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1.
J Chromatogr A ; 1218(38): 6750-5, 2011 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21855878

RESUMO

Electrokinetic supercharging (EKS) combines field-amplified sample injection with transient isotachophoresis (tITP) to create a powerful on-line preconcentration technique for capillary electrophoresis. In this work, EKS is enhanced with a positive pressure (pressure-assisted EKS, or PA-EKS) during injection to improve stacking of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Several parameters, including buffer composition and concentration, terminating electrolyte, organic modifier, and injection voltage and injection time of both terminating electrolyte and sample were optimized. Detection limits for seven NSAIDs were determined and an enhancement in sensitivity of almost 50,000-fold was obtained. The PA-EKS method has the potential to be a simple MS compatible preconcentration method to improve the sensitivity of CE.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/isolamento & purificação , Eletroforese Capilar/métodos , Isotacoforese/métodos , Eletroforese Capilar/instrumentação , Isotacoforese/instrumentação , Pressão , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
2.
Chemosphere ; 83(11): 1539-45, 2011 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21306756

RESUMO

In addition to increasing the mobility of metal ions in the soil solution, chelating agents such as EDTA have been reported to alter both the total metal accumulated by plants and its distribution within the plant structures. Here, mature Mini-Sun Hybrid dwarf sunflowers exposed to 300 µM Cd(2+) in hydroponic solution had initial translocation rates of at least 0.12 mmol kg(-1)h(-1) and reached leaf saturation levels within a day when a 3-fold molar excess of EDTA was used. EDTA also promoted cadmium transfer from roots to the shoots. A threefold excess of EDTA increased the translocation factor (TF) 100-fold, resulting in cadmium levels in the leaves of 580 µg g(-1) and extracting 1400 µg plant(-1). When plants were exposed to dissolved cadmium without EDTA, the vast majority of the metal remained bound to the exterior of the root. The initial accumulation could be successfully modeled with a standard biosorption pseudo second-order kinetic equation. Initial accumulation rates ranged from 0.0359 to 0.262 mg g(-1)min(-1). The cadmium binding could be cycled, and did not show evidence of saturation under the experimental conditions employed, suggesting it might be a viable biosorbant for aqueous cadmium.


Assuntos
Cádmio/metabolismo , Quelantes/química , Ácido Edético/química , Helianthus/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Biodegradação Ambiental , Cádmio/química , Quelantes/metabolismo , Ácido Edético/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Brotos de Planta/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo/química
3.
Electrophoresis ; 32(5): 482-93, 2011 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21290388

RESUMO

Research combining the areas of separation science and microfluidics has gained popularity, driven by the increasing need to create portable, fast, and low analyte-consumption devices. Much of this research has focused on the developments in electrophoretic separations, which use the electrokinetic properties of analytes to overcome many of the problems encountered during system scale-down. In addition, new physical phenomenon can be exploited on the microscale not available in standard techniques. In this study, the innovative developments, including electrophoretic concentration, sample preparation/conditioning, and separation on-chip are reviewed, along with some introductory discussions, from January 2008 to July 2010.


Assuntos
Fracionamento Químico , Eletroforese , Técnicas Analíticas Microfluídicas , Focalização Isoelétrica
4.
Anal Chem ; 83(1): 368-73, 2011 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21141826

RESUMO

This work presents a technique termed as "electrophoretic exclusion" that is capable of differentiation and concentration of proteins in bulk solution. In this method, a hydrodynamic flow is countered by the electrophoretic velocity to prevent a species from entering into a channel. The separation can be controlled by changing the flow rate or applied electric potential in order to exclude a certain species selectively while allowing others to pass through the capillary. The exclusion of various proteins is investigated using a flow-injection regime of the method. Concentration of myoglobin of up to 1200 times the background concentration in 60 s was demonstrated. Additionally, negatively charged myoglobin was separated from a solution containing negatively charged allophycocyanin. Cationic cytochrome c was also differentiated from a solution with allophycocyanin. The ability to differentially transport species in bulk solution enables parallel and serial separation modes not available with other separations schemes.


Assuntos
Eletroforese/métodos , Proteínas/análise , Proteínas/isolamento & purificação , Elétrons , Eletroforese/instrumentação , Limite de Detecção , Proteínas/química
5.
Electrophoresis ; 30(21): 3786-92, 2009 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19810029

RESUMO

A novel method capable of differentiating and concentrating small molecules in bulk solution termed "electrophoretic exclusion" is described and experimentally investigated. In this technique, the hydrodynamic flow of the system is countered by the electrophoretic velocity to prevent a species from entering into the channel. The separation can be controlled by changing the flow rate or applied electric field in order to exclude certain species selectively while allowing others to pass through the capillary. Proof of principle studies employed a flow injection regime of the method and examined the exclusion of Methyl Violet dye in the presence of a neutral species. Methyl Violet was concentrated almost 40 times the background concentration in 30 s using 6 kV. Additionally, a threshold voltage necessary for exclusion was determined. The establishment of a threshold voltage enabled the differentiation of two similar cationic species: Methyl Green and Neutral Red.


Assuntos
Eletroforese Capilar/métodos , Campos Eletromagnéticos , Violeta Genciana/química , Ponto Isoelétrico , Verde de Metila/química , Peso Molecular , Vermelho Neutro/química
6.
Electrophoresis ; 30(5): 852-65, 2009 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19197905

RESUMO

The field of separations science will be strongly impacted by new electric-field-gradient-based strategies. Many new capabilities are being developed with analytical targets ranging from particles to small molecules, and soot to living cells. Here we review the emerging area of electric field gradient techniques, dividing the large variety of techniques by the target of separation. In doing so, we have contributions using dielectrophoresis, electric field gradient focusing (including dynamic, true moving bed, and pulsed field), electrocapture and electrophoretic focusing, temperature gradient focusing, and focusing with centrifugal force. We cover the literature from the start of 2007 to June 2008, along with some introductory discussions. Even with the relatively short time frame, this young and dynamic field of inquiry produced some 100 contributions describing new and unique techniques and several new applications.


Assuntos
Separação Celular/métodos , Eletroforese/métodos , Ácidos Nucleicos/isolamento & purificação , Proteínas/isolamento & purificação , Animais
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