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1.
Cancers (Basel) ; 12(10)2020 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33003546

RESUMO

Recent studies have shown that the efficacy of PARP inhibitors in epithelial ovarian carcinoma (EOC) is related to tumor-specific defects in homologous recombination (HR) and extends beyond BRCA1/2 deficient EOC. A robust method with which to identify HR-deficient (HRD) carcinomas is therefore of utmost clinical importance. In this study, we investigated the proficiency of a functional HR assay based on the detection of RAD51 foci, the REcombination CAPacity (RECAP) test, in identifying HRD tumors in a cohort of prospectively collected epithelial ovarian carcinomas (EOCs). Of the 39 high-grade serous ovarian carcinomas (HGSOC), the RECAP test detected 26% (10/39) to be HRD, whereas ovarian carcinomas of other histologic subtypes (n = 10) were all HR-proficient (HRP). Of the HRD tumors that could be sequenced, 8/9 showed pathogenic BRCA1/2 variants or BRCA1 promoter hypermethylation, indicating that the RECAP test reliably identifies HRD, including but not limited to tumors related to BRCA1/2 deficiency. Furthermore, we found a trend towards better overall survival (OS) of HGSOC patients with RECAP-identified HRD tumors compared to patients with HRP tumors. This study shows that the RECAP test is an attractive alternative to DNA-based HRD tests, and further development of a clinical grade RECAP test is clearly warranted.

2.
Clin Cancer Res ; 25(3): 1087-1097, 2019 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30413523

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The elevated levels of somatic copy-number alterations (SCNAs) in a subset of high-risk endometrial cancers are suggestive of defects in pathways governing genome integrity. We sought to assess the prevalence of homologous recombination deficiency (HRD) in endometrial cancers and its association with histopathologic and molecular characteristics. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Fresh tumor tissue was prospectively collected from 36 endometrial cancers, and functional HRD was examined by the ability of replicating tumor cells to accumulate RAD51 protein at DNA double-strand breaks (RAD51 foci) induced by ionizing radiation. Genomic alterations were determined by next-generation sequencing and array comparative genomic hybridization/SNP array. The prevalence of BRCA-associated genomic scars, a surrogate marker for HRD, was determined in the The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) endometrial cancer cohort. RESULTS: Most endometrial cancers included in the final analysis (n = 25) were of non-endometrioid (52%), grade 3 (60%) histology, and FIGO stage I (72%). HRD was observed in 24% (n = 6) of cases and was restricted to non-endometrioid endometrial cancers (NEEC), with 46% of NEECs being HRD compared with none of the endometrioid endometrial cancers (EEC, P = 0.014). All but 1 of the HRD cases harbored either a pathogenic BRCA1 variant or high somatic copy-number (SCN) losses of HR genes. Analysis of TCGA cases supported these results, with BRCA-associated genomic scars present in up to 48% (63/132) of NEEC versus 12% (37/312) of EEC (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: HRD occurs in endometrial cancers and is largely restricted to non-endometrioid, TP53-mutant endometrial cancers. Evaluation of HRD may help select patients that could benefit from treatments targeting this defect, including platinum compounds and PARP inhibitors.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Endométrio/genética , Endométrio/metabolismo , Recombinação Homóloga/genética , Rad51 Recombinase/genética , Idoso , Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA1/metabolismo , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Proteína BRCA2/metabolismo , Hibridização Genômica Comparativa , Quebras de DNA de Cadeia Dupla/efeitos dos fármacos , Quebras de DNA de Cadeia Dupla/efeitos da radiação , Neoplasias do Endométrio/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias do Endométrio/patologia , Endométrio/efeitos dos fármacos , Endométrio/patologia , Feminino , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Recombinação Homóloga/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gradação de Tumores , Inibidores de Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerases/uso terapêutico , Estudos Prospectivos , Rad51 Recombinase/metabolismo
3.
Hum Mutat ; 35(11): 1382-91, 2014 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25146914

RESUMO

The implementation of next-generation sequence analysis of disease-related genes has resulted in an increasing number of genetic variants with an unknown clinical significance. The functional analysis of these so-called "variants of uncertain significance" (VUS) is hampered by the tedious and time-consuming procedures required to generate and test specific sequence variants in genomic DNA. Here, we describe an efficient pipeline for the generation of gene variants in a full-length human gene, BRCA2, using a bacterial artificial chromosome. This method permits the rapid generation of intronic and exonic variants in a complete gene through the use of an exon-replacement strategy based on simple site-directed mutagenesis and an effective positive-negative selection system in E. coli. The functionality of variants can then be assessed through the use of functional assays, such as complementation of gene-deficient mouse-embryonic stem (mES) cells in the case of human BRCA2. Our methodology builds upon an earlier protocol and, through the introduction of a series of major innovations, now represents a practical proposition for the rapid analysis of BRCA2 variants and a blueprint for the analysis of other genes using similar approaches. This method enables rapid generation and reliable classification of VUS in disease-related genes, allowing informed clinical decision-making.


Assuntos
Proteína BRCA2/genética , Proteína BRCA2/metabolismo , Estudos de Associação Genética/métodos , Testes Genéticos/métodos , Variação Genética , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Células-Tronco Embrionárias/metabolismo , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Camundongos , Mutagênese Sítio-Dirigida , Processamento de RNA , Seleção Genética
4.
Clin Cancer Res ; 20(18): 4816-26, 2014 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24963051

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors are promising targeted treatment options for hereditary breast tumors with a homologous recombination (HR) deficiency caused by BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations. However, the functional consequence of BRCA gene mutations is not always known and tumors can be HR deficient for other reasons than BRCA gene mutations. Therefore, we aimed to develop a functional test to determine HR activity in tumor samples to facilitate selection of patients eligible for PARP inhibitor treatment. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We obtained 54 fresh primary breast tumor samples from patients undergoing surgery. We determined their HR capacity by studying the formation of ionizing radiation induced foci (IRIF) of the HR protein RAD51 after ex vivo irradiation of these organotypic breast tumor samples. Tumors showing impaired RAD51 IRIF formation were subjected to genetic and epigenetic analysis. RESULTS: Five of 45 primary breast tumors with sufficient numbers of proliferating tumor cells were RAD51 IRIF formation deficient (11%, 95% CI, 5%-24%). This HR defect was significantly associated with triple-negative breast cancer (OR, 57; 95% CI, 3.9-825; P = 0.003). Two of five HR-deficient tumors were not caused by mutations in the BRCA genes, but by BRCA1 promoter hypermethylation. CONCLUSION: The functional RAD51 IRIF assay faithfully identifies HR-deficient tumors and has clear advantages over gene sequencing. It is a relatively easy assay that can be performed on biopsy material, making it a powerful tool to select patients with an HR-deficient cancer for PARP inhibitor treatment in the clinic.


Assuntos
Bioensaio/métodos , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Recombinação Homóloga/efeitos da radiação , Rad51 Recombinase/efeitos da radiação , Animais , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Feminino , Imunofluorescência , Genes BRCA1 , Genes BRCA2 , Humanos , Camundongos , Inibidores de Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerases , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
5.
Radiat Res ; 177(5): 602-13, 2012 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22468706

RESUMO

The recent steep increase in population dose from radiation-based medical diagnostics, such as computed tomography (CT) scans, requires insight into human health risks, especially in terms of cancer development. Since the induction of genetic damage is considered a prominent cause underlying the carcinogenic potential of ionizing radiation, we quantified the induction of micronuclei and loss of heterozygosity events in human cells after exposure to clinically relevant low doses of X rays. A linear dose-response relationship for induction of micronuclei was observed in human fibroblasts with significantly increased frequencies at doses as low as 20 mGy. Strikingly, cells exposed during S-phase displayed the highest induction, whereas non S-phase cells showed no significant induction below 100 mGy. Similarly, the induction of loss of heterozygosity in human lymphoblastoid cells quantified at HLA loci, was linear with dose and reached significance at 50 mGy. Together the findings favor a linear-no-threshold model for genetic damage induced by acute exposure to ionizing radiation. We speculate that the higher radiosensitivity of S-phase cells might relate to the excessive cancer risk observed in highly proliferative tissues in radiation exposed organisms.


Assuntos
Aberrações Cromossômicas , Cromossomos Humanos/efeitos da radiação , Linfócitos/efeitos da radiação , Raios X/efeitos adversos , Divisão Celular/efeitos da radiação , Células Cultivadas/efeitos da radiação , Células Cultivadas/ultraestrutura , Relação Dose-Resposta à Radiação , Fibroblastos/efeitos da radiação , Fibroblastos/ultraestrutura , Genes MHC Classe I/efeitos da radiação , Humanos , Perda de Heterozigosidade , Linfócitos/ultraestrutura , Testes para Micronúcleos , Tolerância a Radiação , Radiografia , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Fase S/efeitos da radiação
6.
Toxicol Sci ; 127(1): 130-8, 2012 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22331492

RESUMO

DNA lesions, induced by genotoxic compounds, block the processive replication fork but can be bypassed by specialized translesion synthesis (TLS) DNA polymerases (Pols). TLS safeguards the completion of replication, albeit at the expense of nucleotide substitution mutations. We studied the in vivo role of individual TLS Pols in cellular responses to benzo[a]pyrene diolepoxide (BPDE), a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, and 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE), a product of lipid peroxidation. To this aim, we used mouse embryonic fibroblasts with targeted disruptions in the TLS-associated Pols η, ι, κ, and Rev1 as well as in Rev3, the catalytic subunit of TLS Polζ. After exposure, cellular survival, replication fork progression, DNA damage responses (DDR), and the induction of micronuclei were investigated. The results demonstrate that Rev1, Rev3, and, to a lesser extent, Polη are involved in TLS and the prevention of DDR and of DNA breaks, in response to both agents. Conversely, Polκ and the N-terminal BRCT domain of Rev1 are specifically involved in TLS of BPDE-induced DNA damage. We furthermore describe a novel role of Polι in TLS of 4-HNE-induced DNA damage in vivo. We hypothesize that different sets of TLS polymerases act on structurally different genotoxic DNA lesions in vivo, thereby suppressing genomic instability associated with cancer. Our experimental approach may provide a significant contribution in delineating the molecular bases of the genotoxicity in vivo of different classes of DNA-damaging agents.


Assuntos
7,8-Di-Hidro-7,8-Di-Hidroxibenzo(a)pireno 9,10-óxido/toxicidade , Aldeídos/toxicidade , Dano ao DNA , DNA Polimerase Dirigida por DNA/metabolismo , Mutagênicos/toxicidade , Animais , Linhagem Celular Transformada , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Citocinese , Adutos de DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , DNA Polimerase Dirigida por DNA/genética , Fibroblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Contaminação de Alimentos , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Micronúcleos com Defeito Cromossômico/induzido quimicamente , Testes para Micronúcleos/métodos
7.
Hum Mol Genet ; 16(12): 1478-87, 2007 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17468178

RESUMO

Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS) is a rare dominantly inherited multisystem disorder affecting both physical and mental development. Heterozygous mutations in the NIPBL gene were found in about half of CdLS cases. Scc2, the fungal ortholog of the NIPBL gene product, is essential for establishing sister chromatid cohesion. In yeast, the absence of cohesion leads to chromosome mis-segregation and defective repair of DNA double-strand breaks. To evaluate possible DNA repair defects in CdLS cells, we characterized the cellular responses to DNA-damaging agents. We show that cells derived from CdLS patients, both with and without detectable NIPBL mutations, have an increased sensitivity for mitomycin C (MMC). Exposure of CdLS fibroblast and B-lymphoblastoid cells to MMC leads to enhanced cell killing and reduced proliferation and, in the case of primary fibroblasts, an increased number of chromosomal aberrations. After X-ray exposure increased numbers of chromosomal aberrations were also detected, but only in cells irradiated in the G(2)-phase of the cell cycle when repair of double-strand breaks is dependent on the establishment of sister chromatid cohesion. Repair at the G(1) stage is not affected in CdLS cells. Our studies indicate that CdLS cells have a reduced capacity to tolerate DNA damage, presumably as a result of reduced DNA repair through homologous recombination.


Assuntos
Dano ao DNA , Reparo do DNA/fisiologia , Síndrome de Cornélia de Lange/genética , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular , Células Cultivadas , Aberrações Cromossômicas , Fase G2 , Histonas/metabolismo , Humanos , Mitomicina/farmacologia , Inibidores da Síntese de Ácido Nucleico/farmacologia , Proteínas/genética , Proteínas/metabolismo , Rad51 Recombinase/metabolismo , Radiação Ionizante , Recombinação Genética
8.
Mutat Res ; 615(1-2): 111-24, 2007 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17169382

RESUMO

We analyzed the phenotype of cells derived from SCID patients with different mutations in the Artemis gene. Using clonogenic survival assay an increased sensitivity was found to X-rays (2-3-fold) and bleomycin (2-fold), as well as to etoposide, camptothecin and methylmethane sulphonate (up to 1.5-fold). In contrast, we did not find increased sensitivity to cross-linking agents mitomycin C and cis-platinum. The kinetics of DSB repair assessed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and gammaH2AX foci formation after ionizing irradiation, indicate that 15-20% of DSB are not repaired in Artemis-deficient cells. In order to get a better understanding of the repair defect in Artemis-deficient cells, we studied chromosomal damage at different stages of the cell cycle. In contrast to AT cells, Artemis-deficient cells appear to have a normal G(1)/S-block that resulted in a similar frequency of dicentrics and translocations, however, frequency of acentrics fragments was found to be 2-4-fold higher compared to normal fibroblasts. Irradiation in G(2) resulted in a higher frequency of chromatid-type aberrations (1.5-3-fold) than in normal cells, indicating that a fraction of DSB requires Artemis for proper repair. Our data are consistent with a function of Artemis protein in processing of a subset of complex DSB, without G(1) cell cycle checkpoint defects. This type of DSB can be induced in high proportion and persist through S-phase and in part might be responsible for the formation of chromatid-type exchanges in G(1)-irradiated Artemis-deficient cells. Among different human radiosensitive fibroblasts studied for endogenous (in untreated samples) as well as X-ray-induced DNA damage, the ranking order on the basis of higher incidence of spontaneously occurring chromosomal alterations and induced ones was: ligase 4> or =AT>Artemis. This observation implicates that in human fibroblasts following exposure to ionizing radiation a lower risk might be created when cells are devoid of endogenous damage.


Assuntos
Reparo do DNA/genética , Mutação , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Proteínas Nucleares/metabolismo , Ciclo Celular/genética , Ciclo Celular/efeitos da radiação , Linhagem Celular , Células Cultivadas , Instabilidade Cromossômica/efeitos dos fármacos , Instabilidade Cromossômica/efeitos da radiação , Aberrações Cromossômicas , Ensaio de Unidades Formadoras de Colônias , Quebras de DNA de Cadeia Dupla , Proteína Quinase Ativada por DNA/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA , Endonucleases , Humanos , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente , Mutagênicos/toxicidade , Fenótipo , Tolerância a Radiação , Imunodeficiência Combinada Severa/genética , Imunodeficiência Combinada Severa/metabolismo , Imunodeficiência Combinada Severa/patologia
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