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2.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 182(1): 47-56, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31658438

RESUMO

Objective: Leptin receptor (LepR) deficiency is an autosomal-recessive endocrine disorder causing early-onset severe obesity, hyperphagia and pituitary hormone deficiencies. As effective pharmacological treatment has recently been developed, diagnosing LepR deficiency is urgent. However, recognition is challenging and prevalence is unknown. We aim to elucidate the clinical spectrum and to estimate the prevalence of LepR deficiency in Europe. Design: Comprehensive epidemiologic analysis and systematic literature review. Methods: We curated a list of LEPR variants described in patients and elaborately evaluated their phenotypes. Subsequently, we extracted allele frequencies from the Genome Aggregation Database (gnomAD), consisting of sequencing data of 77 165 European individuals. We then calculated the number of individuals with biallelic disease-causing LEPR variants. Results: Worldwide, 86 patients with LepR deficiency are published. We add two new patients, bringing the total of published patients to 88, of which 21 are European. All patients had early-onset obesity; 96% had hyperphagia; 34% had one or more pituitary hormone deficiencies. Our calculation results in 998 predicted patients in Europe, corresponding to a prevalence of 1.34 per 1 million people (95% CI: 0.95-1.72). Conclusions: This study shows that LepR deficiency is more prevalent in Europe (n = 998 predicted patients) than currently known (n = 21 patients), suggesting that LepR deficiency is underdiagnosed. An important cause for this could be lack of access to genetic testing. Another possible explanation is insufficient recognition, as only one-third of patients has pituitary hormone deficiencies. With novel highly effective treatment emerging, diagnosing LepR deficiency is more important than ever.


Assuntos
Genética Populacional/métodos , Receptores para Leptina/deficiência , Receptores para Leptina/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência
3.
Clin Cancer Res ; 26(2): 505-517, 2020 01 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31649042

RESUMO

PURPOSE: In breast cancer, response rates to immune therapies are generally low and differ significantly across molecular subtypes, urging a better understanding of immunogenicity and immune evasion. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We interrogated large gene-expression data sets including 867 node-negative, treatment-naïve breast cancer patients (microarray data) and 347 breast cancer patients (whole-genome sequencing and transcriptome data) according to parameters of T cells as well as immune microenvironment in relation to patient survival. RESULTS: We developed a 109-immune gene signature that captures abundance of CD8 tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) and is prognostic in basal-like, her2, and luminal B breast cancer, but not in luminal A or normal-like breast cancer. Basal-like and her2 are characterized by highest CD8 TIL abundance, highest T-cell clonality, highest frequencies of memory T cells, and highest antigenicity, yet only the former shows highest expression level of immune and metabolic checkpoints and highest frequency of myeloid suppressor cells. Also, luminal B shows a high antigenicity and T-cell clonality, yet a low abundance of CD8 TILs. In contrast, luminal A and normal-like both show a low antigenicity, and notably, a low and high abundance of CD8 TILs, respectively, which associates with T-cell influx parameters, such as expression of adhesion molecules. CONCLUSIONS: Collectively, our data argue that not only CD8 T-cell presence itself, but rather T-cell clonality, T-cell subset distribution, coinhibition, and antigen presentation reflect occurrence of a CD8 T-cell response in breast cancer subtypes, which have been aborted by distinct T-cell-suppressive mechanisms, providing a rationale for subtype-specific combination immune therapies.


Assuntos
Apresentação do Antígeno/imunologia , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/mortalidade , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Células Clonais/imunologia , Bases de Dados Genéticas/estatística & dados numéricos , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/imunologia , Biomarcadores Tumorais/imunologia , Neoplasias da Mama/classificação , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/imunologia , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Imunoterapia/métodos , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/imunologia , Prognóstico , Receptor ErbB-2/metabolismo , Taxa de Sobrevida , Microambiente Tumoral/imunologia
4.
Br J Cancer ; 122(4): 590-594, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31857718

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previously, it has been suggested that colorectal polyps and carcinomas might be associated with Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome. We aimed to compare the occurrence of colorectal neoplasms between Dutch patients with Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome and their relatives without Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome. METHODS: In all, 399 patients with a pathogenic FLCN mutation and 382 relatives without the familial FLCN mutation were included. Anonymous data on colon and rectum pathology was provided by PALGA: the Dutch Pathology Registry. RESULTS: No significant difference in the percentage of individuals with a history of colorectal carcinoma was found between the two groups (3.6% vs 2.6%, p = 0.54). There was also no significant difference between the age at diagnosis, diameter, differentiation and location of the colorectal carcinomas. Significantly more individuals with Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome underwent removal of colorectal polyps (12.2% vs 6.3%, p = 0.005). However, there was no significant difference between the number of polyps per person, the histology, grade of dysplasia and location of the polyps. CONCLUSION: Our data do not provide evidence for an increased risk for colorectal carcinoma in Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome, arguing against the need for colorectal surveillance. The difference in polyps might be due to a bias caused by a higher number of colonoscopies in patients with Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Birt-Hogg-Dubé/complicações , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Prevalência
5.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(2): 368-378, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31792088

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption have been intensively studied in the general population to assess their effects on the risk of breast cancer, but very few studies have examined these effects in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. Given the high breast cancer risk for mutation carriers and the importance of BRCA1 and BRCA2 in DNA repair, better evidence on the associations of these lifestyle factors with breast cancer risk is essential. METHODS: Using a large international pooled cohort of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers, we conducted retrospective (5,707 BRCA1 mutation carriers and 3,525 BRCA2 mutation carriers) and prospective (2,276 BRCA1 mutation carriers and 1,610 BRCA2 mutation carriers) analyses of alcohol and tobacco consumption using Cox proportional hazards models. RESULTS: For both BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers, none of the smoking-related variables was associated with breast cancer risk, except smoking for more than 5 years before a first full-term pregnancy (FFTP) when compared with parous women who never smoked. For BRCA1 mutation carriers, the HR from retrospective analysis (HRR) was 1.19 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.02-1.39] and the HR from prospective analysis (HRP) was 1.36 (95% CI, 0.99-1.87). For BRCA2 mutation carriers, smoking for more than 5 years before an FFTP showed an association of a similar magnitude, but the confidence limits were wider (HRR = 1.25; 95% CI, 1.01-1.55 and HRP = 1.30; 95% CI, 0.83-2.01). For both carrier groups, alcohol consumption was not associated with breast cancer risk. CONCLUSIONS: The finding that smoking during the prereproductive years increases breast cancer risk for mutation carriers warrants further investigation. IMPACT: This is the largest prospective study of BRCA mutation carriers to assess these important risk factors.

6.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 177(3): 723-733, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31302855

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In healthy BRCA1/2 mutation carriers, bilateral risk-reducing mastectomy (BRRM) strongly reduces the risk of developing breast cancer (BC); however, no clear survival benefit of BRRM over BC surveillance has been reported yet. METHODS: In this Dutch multicenter cohort study, we used multivariable Cox models with BRRM as a time-dependent covariable to estimate the associations between BRRM and the overall and BC-specific mortality rates, separately for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. RESULTS: During a mean follow-up of 10.3 years, 722 out of 1712 BRCA1 (42%) and 406 out of 1145 BRCA2 (35%) mutation carriers underwent BRRM. For BRCA1 mutation carriers, we observed 52 deaths (20 from BC) in the surveillance group, and 10 deaths (one from BC) after BRRM. The hazard ratios were 0.40 (95% CI 0.20-0.90) for overall mortality and 0.06 (95% CI 0.01-0.46) for BC-specific mortality. BC-specific survival at age 65 was 93% for surveillance and 99.7% for BRRM. For BRCA2 mutation carriers, we observed 29 deaths (7 from BC) in the surveillance group, and 4 deaths (no BC) after BRRM. The hazard ratio for overall mortality was 0.45 (95% CI 0.15-1.36). BC-specific survival at age 65 was 98% for surveillance and 100% for BRRM. CONCLUSION: BRRM was associated with lower mortality than surveillance for BRCA1 mutation carriers, but for BRCA2 mutation carriers, BRRM may lead to similar BC-specific survival as surveillance. Our findings support a more individualized counseling based on BRCA mutation type.


Assuntos
Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/etiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/prevenção & controle , Heterozigoto , Mutação , Mastectomia Profilática , Neoplasias da Mama/mortalidade , Neoplasias da Mama/cirurgia , Feminino , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Humanos , Mortalidade , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Prognóstico , Mastectomia Profilática/métodos , Vigilância em Saúde Pública , Comportamento de Redução do Risco
7.
PLoS One ; 14(3): e0212952, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30845233

RESUMO

Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome is associated with an increased risk for renal cell carcinoma. Surveillance is recommended, but the optimal imaging method and screening interval remain to be defined. The main aim of our study was to evaluate the outcomes of RCC surveillance to get insight in the safety of annual US in these patients. Surveillance data and medical records of 199 patients with Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome were collected retrospectively using medical files and a questionnaire. These patients were diagnosed in two Dutch hospitals and data were collected until June 2014. A first screening for renal cell carcinoma was performed in 172/199 patients (86%). Follow-up data were available from 121 patients. The mean follow-up period per patient was 4.2 years. Of the patients known to be under surveillance, 83% was screened at least annually and 94% at least every two years. Thirty-eight renal cell carcinomas had occurred in 23 patients. The mean age at diagnosis of the first tumour was 51. Eighteen tumours were visualized by ultrasound. Nine small tumours (7-27 mm) were visible on MRI or CT and not detected using ultrasound. Our data indicate that compliance to renal screening is relatively high. Furthermore, ultrasound might be a sensitive, cheap and widely available alternative for MRI or part of the MRIs for detecting clinically relevant renal tumours in BHD patients,but the limitations should be considered carefully. Data from larger cohorts are necessary to confirm these observations.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Birt-Hogg-Dubé/complicações , Carcinoma de Células Renais/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Renais/diagnóstico por imagem , Programas de Rastreamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Cooperação do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Síndrome de Birt-Hogg-Dubé/genética , Carcinoma de Células Renais/genética , Feminino , Seguimentos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Rim/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Renais/genética , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Países Baixos , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas/genética , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/genética , Ultrassonografia , Adulto Jovem
8.
PLoS One ; 13(3): e0194938, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29601581

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Down syndrome (DS) is the most frequent genetic cause of intellectual disability. Despite the fact that more than 50 years have passed since the discovery of its genetic aberrations, the exact pathogenesis of the DS phenotype has remained largely unexplained. It was recently hypothesized that the DS pathogenesis involves complex (epi)genetic, molecular and cellular determinants. To date, many reports have addressed epigenetic aberrations associated with DS at different developmental stages/ages and tissue types, but to our best knowledge not in DS newborns. This study aimed to investigate genome-wide methylation patterns in DS newborns compared to non-trisomic newborns. METHOD: We analyzed blood samples obtained from ten newborns with DS and five age-matched non-trisomic newborns. Epigenetic profiles were obtained from extracted DNA using the Illumina Infinium 450K array. Since aberrant blood cell distribution is known to be present in DS, we applied two distinct models: with and without correction for estimated blood cell distribution. RESULTS: Differentially methylated position (DMP) analysis of the uncorrected model detected 19525 significant hits (51,2% hypomethylated). In the corrected model, we found 121953 significant DMPs (49,8% hypomethylated). Independent of the used model we observed a chromosome 21 dosage effect. Moreover, we detected 46 and 145 differentially methylated regions in the uncorrected and corrected model respectively, both showing hypomethylation overrepresentation. Replication analyses of DMPs and DMRs found by Bacalini et al. (2015) showed a large overlap. CONCLUSION: In this study, we found methylation profile differences between DS newborns and controls reflecting a systematically affected epigenetic profile. The observed chromosome 21 dosage effect suggests the involvement of affected essential regulatory factors/regions or altered expression of chromatin modeling enzymes located on chromosome 21. Additional research is necessary to substantiate these hypotheses.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA , Síndrome de Down/sangue , Síndrome de Down/genética , Epigênese Genética , Feminino , Genômica , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino
9.
Int J Cancer ; 136(3): 668-77, 2015 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24947112

RESUMO

Data on survival of BRCA1/2-associated primary breast cancer (PBC) patients who opt for subsequent contralateral risk-reducing mastectomy (CRRM) are scarce and inconsistent. We examined the efficacy of CRRM on overall survival in mutation carriers with a history of PBC. From a Dutch multicentre cohort, we selected 583 BRCA-associated PBC patients, being diagnosed between 1980 and 2011. Over time, 242 patients (42%) underwent CRRM and 341 patients (58%) remained under surveillance. Survival analyses were performed using Cox models, with CRRM as a time-dependent covariate. The median follow-up after PBC diagnosis was 11.4 years. In the CRRM group, four patients developed contralateral breast cancer (2%), against 64 patients (19%) in the surveillance group (p < 0.001). The mortality was lower in the CRRM group than in the surveillance group (9.6 and 21.6 per 1000 person-years of observation, respectively; adjusted hazard ratio 0.49, 95% confidence interval 0.29-0.82). Survival benefit was especially seen in young PBC patients (<40 years), in patients having a PBC with differentiation grade 1/2 and/or no triple-negative phenotype, and in patients not treated with adjuvant chemotherapy. We conclude that CRRM is associated with improved overall survival in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers with a history of PBC. Further research is warranted to develop a model based on age at diagnosis and tumour and treatment characteristics that can predict survival benefit for specific subgroups of patients, aiming at further personalized counselling and improved decision making.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/mortalidade , Genes BRCA1 , Genes BRCA2 , Mastectomia , Mutação , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/cirurgia , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos
10.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 23(11): 2482-91, 2014 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25103822

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We aimed to quantify previously observed relatively high cancer risks in BRCA2 mutation carriers (BRCA2 carriers) older than 60 in the Northern Netherlands, and to analyze whether these could be explained by mutation spectrum or population background risk. METHODS: This consecutive cohort study included all known pathogenic BRCA1/2 carriers in the Northern Netherlands (N = 1,050). Carrier and general reference populations were: BRCA1/2 carriers in the rest of the Netherlands (N = 2,013) and the general population in both regions. Regional differences were assessed with HRs and ORs. HRs were adjusted for birth year and mutation spectrum. RESULTS: All BRCA1 carriers and BRCA2 carriers younger than 60 had a significantly lower breast cancer risk in the Northern Netherlands; HRs were 0.66 and 0.64, respectively. Above age 60, the breast cancer risk in BRCA2 carriers in the Northern Netherlands was higher than in the rest of the Netherlands [HR, 3.99; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.11-14.35]. Adjustment for mutational spectrum changed the HRs for BRCA1, BRCA2 <60, and BRCA2 ≥60 years by -3%, +32%, and +11% to 0.75, 0.50, and 2.61, respectively. There was no difference in background breast cancer incidence between the two regions (OR, 1.03; 95% CI, 0.97-1.09). CONCLUSIONS: Differences in mutation spectrum only partly explain the regional differences in breast cancer risk in BRCA2 carriers, and for an even smaller part in BRCA1 carriers. IMPACT: The increased risk in BRCA2 carriers older than 60 may warrant extension of intensive breast screening beyond age 60.


Assuntos
Proteína BRCA2/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Mutação , Países Baixos , Fatores de Risco
11.
J Med Genet ; 51(2): 98-107, 2014 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24285858

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations confer increased risks of breast and ovarian cancer, but risks have been found to vary across studies and populations. METHODS: We ascertained pedigree data of 582 BRCA1 and 176 BRCA2 families and studied the variation in breast and ovarian cancer risks using a modified segregation analysis model. RESULTS: The average cumulative breast cancer risk by age 70 years was estimated to be 45% (95% CI 36 to 52%) for BRCA1 and 27% (95% CI 14 to 38%) for BRCA2 mutation carriers. The corresponding cumulative risks for ovarian cancer were 31% (95% CI 17 to 43%) for BRCA1 and 6% (95% CI 2 to 11%) for BRCA2 mutation carriers. In BRCA1 families, breast cancer relative risk (RR) increased with more recent birth cohort (p heterogeneity = 0.0006) and stronger family histories of breast cancer (p heterogeneity < 0.001). For BRCA1, our data suggest a significant association between the location of the mutation and the ratio of breast to ovarian cancer (p<0.001). By contrast, in BRCA2 families, no evidence was found for risk heterogeneity by birth cohort, family history or mutation location. CONCLUSIONS: BRCA1 mutation carriers conferred lower overall breast and ovarian cancer risks than reported so far, while the estimates of BRCA2 mutations were among the lowest. The low estimates for BRCA1 might be due to older birth cohorts, a moderate family history, or founder mutations located within specific regions of the gene. These results are important for a more accurate counselling of BRCA1/2 mutation carriers.


Assuntos
Efeito Fundador , Genes BRCA1 , Genes BRCA2 , Síndrome Hereditária de Câncer de Mama e Ovário/genética , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Idade de Início , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Síndrome Hereditária de Câncer de Mama e Ovário/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Linhagem , Risco , Adulto Jovem
12.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 21(8): 1362-70, 2012 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22729394

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We previously reported significant associations between genetic variants in insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1) and breast cancer risk in women carrying BRCA1 mutations. The objectives of this study were to investigate whether the IRS1 variants modified ovarian cancer risk and were associated with breast cancer risk in a larger cohort of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. METHODS: IRS1 rs1801123, rs1330645, and rs1801278 were genotyped in samples from 36 centers in the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2 (CIMBA). Data were analyzed by a retrospective cohort approach modeling the associations with breast and ovarian cancer risks simultaneously. Analyses were stratified by BRCA1 and BRCA2 status and mutation class in BRCA1 carriers. RESULTS: Rs1801278 (Gly972Arg) was associated with ovarian cancer risk for both BRCA1 (HR, 1.43; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.06-1.92; P = 0.019) and BRCA2 mutation carriers (HR, 2.21; 95% CI, 1.39-3.52, P = 0.0008). For BRCA1 mutation carriers, the breast cancer risk was higher in carriers with class II mutations than class I mutations (class II HR, 1.86; 95% CI, 1.28-2.70; class I HR, 0.86; 95%CI, 0.69-1.09; P(difference), 0.0006). Rs13306465 was associated with ovarian cancer risk in BRCA1 class II mutation carriers (HR, 2.42; P = 0.03). CONCLUSION: The IRS1 Gly972Arg single-nucleotide polymorphism, which affects insulin-like growth factor and insulin signaling, modifies ovarian cancer risk in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers and breast cancer risk in BRCA1 class II mutation carriers. IMPACT: These findings may prove useful for risk prediction for breast and ovarian cancers in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Genes BRCA1 , Genes BRCA2 , Proteínas Substratos do Receptor de Insulina/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genótipo , Humanos , Mutação , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
13.
Breast Cancer Res ; 14(1): R33, 2012 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22348646

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Several common alleles have been shown to be associated with breast and/or ovarian cancer risk for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. Recent genome-wide association studies of breast cancer have identified eight additional breast cancer susceptibility loci: rs1011970 (9p21, CDKN2A/B), rs10995190 (ZNF365), rs704010 (ZMIZ1), rs2380205 (10p15), rs614367 (11q13), rs1292011 (12q24), rs10771399 (12p11 near PTHLH) and rs865686 (9q31.2). METHODS: To evaluate whether these single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are associated with breast cancer risk for BRCA1 and BRCA2 carriers, we genotyped these SNPs in 12,599 BRCA1 and 7,132 BRCA2 mutation carriers and analysed the associations with breast cancer risk within a retrospective likelihood framework. RESULTS: Only SNP rs10771399 near PTHLH was associated with breast cancer risk for BRCA1 mutation carriers (per-allele hazard ratio (HR) = 0.87, 95% CI: 0.81 to 0.94, P-trend = 3 × 10-4). The association was restricted to mutations proven or predicted to lead to absence of protein expression (HR = 0.82, 95% CI: 0.74 to 0.90, P-trend = 3.1 × 10-5, P-difference = 0.03). Four SNPs were associated with the risk of breast cancer for BRCA2 mutation carriers: rs10995190, P-trend = 0.015; rs1011970, P-trend = 0.048; rs865686, 2df-P = 0.007; rs1292011 2df-P = 0.03. rs10771399 (PTHLH) was predominantly associated with estrogen receptor (ER)-negative breast cancer for BRCA1 mutation carriers (HR = 0.81, 95% CI: 0.74 to 0.90, P-trend = 4 × 10-5) and there was marginal evidence of association with ER-negative breast cancer for BRCA2 mutation carriers (HR = 0.78, 95% CI: 0.62 to 1.00, P-trend = 0.049). CONCLUSIONS: The present findings, in combination with previously identified modifiers of risk, will ultimately lead to more accurate risk prediction and an improved understanding of the disease etiology in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers.


Assuntos
Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 12/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 9/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Síndrome Hereditária de Câncer de Mama e Ovário/genética , Heterozigoto , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fatores de Risco
14.
Hum Mutat ; 33(4): 690-702, 2012 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22253144

RESUMO

Germline mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 are associated with increased risks of breast and ovarian cancer. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) identified six alleles associated with risk of ovarian cancer for women in the general population. We evaluated four of these loci as potential modifiers of ovarian cancer risk for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. Four single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), rs10088218 (at 8q24), rs2665390 (at 3q25), rs717852 (at 2q31), and rs9303542 (at 17q21), were genotyped in 12,599 BRCA1 and 7,132 BRCA2 carriers, including 2,678 ovarian cancer cases. Associations were evaluated within a retrospective cohort approach. All four loci were associated with ovarian cancer risk in BRCA2 carriers; rs10088218 per-allele hazard ratio (HR) = 0.81 (95% CI: 0.67-0.98) P-trend = 0.033, rs2665390 HR = 1.48 (95% CI: 1.21-1.83) P-trend = 1.8 × 10(-4), rs717852 HR = 1.25 (95% CI: 1.10-1.42) P-trend = 6.6 × 10(-4), rs9303542 HR = 1.16 (95% CI: 1.02-1.33) P-trend = 0.026. Two loci were associated with ovarian cancer risk in BRCA1 carriers; rs10088218 per-allele HR = 0.89 (95% CI: 0.81-0.99) P-trend = 0.029, rs2665390 HR = 1.25 (95% CI: 1.10-1.42) P-trend = 6.1 × 10(-4). The HR estimates for the remaining loci were consistent with odds ratio estimates for the general population. The identification of multiple loci modifying ovarian cancer risk may be useful for counseling women with BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations regarding their risk of ovarian cancer.


Assuntos
Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Mutação , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Estudos Retrospectivos
15.
Breast Cancer Res ; 13(6): R110, 2011.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22053997

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Previous studies have demonstrated that common breast cancer susceptibility alleles are differentially associated with breast cancer risk for BRCA1 and/or BRCA2 mutation carriers. It is currently unknown how these alleles are associated with different breast cancer subtypes in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers defined by estrogen (ER) or progesterone receptor (PR) status of the tumour. METHODS: We used genotype data on up to 11,421 BRCA1 and 7,080 BRCA2 carriers, of whom 4,310 had been affected with breast cancer and had information on either ER or PR status of the tumour, to assess the associations of 12 loci with breast cancer tumour characteristics. Associations were evaluated using a retrospective cohort approach. RESULTS: The results suggested stronger associations with ER-positive breast cancer than ER-negative for 11 loci in both BRCA1 and BRCA2 carriers. Among BRCA1 carriers, single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs2981582 (FGFR2) exhibited the biggest difference based on ER status (per-allele hazard ratio (HR) for ER-positive = 1.35, 95% CI: 1.17 to 1.56 vs HR = 0.91, 95% CI: 0.85 to 0.98 for ER-negative, P-heterogeneity = 6.5 × 10-6). In contrast, SNP rs2046210 at 6q25.1 near ESR1 was primarily associated with ER-negative breast cancer risk for both BRCA1 and BRCA2 carriers. In BRCA2 carriers, SNPs in FGFR2, TOX3, LSP1, SLC4A7/NEK10, 5p12, 2q35, and 1p11.2 were significantly associated with ER-positive but not ER-negative disease. Similar results were observed when differentiating breast cancer cases by PR status. CONCLUSIONS: The associations of the 12 SNPs with risk for BRCA1 and BRCA2 carriers differ by ER-positive or ER-negative breast cancer status. The apparent differences in SNP associations between BRCA1 and BRCA2 carriers, and non-carriers, may be explicable by differences in the prevalence of tumour subtypes. As more risk modifying variants are identified, incorporating these associations into breast cancer subtype-specific risk models may improve clinical management for mutation carriers.


Assuntos
Alelos , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Genes BRCA1 , Genes BRCA2 , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Heterozigoto , Mutação , Neoplasias da Mama/classificação , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Receptores Estrogênicos/metabolismo , Receptores de Progesterona/metabolismo , Risco
16.
Hum Genet ; 130(5): 685-99, 2011 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21597964

RESUMO

Three founder mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 contribute to the risk of hereditary breast and ovarian cancer in Ashkenazi Jews (AJ). They are observed at increased frequency in the AJ compared to other BRCA mutations in Caucasian non-Jews (CNJ). Several authors have proposed that elevated allele frequencies in the surrounding genomic regions reflect adaptive or balancing selection. Such proposals predict long-range linkage disequilibrium (LD) resulting from a selective sweep, although genetic drift in a founder population may also act to create long-distance LD. To date, few studies have used the tools of statistical genomics to examine the likelihood of long-range LD at a deleterious locus in a population that faced a genetic bottleneck. We studied the genotypes of hundreds of women from a large international consortium of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers and found that AJ women exhibited long-range haplotypes compared to CNJ women. More than 50% of the AJ chromosomes with the BRCA1 185delAG mutation share an identical 2.1 Mb haplotype and nearly 16% of AJ chromosomes carrying the BRCA2 6174delT mutation share a 1.4 Mb haplotype. Simulations based on the best inference of Ashkenazi population demography indicate that long-range haplotypes are expected in the context of a genome-wide survey. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that a local bottleneck effect from population size constriction events could by chance have resulted in the large haplotype blocks observed at high frequency in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 regions of Ashkenazi Jews.


Assuntos
Artrite/genética , Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Surdez/genética , Haplótipos/genética , Policondrite Recidivante/genética , Sequência de Bases , Simulação por Computador , Feminino , Efeito Fundador , Genótipo , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Judeus/genética , Deleção de Sequência
17.
Ann Surg Oncol ; 14(12): 3335-44, 2007 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17541692

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: BRCA1/2 mutation carriers and women from a hereditary breast(/ovarian) cancer family have a highly increased risk of developing breast cancer (BC). Prophylactic mastectomy (PM) results in the greatest BC risk reduction. Long-term data on the efficacy and sequels of PM are scarce. METHODS: From 358 high-risk women (including 236 BRCA1/2 carriers) undergoing PM between 1994 and 2004, relevant data on the occurrence of BC in relation to PM, complications in relation to breast reconstruction (BR), mutation status, age at PM and preoperative imaging examination results were extracted from the medical records, and analyzed separately for women without (unaffected, n = 177) and with a BC history (affected, n = 181). RESULTS: No primary BCs occurred after PM (median follow-up 4.5 years). In one previously unaffected woman, metastatic BC was detected almost 4 years after PM (primary BC not found). Median age at PM was younger in unaffected women (P < .001), affected women more frequently were 50% risk carriers (P < .001). Unexpected (pre)malignant changes at PM were found in 3% of the patients (in 5 affected, and 5 unaffected women, respectively). In 49.6% of the women opting for BR one or more complications were registered, totaling 215 complications, leading to 153 surgical interventions (71%). Complications were mainly related to cosmetic outcome (36%) and capsular formation (24%). CONCLUSIONS: The risk of developing a primary BC after PM remains low after longer follow-up. Preoperative imaging and careful histological examination is warranted because of potential unexpected (pre)malignant findings. The high complication rate after breast reconstruction mainly concerns cosmetic issues.


Assuntos
Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/cirurgia , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa/genética , Mutação , Adulto , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Estudos Longitudinais , Mamoplastia , Mastectomia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/cirurgia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/terapia , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento
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