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1.
Crit Rev Oncol Hematol ; 143: 56-61, 2019 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31479836

RESUMO

"Can I keep my dog while receiving chemotherapy?" "Can my cat sleep on my bed while I'm on treatment?" "What precautions should I take with my pets in order to avoid infections?"" I read that my dog could give me breast cancer, is that true?" "Do you have assistance therapy dogs at your chemotherapy day unit?" These are not uncommon questions from cancer patients in oncology/haematology consultation rooms. The answers to these questions however, are widely unknown among physicians. Pet ownership is thought to provide patients with both emotional and physical health benefits. However, owning pets may also pose health risks to immunocompromised patients through zoonotic transmission of disease. Some studies have also suggested that the ownership of domestic pets may increase the risk of developing some cancers. But what is the evidence behind these claims? This paper presents the results of a literature review of a variety of scientific literature about pet ownership as a potential risk factor for suffering cancer, zoonotic diseases and the immunocompromised, and animal-assisted-therapy in cancer patients.

2.
Respir Res ; 20(1): 174, 2019 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31382961

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN) is a severe clinical problem among neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) patients. The genetic pathogenesis of PPHN is unclear. Only a few genetic polymorphisms have been identified in infants with PPHN. Our study aimed to investigate the potential genetic etiology of PPHN. METHODS: This study recruited PPHN patients admitted to the NICU of the Children's Hospital of Fudan University from Jan 2016 to Dec 2017. Exome sequencing was performed for all patients. Variants in reported PPHN/pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH)-related genes were assessed. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) association and gene-level analyses were carried out in 74 PPHN cases and 115 non-PPHN controls with matched baseline characteristics. RESULTS: Among the patient cohort, 74 (64.3%) patients were late preterm and term infants (≥ 34 weeks gestation) and 41 (35.7%) were preterm infants (< 34 weeks gestation). Preterm infants with PPHN exhibited low birth weight and a high frequency of bronchopulmonary dysplasia, respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) and mortality. Nine patients (only one preterm infant) were identified as harboring genetic variants, including three with pathogenic/likely pathogenic variants in TBX4 and BMPR2 and six with variants of unknown significance in BMPR2, SMAD9, TGFB1, KCNA5 and TRPC6. Three SNPs (rs192759073, rs1047883 and rs2229589) in CPS1 and one SNP (rs1044008) in NOTCH3 were significantly associated with PPHN (p < 0.05). CPS1 and SMAD9 were identified as risk genes for PPHN (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we identified genetic variants in PPHN patients, and we reported CPS1, NOTCH3 and SMAD9 as risk genes for late preterm and term PPHN in a single-center Chinese cohort. Our findings provide additional genetic evidence of the pathogenesis of PPHN and new insight into potential strategies for disease treatment.

3.
BMC Cancer ; 19(1): 851, 2019 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31462277

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gradual loss of terminal differentiation markers and gain of stem cell-like properties is a major hall mark of cancer malignant progression. The stem cell pluripotent transcriptional factor SOX family play critical roles in governing tumor plasticity and lineage specification. This study aims to establish a novel SOX signature to monitor the extent of tumor dedifferentiation and predict prognostic significance in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). METHODS: The RNA-seq data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) LIHC project were chronologically divided into the training (n = 188) and testing cohort (n = 189). LIRI-JP project from International Cancer Genome Consortium (ICGC) data portal was used as an independent validation cohort (n = 232). Kaplan-Meier and multivariable Cox analyses were used to examine the clinical significance and prognostic value of the signature genes. RESULTS: The SOX gene family members were found to be aberrantly expressed in clinical HCC patients. A five-gene SOX signature with prognostic value was established in the training cohort. The SOX signature genes were found to be closely associated with tumor grade and tumor stage. Liver cancer dedifferentiation markers (AFP, CD133, EPCAM, and KRT19) were found to be progressively increased while hepatocyte terminal differentiation markers (ALB, G6PC, CYP3A4, and HNF4A) were progressively decreased from HCC patients with low SOX signature scores to patients with high SOX signature scores. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis further indicated that the newly established SOX signature could robustly predict patient overall survival in both training, testing, and independent validation cohort. CONCLUSIONS: An oncogenic dedifferentiation SOX signature presents a great potential in predicting prognostic significance in HCC, and might provide novel biomarkers for precision oncology further in the clinic.

4.
Ital J Pediatr ; 45(1): 117, 2019 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31462320

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mutations in the surfactant protein C gene (SFTPC) result in interstitial lung disease (ILD). Our objective was to characterize clinical and genetic spectrum of ILD in Chinese children associated with SFTPC mutations. METHODS: Six Chinese children with ILD heterozygous for SFTPC mutations were included. Candidate genes responsible for surfactant dysfunction were sequenced by next-generation sequencing. Subclones of SFTPC with novel mutations were generated and transiently transfected into A549 cells. The functional characterization of mutant surfactant protein C (SP-C) was evaluated by Western blotting and immunofluorescence. RESULTS: The age of onset ranged from 7 days to 15 months. All cases required supplemental oxygen. Failure to thrive (5/6) was the most significant extra-pulmonary manifestation. Hydroxychloroquine was given as the long-term treatment of lung disease in four patients and two of them responded well. Three mutations were identified in six patients: four with I73T, one with D105G, one with Y113H. Mutations in three patients were inherited and three arised de novo. Western blotting revealed totally different band patterns between mutant SP-C (D105G and Y113H) and the wildtype. Immunofluorescence showed mutant SP-C (D105G) was scarcely trafficked to lamellar bodies but localized well to early endosomes, which was in marked contrast to the wildtype protein. CONCLUSION: SFTPC mutations were an important cause of childhood ILD in Chinese population. I73T was a common SFTPC mutation in Chinese ILD children associated with surfactant protein C mutations.

5.
Mol Ther Nucleic Acids ; 17: 701-713, 2019 Jul 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31422287

RESUMO

Necroptosis, oxidative stress, and inflammation are major contributors to the pathogenesis of ischemic acute kidney injury. Necrostatin-1 (Nec-1), an inhibitor of the kinase domain of receptor-interacting protein kinase-1 (RIP1), has been reported to regulate renal ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) injury; however, its underlying mechanism of action remains unclear. HK-2 cells were used to create an in vitro I/R model, in which the cells were subjected to hypoxia, followed by 2, 6, and 12 h of reoxygenation. For the in vivo study, a rat model of renal I/R was established in which samples of rat blood serum and kidney tissue were harvested after reperfusion to assess renal function and detect histological changes. Cell viability and necroptosis were analyzed using the Cell Counting Kit (CCK)-8 assay and flow cytometry, respectively. The expression levels of molecules associated with necroptosis, oxidative stress, and inflammation were determined by real-time PCR, western blotting, immunofluorescence staining, and ELISA. Luciferase and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays were performed to confirm the relevant downstream signaling pathway. We found that pretreatment with Nec-1 significantly decreased hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) and miR-26a expression, as well as the levels of factors associated with necroptosis (RIP1, RIP3, and Sirtuin-2), oxidative stress (malondialdehyde [MDA], NADP+/NADPH ratio), and inflammation (interleukin [IL]-1ß, IL-10, and tumor necrosis factor alpha [TNF-α]) in I/R injury cells and the rat model. However, these effects could be reversed by miR-26a overexpression or TRPC6 knockdown. Mechanistic studies demonstrated that HIF-1α directly binds to the promoter region of miR-26a, and that TRPC6 is a potential target gene for miR-26a. Our findings indicate that Nec-1 can effectively protect against renal I/R injury by inhibiting necroptosis, oxidative stress, and inflammation, and may exert its effects through mediation of the HIF-1α/miR-26a/TRPC6/PARP1 signaling pathway.

6.
BMC Pediatr ; 19(1): 281, 2019 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31409339

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Off-label drug use is widespread in pediatric drug treatment, and the implementation of guidelines on this topic remains challenging. The objective of this study was to evaluate current practice and awareness of healthcare professionals towards pediatric off-label drug use, as well as the barriers to guideline implementation among pediatric healthcare professionals in Shanghai, China. METHODS: A validated questionnaire was issued to representatives of pediatricians, pharmacists, nurses and administrators from hospitals with pediatric qualification in Shanghai. RESULTS: A total of 679 completed questionnaires from 69 hospitals were included in the analysis. Nearly half (47.9%) of the pediatricians acknowledged that they had prescribed off-label drugs. Most (88.4%) of the pharmacists acknowledged that they had dispensed off-label medicines. The main reason for off-label prescribing was the lack of pediatric dosage information. The most common category of off-label prescribing in children was dosage. Nearly half (42.0%) of the participating hospitals had developed internal protocols for off-label drug use. However, approximately half of the respondents reported that they did not adhere to the guidance and that it had barriers to implementation. Most respondents (84.5%) declared that they were familiar with the term "off-label drug use". However, the awareness rate of the Chinese Expert Consensus of Pediatric Off-Label Drug Use was low (45.7%). More than half (55.4%) of the respondents declared that they did not adhere to the process proposed in the consensus and that barriers existed for its utilization. CONCLUSIONS: Pediatric off-label drug use is widespread in Shanghai, China, and barriers exist to the implementation of the guideline. A legally recognized national guideline with a broad scope of application for off-label drug use is urgently needed; at the same time, more education and training on off-label drug use should be provided to targeted healthcare professionals.

7.
Cancer Med ; 8(11): 5068-5078, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31310455

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the combination of fasting blood glucose (FBG) with squamous cell carcinoma antigen (SCCA) assessments in the prediction of tumor responses to chemotherapy and pretreatment prognostication among patients receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) for locally advanced cervical cancer (LACC). METHODS: Data of 347 LACC patients were retrospectively reviewed. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were constructed, and areas under the curves (AUCs) were compared to evaluate the ability to predict complete response (CR) following NACT. Patients were stratified into groups with low and high levels of SCCA and FBG and combined into low- or high-SCCA and low- or high-FBG groups. Cox regression analysis was performed to identify determinants of recurrence-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS). RESULTS: The AUCs were 0.70, 0.68, and 0.66 for SCCA, FBG, and a combination of SCCA and FBG for predicting CR following NACT, respectively; however, the differences among AUCs were not significant (P = .496). Pretreatment SCCA and FBG levels were identified as independent predictors of RFS and OS. The high-SCCA/high-FBG group showed significantly worse prognosis than the low-SCCA/low-FBG group. After adjusting for other variables, high-SCCA/high-FBG remained independently associated with an increased risk of tumor recurrence and death. CONCLUSION: SCCA, FBG, and a combination of SCCA and FBG could acceptably predict CR following NACT. Pretreatment SCCA and FBG levels were independent prognostic factors. The combination of SCCA and FBG levels refined the prognostic stratification of LACC patients, which allowed the group of patients with the highest risk of recurrence and death to be identified.

8.
Diabetes Technol Ther ; 21(9): 485-492, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31225739

RESUMO

Background: Food choices are essential to successful glycemic control for people with diabetes. We compared the impact of three carbohydrate-rich meals on the postprandial glycemic response in adults with type 1 diabetes (T1D). Methods: We performed a randomized crossover study in 12 adults with T1D (age 58.7 ± 14.2 years, baseline hemoglobin A1c 7.5% ± 1.3%) comparing the postprandial glycemic response to three meals using continuous glucose monitoring: (1) "higher protein" pasta containing 10 g protein/serving, (2) regular pasta with 7 g protein/serving, and (3) extra-long grain white rice. All meals contained 42 g carbohydrate; were served with homemade tomato sauce, green salad, and balsamic dressing; and were repeated twice in random order. After their insulin bolus, subjects were observed in clinic for 5 h. Linear mixed effects models were used to assess the glycemic response. Results: Compared with white rice, peak glucose levels were significantly lower for higher protein pasta (-32.6 mg/dL; 95% CI -48.4 to -17.2; P < 0.001) and regular pasta (-43.2 mg/dL, 95% CI -58.7 to -27.7; P < 0.001). The difference between the two types of pastas did not reach statistical significance (-11 mg/dL; 95% CI -24.1 to 3.4; P = 0.17). Total glucose area under the curve was also significantly higher for white rice compared with both pastas (P < 0.001 for both comparisons). Conclusions: This exploratory study concluded that different food types of similar macronutrient content (e.g., rice and pasta) generate significantly different postprandial glycemic responses in persons with T1D. These results provide useful insights into the impact of food choices on and optimization of glucose control. Clinical Trial Registry: clinicaltrials.gov NCT03362151.

9.
Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther ; 27: 137-140, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31152875

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Non-thermal atmospheric plasma treatment and pulsed xenon ultraviolet (PX-UV) treatment are widely used in disinfection of hospital environments. However, their effectiveness has not been evaluated against a comparator. The objective of this study is to evaluate their effectiveness in the disinfection of pathogens in the air in hospital blood sampling rooms. METHODS: Samples were taken from the air before and after disinfection with PX-UV and non-thermal atmospheric plasma. We counted bacterial colonies and identified the types of bacteria. RESULTS: Non-thermal plasma treatment significantly reduced bacterial counts in the air, the median reduced from 1 before treatment to zero afterwards (p = 0.03). PX-UV treatment also significantly reduced bacterial counts in the air (p = 0.01), the median reduced from 1.5 before treatment to zero afterwards. Pathogens identified in the current study include nosocomial bacteria, such as Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and yeast. CONCLUSION: Disinfection of blood sampling sites is essential in a health service department. The efficiency of PX-UV and non-thermal atmospheric plasma treatment are comparable in air disinfection.

10.
FEBS J ; 2019 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31152619

RESUMO

Sterile α-motif/histidine-aspartate domain-containing protein 1 (SAMHD1) is an intrinsic antiviral restriction factor known to play a vital role in preventing multiple viral infections and in the control of the cellular deoxynucleoside triphosphate (dNTP) pool. Human and mouse SAMHD1 have both been extensively studied; however, our knowledge on porcine SAMHD1 is limited. Here, we report our findings from comprehensive structural and functional studies on porcine SAMHD1. We determined the crystal structure of porcine SAMHD1 and showed that it forms a symmetric tetramer. Moreover, we modified the deoxynucleotide triphosphohydrolase (dNTPase) activity of SAMHD1 by site-directed mutagenesis based on the crystal structure, and obtained an artificial dimeric enzyme possessing high dNTPase activity. Taken together, our results define the mechanism underlying dNTP regulation and provide a deeper understanding of the regulation of porcine SAMHD1 functions. Directed modification of key residues based on the protein structure enhances the activity of the enzyme, which will be beneficial in the search for new antiviral strategies and for future translational applications.

11.
J Org Chem ; 84(12): 8267-8274, 2019 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31188594

RESUMO

A transition metal-free radical process for the selective α,ß-dehydrogenation of saturated amides under mild conditions is developed. Utilizing radical activation strategy, the challenging issue associated with the low α-acidity of amides is resolved. For the first time, α,ß-unsaturated Weinreb amides and acrylamides could be efficiently prepared directly from corresponding saturated amides. Mechanistic studies confirm the radical nature of this transformation. Two gram scale α,ß-dehydrogenation have also been performed to demonstrate the utility of this method.

12.
Mol Psychiatry ; 2019 May 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31142818

RESUMO

Stressful life events induce abnormalities in emotional and cognitive behaviour. The endogenous opioid system plays an essential role in stress adaptation and coping strategies. In particular, the µ-opioid receptor (µR), one of the major opioid receptors, strongly influences memory processing in that alterations in µR signalling are associated with various neuropsychiatric disorders. However, it remains unclear whether µR signalling contributes to memory impairments induced by acute stress. Here, we utilized pharmacological methods and cell-type-selective/non-cell-type-selective µR depletion approaches combined with behavioural tests, biochemical analyses, and in vitro electrophysiological recordings to investigate the role of hippocampal µR signalling in memory-retrieval impairment induced by acute elevated platform (EP) stress in mice. Biochemical and molecular analyses revealed that hippocampal µRs were significantly activated during acute stress. Blockage of hippocampal µRs, non-selective deletion of µRs or selective deletion of µRs on GABAergic neurons (µRGABA) reversed EP-stress-induced impairment of memory retrieval, with no effect on the elevation of serum corticosterone after stress. Electrophysiological results demonstrated that stress depressed hippocampal GABAergic synaptic transmission to CA1 pyramidal neurons, thereby leading to excitation/inhibition (E/I) imbalance in a µRGABA-dependent manner. Pharmaceutically enhancing hippocampal GABAA receptor-mediated inhibitory currents in stressed mice restored their memory retrieval, whereas inhibiting those currents in the unstressed mice mimicked the stress-induced impairment of memory retrieval. Our findings reveal a novel pathway in which endogenous opioids recruited by acute stress predominantly activate µRGABA to depress GABAergic inhibitory effects on CA1 pyramidal neurons, which subsequently alters the E/I balance in the hippocampus and results in impairment of memory retrieval.

13.
Ther Apher Dial ; 2019 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31090170

RESUMO

Data remains limited about the optimal nucleos(t)ide analogue therapy for patients infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV) while treated with glucocorticoids because of kidney diseases. We aim to evaluate the safety and efficacy of long-term antiviral therapy with telbivudine (LdT) and entecavir (ETV) in this specific population. In this prospective randomized controlled study, a total of 60 patients with both kidney diseases and chronic hepatitis B were randomly divided into LdT group and ETV group. We analyzed changes in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), variation in HBV DNA, seroconversion of hepatitis B e antigen (HbeAg) and hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). During the 18 month follow-up period, serum HBV DNA load was decreased significantly at 3, 6, 12, 18 months, compared to the pre-treatment value in both LdT and ETV cohorts. No patients achieved HBeAg loss-seroconversion or HBsAg loss-seroconversion with ETV therapy whilst one patient experienced HBeAg and HBsAg loss-seroconversion with LdT therapy. No significant changes in eGFR were seen in patients with ETV therapy compared to baseline. However, eGFR increased 7.43, 18.97 mL/min/1.73m2 , respectively at 12 and 18 months in LdT group and the changes were significant compared to baseline. Further analysis also demonstrated that eGFR significantly improved 11.8, 23.25 mL/min/1.73m2 at 12 and 18 months in LdT group for patients with impaired renal function. LdT is superior to ETV in patients with chronic hepatitis B and kidney diseases because of the renal protection it confers by increasing eGFR.

14.
Singapore Med J ; 2019 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31044258

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: There is an increasing reliance on informal caregivers to continue the care of patients after discharge. This is a huge responsibility for caregivers and some may feel unprepared for the role. Without adequate support and understanding regarding their needs, patient care may be impeded. This study aimed to identify needs valued by caregivers and if there was agreement between acute care nurses and caregivers in the perception of whether caregiver needs were being met. METHODS: We conducted face-to-face interviews with 100 pairs of acute care nurses and caregivers. Participants were recruited from inpatient wards through convenience sampling. Questionnaires included demographic data of nurses and caregivers, patients' activities of daily living, and perception of caregiver needs being met in six domains of care. Independent t-test was used to compare mean values in each domain, and intraclass correlation coefficient was used to compare agreement in perception. RESULTS: Caregivers valued reassurance the most. Three domains of care needs showed significant differences in perception of caregiver needs being met: reassurance (p = 0.002), honesty and timeliness (p = 0.008), and kindness and genuine care (p = 0.026). There was poor agreement in all six domains of caregiver needs being met between nurses and caregivers. CONCLUSION: Although caregivers valued reassurance the most, there was poor agreement between acute care nurses and caregivers in the perception of caregiver needs being met. Hence, more attention should be paid to the caregiver's needs. Further studies can examine reasons for unmet caregiver needs and interventions to improve support for them.

15.
J Clin Nurs ; 28(17-18): 3149-3157, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30938869

RESUMO

AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To explore patients and carers' experience and perceptions of different modalities of long-term enteral feeding. BACKGROUND: With an ageing population in Singapore, there is a concomitant increase in number of patients with dysphagia and hence increase in prevalence of enteral feeding. It is essential to understand experiences of patients and home carers with long-term home enteral feeding and perceptions of different modalities to better provide support. DESIGN: A qualitative descriptive approach fulfilling the COREQ checklist criteria (See File S1). Nine patients who were receiving long-term enteral feeding and nine carers were recruited over the period of August to December 2017. One-to-one interviews were conducted and audio-recorded. An inductive content analysis approach, with open coding, creation of categories and abstraction of data, was adopted. RESULTS: Three themes were generated: (a) factors influencing choice of mode of enteral feeding; respondents narrated factors such as need to "conceal" illness, need to be independent and previous bad experience with alternative modality (b) identified informational, emotional and physical needs. Respondents reported the need for support in terms of information on the different modalities, and training on how to self-care or provide care and (c) individual perception and attitude towards life with enteral feeding. Most respondents portrayed a positive outlook to life, despite that they could no longer participate in communal eating. CONCLUSION AND RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE: Understanding patients and carers' experience and perceptions will inform the development of strategies to empower future patients and carers in choice of modality for enteral feeding. Patients with percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) found it easier to integrate enteral tube feeding into daily lives. Carers played a pivotal role in choice of modality, as well as in care of patients on enteral feeding.

16.
Lung Cancer ; 131: 134-138, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31027690

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Leptomeningeal metastases (LM) had increased in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) over the last 10 years. The survival outcome remained overall poor, heterogeneous and was reported in association with genotypes in lung cancer patients with LM. Graded prognostic assessment model integrated with molecular alterations (molGPA) might be accurate for outcome prediction of LM patients, but needs to be established. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively screened 8921 consecutive lung cancer patients from January 2011 to March 2018. A total of 301 patients diagnosed as LM were enrolled, and randomly divided into training and validation sets after stratified by gender and age. A molGPA score for each patient was calculated based on the weighted significant parameters including gene mutations. RESULT: The median OS for the 301 patients was 9.2 months (95%CI: 7.9-10.5). In the training set, EGFR/ALK positivity, Karnofsky performance score (KPS) score≥60 and absence of extracranial metastasis (ECM) independently predicted better OS. We developed a molGPA model based on above significant prognostic factors. This molGPA model classified LM patients into three prognosis groups of high, intermediate and low risk (molGPA score of 0, 0.5-1.0 and 1.5-2.0, respectively. The median OS of high, intermediate and low risk LM patients in the training set was 0.3, 3.5 and 15.9 months, respectively (p < 0.001). In the validation set, the median OS was 0.9, 5.8 and 17.7 months in the three molGPA subgroups, accordingly (p < 0.001). The C-index of this model in training and validation sets was 0.70 (95%CI: 0.66-0.73) and 0.64 (95%CI: 0.58-0.70) respectively. CONCLUSION: The LM molGPA model with integration of gene status, KPS and ECM can accurately classify lung cancer patients with LM into diverse prognosis.

17.
Autophagy ; 15(10): 1774-1786, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30957628

RESUMO

Multiple sources contribute membrane and protein machineries to construct functional macroautophagic/autophagic structures. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain elusive. Here, we show that RAB2 connects the Golgi network to autophagy pathway by delivering membrane and by sequentially engaging distinct autophagy machineries. In unstressed cells, RAB2 resides primarily in the Golgi apparatus, as evidenced by its interaction and colocalization with GOLGA2/GM130. Importantly, autophagy stimuli dissociate RAB2 from GOLGA2 to interact with ULK1 complex, which facilitates the recruitment of ULK1 complex to form phagophores. Intriguingly, RAB2 appears to modulate ULK1 kinase activity to propagate signals for autophagosome formation. Subsequently, RAB2 switches to interact with autophagosomal RUBCNL/PACER and STX17 to further specify the recruitment of HOPS complex for autolysosome formation. Together, our study reveals a multivalent pathway in bulk autophagy regulation, and provides mechanistic insights into how the Golgi apparatus contributes to the formation of different autophagic structures. Abbreviations: ACTB: actin beta; ATG9: autophagy related 9A; ATG14: autophagy related 14; ATG16L1: autophagy related 16 like 1; BCAP31: B cell receptor associated protein 31; BECN1: beclin 1; Ctrl: control; CQ: chloroquine; CTSD: cathepsin D; DMSO: dimethyl sulfoxide; EBSS: Earle's balanced salt solution; EEA1: early endosome antigen 1; GDI: guanine nucleotide dissociation inhibitor; GFP: green fluorescent protein; GOLGA2: golgin A2; HOPS: homotypic fusion and protein sorting complex; IP: immunoprecipitation; KD: knockdown; KO: knockout; LAMP1: lysosomal associated membrane protein 1; LC3: microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3; OE: overexpression; PtdIns3K: class III phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase; SQSTM1/p62: sequestosome 1; RAB2: RAB2A, member RAS oncogene family; RAB7: RAB7A, member RAS oncogene family; RAB11: RAB11A, member RAS oncogene family; RUBCNL/PACER: rubicon like autophagy enhancer; STX17: syntaxin 17; TBC1D14: TBC1 domain family member 14; TFRC: transferrin receptor; TGOLN2: trans-golgi network protein 2; TUBB: tubulin beta class I; ULK1: unc-51 like autophagy activating kinase 1; VPS41: VPS41, HOPS complex subunit; WB: western blot; WT: wild type; YPT1: GTP-binding protein YPT1.

18.
PLoS One ; 14(4): e0214860, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30995261

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Extra nodal natural killer/T-cell lymphoma (ENKTL), nasal type is a rare and highly aggressive type of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) commonly presented in the nasal cavity or lymphatic system. However, the common causes of mortality in ENKTL remain unclear. We conducted a retrospective population-based cohort study to elucidate the different causes of mortality in ENKTL and illustrate the main causal and associated risk factors leading to death. METHODS: The study included patients diagnosed with ENKTL from 1987 to 2014 in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) program. Univariate survival analysis was conducted using Kaplan-Meier analysis, and multivariate analyses were performed using Cox proportional hazards regression model. Competing-risks regression model was applied to estimate specific risks associated with mortality. RESULTS: The analysis demonstrated increased mortality in males and patients diagnosed at older age and higher disease stage. NHL was the most common cause of mortality in patients with ENKTL, accounting for 74.13% of deaths in the cohort, followed by other malignant cancers, heart diseases, and infection. However, NHL-specific death events were fewer in patients diagnosed with advanced disease stage compared with incidences of death by other causes such as disease of heart and infections. Significant difference was seen between patients diagnosed earlier than 2000, who showed a higher probability of dying from NHL, and those diagnosed later, who showed propensity to die from other malignant tumors and infection. No differences were found when comparing sex or age at diagnosis. CONCLUSION: The most common cause of mortality in cases with ENKTL-NT is NHL. The female sex, diagnosis at young age and early stage are associated with improved prognosis. Further, the classification of Ann Arbor stage and year of diagnosis can provide references of specific causes of death, which might help decrease the mortality rate.

19.
Int J Mol Med ; 43(5): 2055-2063, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30864739

RESUMO

Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is an endogenous gaseous signaling molecule that plays important roles in the cardiovascular system. In our previous studies, we demonstrated that H2S regulates lipid metabolism. In the present study, we aimed to explore the mechanisms through which H2S regulates lipid metabolism in HepG2 cells in vitro. Treatment of the HepG2 cells with H2S inhibited the expression of proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) and increased the level of low­density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) in a time­ and dose­dependent manner. The knockdown of PCSK9 by siRNA effectively increased the levels of LDLR and 1,1'­dioctadecyl­3,3,3',3'­tetramethyl­indocarbocyanine perchlorate­labeled LDL (DiI­LDL) uptake in the H2S­treated HepG2 cells. Furthermore, the phosphoinositide 3­kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (Akt)­sterol regulatory element binding proteins 2 (SREBP­2) signaling pathway was confirmed to be involved in H2S­regulated PCSK9 expression. Notably, the HepG2 cells were incubated with 30% serum and DiI­LDL for 24 h, and the results revealed that H2S increased lipid uptake, but caused no increase in lipid accumulation. On the whole, the findings of this study demonstrate that H2S is involved in the regulation of lipid metabolism in HepG2 cells through the regulation of the expression of PCSK9 via the PI3K/Akt­SREBP­2 signaling pathway. To the very best of our knowledge, this study is the first to report that H2S can regulate the expression of PCSK9.


Assuntos
Sulfeto de Hidrogênio/farmacologia , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Pró-Proteína Convertase 9/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteína de Ligação a Elemento Regulador de Esterol 2/metabolismo , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Modelos Biológicos , Pró-Proteína Convertase 9/metabolismo , Receptores de LDL/metabolismo , Regulação para Cima/efeitos dos fármacos
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30856103

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To clarify the clinical role of contrast enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) in predicting BI-RADS 4 breast disease. METHODS: A total of 92 sites of BI-RADS 4 breast diseases were reassessed by routine ultrasound and CEUS. The main indicators of routine ultrasound, CEUS and the combination of the two modalities were picked up by binary logistic regression analysis, scoring 0 for benign and 1 for malignant characteristics with pathology as referential standard to generate corresponding score systems of them. Finally, the receiver operating characteristic curves (ROC) were applied to compare the diagnostic efficacy of the three score systems. RESULTS: As pathological results showing, there were 43 malignant and 49 benign sites in total. Binary logistic regression analysis indicated that the margin, micro-calcification, and hyperechoic halo were main indicators for routine ultrasound score system. The scope expansion and pathological vessels in CEUS were main indicators for CEUS score system. The microcalcification, hyperechoic halo, the scope expansion and pathological vessels in CEUS were main indicators for the combination score system of the two modalities. The sensitivity, specificity and the area under ROC curve (AUC) of routine US, CEUS and the combination of the two modalities score systems were 74.4%, 91.8%, 0.885 and 88.4%, 87.8%, 0.901 and 86.0%, 95.9%, 0.937, respectively. CONCLUSION: In summary, CEUS is helpful for us to identify malignant disease and plays a supplementary role in predicting BI-RADS 4 breast disease in some extent. The scope expansion and pathological vessels in CEUS may be the most useful indicators.

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