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Sci Rep ; 9(1): 313, 2019 01 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30670728


Increase in grain nitrogen concentration (GNC), which is directly affected by nitrogen (N) application, can help overcome the issues of malnutrition. Here, the effects of urea type (polyaspartic acid (PASP) urea and conventional urea) and N management method (two splits and four splits) on GNC and N concentration of head rice were investigated in field experiments conducted in Sichuan, China, in 2014 and 2015. N concentration of grain and head rice were significantly (P < 0.05) increased by N redistribution from the leaf lamina, activities of glutamine synthetase (GS), and glutamate synthase (GOGAT) at the heading stage, and N concentration and GOGAT activity in the leaf lamina at the maturity stage. Compared to conventional urea, PASP-urea significantly improved N concentration of grain and head rice by improving the activities of GS and GOGAT, thereby increasing N distribution in the leaf lamina. The four splits method, unlike the two splits method, enhanced N concentration and activities of key N metabolism enzymes of leaf lamina, leading to increased GNC and N concentration in head rice too. Overall, four splits is a feasible method for using PASP-urea and improving GNC.

Grão Comestível/metabolismo , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Oryza/metabolismo , China , Glutamato Sintase/metabolismo , Glutamato-Amônia Ligase/metabolismo , Peptídeos/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/enzimologia , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Ureia/metabolismo
Heart Lung Circ ; 22(4): 291-6, 2013 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23261325


AIMS: We tested whether anger affects the balance between endothelium-derived vasodilators and vasoconstrictors in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). METHODS: Five endothelium-produced vasoactive factors (nitric oxide, prostacyclin, urotensin, endothelin and thromboxane B2) were measured in an established SHR behavioural model of anger, in "non-angry" SHR rats, and in control Wistar-Kyoto rats. RESULTS: All angry SHR rats showed the typical angry behaviour and angry SHR rats had significantly higher blood pressure and heart rate than control rats. Angry rats had significantly lower levels of two vasodilators, nitric oxide and prostacyclin, and significantly higher levels of two vasoconstrictors, endothelin and thromboxane B2 than either non-angry SHR or control rats. Levels of a third vasoconstrictor, urotensin, were significantly lower in angry SHR than in non-angry SHR or control rats. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that anger causes an imbalance of endothelium-produced vasodilating and vasoconstricting substances. This may have implications for the development and/or progression of hypertension.

Ira , Comportamento Animal , Pressão Sanguínea , Endotélio Vascular , Vasoconstritores/sangue , Animais , Endotelinas/sangue , Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo , Endotélio Vascular/fisiopatologia , Epoprostenol/sangue , Masculino , Óxido Nítrico/sangue , Ratos , Ratos Endogâmicos SHR , Tromboxano B2/sangue , Urotensinas/sangue