT2 with the c.649_650InsC mutation and by comparing the phenotypes of Prrt2 KI mice with knockout (KO) mice, we find that both KI and KO mice show the same extents of impaired rotarod and balance beam performance as well as the same sensitivity to seizure induction. Both KI and KO mice show altered formation of SNARE complex and number of synaptic vesicles. In addition, western blotting of KI mouse brain tissues could not detect truncated PRRT2 protein that might be generated by the c.649_650InsC mutation. Moreover, the level of PRRT2 mRNA in KI mice is significantly decreased, recapitulating the reduction of PRRT2 mRNA reported in PKD patients. Furthermore, mutant PRRT2 mRNA is unstable and showed shortened half-life than wild-type PRRT2 mRNA. Our studies suggest that PRRT2 frameshift mutation leads to the loss of function by affecting its mRNA stability, a mechanism that is different from haploinsufficiency due to dysfunctional protein or gain of function caused by truncated protein.

11.
Immunol Cell Biol ; 98(1): 12-21, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31742781

RESUMO

Acute rheumatic fever (ARF) and chronic rheumatic heart disease (RHD) are autoimmune sequelae of a Group A streptococcal infection with significant global mortality and poorly understood pathogenesis. Immunoglobulin and complement deposition were observed in ARF/RHD valve tissue over 50 years ago, yet contemporary investigations have been lacking. This study applied systems immunology to investigate the relationships between the complement system and immunoglobulin in ARF. Patients were stratified by C-reactive protein (CRP) concentration into high (≥10 µg mL-1 ) and low (<10 µg mL-1 ) groups to distinguish those with clinically significant inflammatory processes from those with abating inflammation. The circulating concentrations of 17 complement factors and six immunoglobulin isotypes and subclasses were measured in ARF patients and highly matched healthy controls using multiplex bead-based immunoassays. An integrative statistical approach combining feature selection and principal component analysis revealed a linked IgG3-C4 response in ARF patients with high CRP that was absent in controls. Strikingly, both IgG3 and C4 were elevated above clinical reference ranges, suggesting these features are a marker of ARF-associated inflammation. Humoral immunity in response to M protein, an antigen implicated in ARF pathogenesis, was completely polarized to IgG3 in the patient group. Furthermore, the anti-M-protein IgG3 response was correlated with circulating IgG3 concentration, highlighting a potential role for this potent immunoglobulin subclass in disease. In conclusion, a linked IgG3-C4 response appears important in the initial, inflammatory stage of ARF and may have immediate utility as a clinical biomarker given the lack of specific diagnostic tests currently available.

12.
Curr Eye Res ; 45(2): 153-161, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31869263

RESUMO

Purpose: To investigate the role of miRNAs in regulating oxidative damage during cataract formation.Methods: Microarray analysis and gene expression profiling assay were used to separately evaluate the miRNAs and mRNAs profiles in normal human lens epithelium cell line HLE-B3 treated by H2O2. The expression level of miR-630 was detected by RT-qPCR and the gene expression profiles were performed with gene ontology analysis using Bio Informatical database. The targets of miR-630 were predicted using miRecords and the results were used for screening targets of miR-630 combined with the GO analysis above. The mRNA levels of ALCAM, PCDH7, COL12A2, and EDIL3 in HLE-B3 cells after oxidative stimulation or miR-630 mimics transfection were measured by RT-qPCR, and the expression of ALCAM regulated by miR-630 was confirmed by Western blot and dual-luciferase reporter gene assay. The level of cell migration was measured by transwell assay and scratching test after transfection of miR-630 mimics and ALCAM siRNAs.Results: The microarray analysis demonstrated that miR-630 was significantly increased in HLE-B3 cells after oxidative stimulation. ALCAM, PCDH7, COL12A2, and EDIL3 were screened to be the possible targets of miR-630 by miRecords combined with GO analysis, but the results of RT-qPCR, Western blot and dual-luciferase reporter gene assay showed that only the expression of ALCAM was repressed by miR-630 transfection. Cell migration was inhibited through transfection of miR-630 mimics or ALCAM siRNAs and the upregulation of miR-630 partly reduced the cell migration increased by oxidative stimulation.Conclusion: miR-630 is one of the miRNAs increased by oxidative stimulation in human lens epithelium cells. Its upregulation may inhibit cell migration by targeting on ALCAM, which is important for HLECs to resist behavioral changes induced by oxidative damage and may delay the progression of cataract.

13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31866087

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Cytotoxic CD8+ tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) can contribute to the benefit of hypofractionated radiation, but programmed cell death pathways (programmed cell death 1 and programmed cell death ligand 1 [PD-1/PD-L1]) may provide a mechanism of tumor immune escape. We therefore reviewed the influence of PD-1/PD-L1 and CD8+ TILs on survival after accelerated hypofractionated hemithoracic radiation followed by extrapleural pneumonectomy for malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM). METHODS: Sixty-nine consecutive patients undergoing the protocol of Surgery for Mesothelioma after Radiation Therapy (SMART) between November 2008 and February 2016 were analyzed for the presence of PD-L1 on tumor cells, PD-1 on inflammatory cells, and CD8+ TILs. Comparison was made with a cohort of patients undergoing extrapleural pneumonectomy after induction chemotherapy (n = 14) and no induction (n = 2) between March 2005 and October 2008. PD-L1 expression on tumor cells ≥1% was considered positive. CD8+ TILs and PD-1 expression were scored as a percentage of positive cells. RESULTS: PD-L1 was negative in 75% of MPM after completion of SMART. CD8+ TILs ranged between 0.24% and 8.47% (median 2%). CD8+ TILs ≥2% was associated with significantly better survival in epithelioid MPM (median survival 3.7 years vs 2.3 years in CD8+ TILs <2%; P = .02). PD-L1 positivity was associated with worse survival in biphasic MPM (median survival, 0.4 years vs 1.5 years in biphasic PD-L1 negative tumors; P = .07) after SMART. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that epithelioid MPM, nodal disease, and CD8+ TILs were independent predictors of survival after SMART. CONCLUSIONS: The influence of tumor microenvironment on survival differs between epithelioid and nonepithelioid MPM. CD8+ TILs is an independent factor associated with better survival in epithelioid MPM treated with SMART.

14.
Neuron ; 2019 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31780330

RESUMO

Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are a group of neurodevelopmental disorders with symptoms including social deficits, anxiety, and communication difficulties. However, ASD pathogenic mechanisms are poorly understood. Mutations of CUL3, which encodes Cullin 3 (CUL3), a component of an E3 ligase complex, are thought of as risk factors for ASD and schizophrenia (SCZ). CUL3 is abundant in the brain, yet little is known of its function. Here, we show that CUL3 is critical for neurodevelopment. CUL3-deficient mice exhibited social deficits and anxiety-like behaviors with enhanced glutamatergic transmission and neuronal excitability. Proteomic analysis revealed eIF4G1, a protein for Cap-dependent translation, as a potential target of CUL3. ASD-associated cellular and behavioral deficits could be rescued by pharmacological inhibition of the eIF4G1 function and chemogenetic inhibition of neuronal activity. Thus, CUL3 is critical to neural development, neurotransmission, and excitation-inhibition (E-I) balance. Our study provides novel insight into the pathophysiological mechanisms of ASD and SCZ.

15.
J Neuroinflammation ; 16(1): 235, 2019 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31771656

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Vacuolar sorting protein 35 (VPS35), a critical component of retromer, is essential for selective endosome-to-Golgi retrieval of membrane proteins. It is highly expressed in microglial cells, in addition to neurons. We have previously demonstrated microglial VPS35's functions in preventing hippocampal, but not cortical, microglial activation, and in promoting adult hippocampal neurogenesis. However, microglial VPS35's role in the cortex in response to ischemic stroke remains largely unclear. METHODS: We used mice with VPS35 cKO (conditional knockout) in microglial cells and examined and compared their responses to ischemic stroke with control mice. The brain damage, cell death, changes in glial cells and gene expression, and sensorimotor deficits were assessed by a combination of immunohistochemical and immunofluorescence staining, RT-PCR, Western blot, and neurological functional behavior tests. RESULTS: We found that microglial VPS35 loss results in an increase of anti-inflammatory microglia in mouse cortex after ischemic stroke. The ischemic stroke-induced brain injury phenotypes, including brain damage, neuronal death, and sensorimotor deficits, were all attenuated by microglial VPS35-deficiency. Further analysis of protein expression changes revealed a reduction in CX3CR1 (CX3C chemokine receptor 1) in microglial VPS35-deficient cortex after ischemic stroke, implicating CX3CR1 as a potential cargo of VPS35 in this event. CONCLUSION: Together, these results reveal an unrecognized function of microglial VPS35 in enhancing ischemic brain injury-induced inflammatory microglia, but suppressing the injury-induced anti-inflammatory microglia. Consequently, microglial VPS35 cKO mice exhibit attenuation of ischemic brain injury response.

16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31758207

RESUMO

Apigenin has a protective effect on D-galactosamine (D-GalN)/lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced mouse liver injury through the increments of hepatic nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf-2) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) expressions, but its exact mechanisms are still uncertain. This study aimed to further verify its protective effect on hepatocytes and to determine its target of action. The results showed that after treatment of D-GalN/LPS-stimulated hepatocytes with 2.5-20 µM apigenin, the supernatant alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferasein, tumor necrosis factor-α, and malondialdehyde levels and intracellular nuclear factor-κB protein expression were decreased, while the supernatant superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) levels, intracellular PPARγ and inhibitor of kappa B-alpha protein expressions, and nucleus Nrf-2 protein expression were increased. After pretreatment with BML-111 or GW9662, the apigenin-induced nucleus Nrf-2 or intracellular PPARγ protein expressions were completely inhibited, respectively, but the both pretreatment differently affected the protective effect of apigenin on hepatocytes. The former completely canceled the protective effect, whereas the latter did not. These findings further demonstrate that apigenin can exert a protective effect on D-GalN/LPS-induced hepatocellular injury via the increment of Nrf-2 nucleus translocation, which may increase the SOD and CAT levels and PPARγ protein expression and subsequently inhibit the inflammatory response.

17.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 2019 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31758998

RESUMO

Four drying methods, including freeze drying, hot air drying, vacuum drying, microwave drying at 400, 600, and 800 W, were applied to dry the peduncles of Hovenia dulcis. Then the effects of different drying methods on physicochemical characteristics and bioactivities of polyphenolic-protein-polysaccharides conjugates extracted from H. dulcis (PPPs) were investigated and compared. Results showed that different drying methods affected the physicochemical characteristics and bioactivities of PPPs. Noticeable variations in extraction yields, contents of total proteins, contents of total polyphenolics, contents of total flavonoids, contents of uronic acids, molecular weights, apparent viscosities, molar ratios of constituent monosaccharides, ratios of constituent amino acids, and degrees of esterification were observed in PPPs obtained by different drying methods. Besides, a total of 13 phenolic compounds in PPPs were identified by UPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS. In addition, PPPs, especially PPP-M6 and PPP-V dried by microwave drying at 600 W and vacuum drying, respectively, exhibited remarkable antioxidant activities, antiglycation activities, and inhibitory activities on α-amylase and α-glucosidase. Results suggested that the microwave drying and vacuum drying techniques could be appropriate drying methods before extraction of PPPs with high bioactivities for applications in the functional food and medicine industries.

18.
Exp Brain Res ; 237(12): 3351-3362, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31720762

RESUMO

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a serious health problem in the world. However, little is known about the pathogenesis and molecular mechanisms of TBI. Here, we show that TBI activates neuregulin 1 (NRG1)-ErbB4 signaling, with an increased expression of NRG1 and ErbB4 in the traumatic region. Specifically knocking out ErbB4 in parvalbumin-positive (PV+) interneurons exacerbates motor function deficits in mice after TBI. Consistently, PV-ErbB4-/- mice showed larger necrotic area and more edema when compared with PV-ErbB4+/+ mice. Replenishment of NRG1 through intranasal application of the recombinant protein in PV-ErbB4+/+ mice enhanced neurological function. Moreover, using an in vitro neuronal culture system, we found that NRG1-ErbB4 signaling protects neurons from glutamate-induced death, and such protective effects could be diminished by GABA receptor antagonist. These results indicate that NRG-ErbB4 signaling protects cortical neurons from TBI-induced damage, and such effect is probably mediated by promoting GABA activity. Taken together, these findings unveil a previously unappreciated role for NRG1-ErB4 signaling in preventing neuronal cell death during functional recovery after TBI.

19.
J Clin Neuromuscul Dis ; 21(2): 103-106, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31743253

RESUMO

A case of triple-negative myasthenia gravis Lambert-Eaton overlap syndrome with negative Agrin and LRP-4 antibodies. Myasthenia gravis (MG) is an autoimmune disorder that shares similar features with Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome. The combined clinical and electrophysiological findings of MG and Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome have been reported, these cases represent the so-called "myasthenia gravis Lambert-Eaton overlap syndrome" (MLOS). A total of 55 MLOS cases have been identified, 13 cases were reported before the acetylcholine receptor (AChR) antibody (ab) testing era, 14 during the AChR-ab era, 26 during the voltage-gated calcium channel (VGCC)-ab era, and 2 cases have been reported during the muscle-specific kinase (MuSK)-ab era, of these; only 1 patient tested negative for all 3 antibodies. New immunological markers have been identified in the study of MG [Agrin and the low-density lipopro-tein receptor-related protein 4 (LRP-4)]. We present a patient with MLOS who tested negative for all 5 (AChR, MuSK, VGCC, Agrin, and LRP-4) serologic markers.

20.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 17108, 2019 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31745170

RESUMO

Transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE), as an alternative to surgery for iatrogenic renal vascular injury (IRVI), may have unsatisfactory outcomes. Nonetheless, there is inadequate information regarding the predictors of TAE outcomes for IRVI in the literature. The aim of this retrospective study was to investigate the predictors of TAE outcomes for IRVI. Of 47 patients, none had major complications, 17 (36.2%) patients had minor complications, and none suffered significant renal function deterioration after TAE. Technical success and clinical success were 91.5% and 93.6%, respectively. Technical failure was associated with older age, thrombocytopenia, prolonged international normalized ratio (INR) and divisional IRVI. Clinical failure was associated with kidney failure, use of steroids, prolonged INR, and divisional IRVI. In addition, prolonged INR was a significant predictor of technical failure. This implies that aggressive measures to control the INR prior to TAE are warranted to facilitate technical success, and technical success could then be validated on post-TAE images. Furthermore, divisional IRVI was a predictor of clinical failure. Thus, divisional IRVI should undergo surgery first since TAE is prone to clinical failure. The avoidance of clinical failure is validated if divisional IRVI does not need further intervention.

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