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1.
Elife ; 102021 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33459596

RESUMO

Germline mutations in the Folliculin (FLCN) tumor suppressor gene cause Birt-Hogg-Dubé (BHD) syndrome, a rare autosomal dominant disorder predisposing carriers to kidney tumors. FLCN is a conserved, essential gene linked to diverse cellular processes but the mechanism by which FLCN prevents kidney cancer remains unknown. Here, we show that disrupting FLCN in human renal tubular epithelial cells (RPTEC/TERT1) activates TFE3, upregulating expression of its E-box targets, including RRAGD and GPNMB, without modifying mTORC1 activity. Surprisingly, the absence of FLCN or its binding partners FNIP1/FNIP2 induces interferon response genes independently of interferon. Mechanistically, FLCN loss promotes STAT2 recruitment to chromatin and slows cellular proliferation. Our integrated analysis identifies STAT1/2 signaling as a novel target of FLCN in renal cells and BHD tumors. STAT1/2 activation appears to counterbalance TFE3-directed hyper-proliferation and may influence immune responses. These findings shed light on unique roles of FLCN in human renal tumorigenesis and pinpoint candidate prognostic biomarkers.

2.
Am J Hum Genet ; 107(5): 989-999, 2020 11 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33053334

RESUMO

Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is characterized primarily by susceptibility to fractures with or without bone deformation. OI is genetically heterogeneous: over 20 genetic causes are recognized. We identified bi-allelic pathogenic KDELR2 variants as a cause of OI in four families. KDELR2 encodes KDEL endoplasmic reticulum protein retention receptor 2, which recycles ER-resident proteins with a KDEL-like peptide from the cis-Golgi to the ER through COPI retrograde transport. Analysis of patient primary fibroblasts showed intracellular decrease of HSP47 and FKBP65 along with reduced procollagen type I in culture media. Electron microscopy identified an abnormal quality of secreted collagen fibrils with increased amount of HSP47 bound to monomeric and multimeric collagen molecules. Mapping the identified KDELR2 variants onto the crystal structure of G. gallus KDELR2 indicated that these lead to an inactive receptor resulting in impaired KDELR2-mediated Golgi-ER transport. Therefore, in KDELR2-deficient individuals, OI most likely occurs because of the inability of HSP47 to bind KDELR2 and dissociate from collagen type I. Instead, HSP47 remains bound to collagen molecules extracellularly, disrupting fiber formation. This highlights the importance of intracellular recycling of ER-resident molecular chaperones for collagen type I and bone metabolism and a crucial role of HSP47 in the KDELR2-associated pathogenic mechanism leading to OI.

3.
Genet Med ; 2020 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32820247

RESUMO

PURPOSE: In this study we aimed to establish the genetic cause of a myriad of cardiovascular defects prevalent in individuals from a genetically isolated population, who were found to share a common ancestor in 1728. METHODS: Trio genome sequencing was carried out in an index patient with critical congenital heart disease (CHD); family members had either exome or Sanger sequencing. To confirm enrichment, we performed a gene-based association test and meta-analysis in two independent validation cohorts: one with 2685 CHD cases versus 4370 . These controls were also ancestry-matched (same as FTAA controls), and the other with 326 cases with familial thoracic aortic aneurysms (FTAA) and dissections versus 570 ancestry-matched controls. Functional consequences of identified variants were evaluated using expression studies. RESULTS: We identified a loss-of-function variant in the Notch target transcription factor-encoding gene HEY2. The homozygous state (n = 3) causes life-threatening congenital heart defects, while 80% of heterozygous carriers (n = 20) had cardiovascular defects, mainly CHD and FTAA of the ascending aorta. We confirm enrichment of rare risk variants in HEY2 functional domains after meta-analysis (MetaSKAT p = 0.018). Furthermore, we show that several identified variants lead to dysregulation of repression by HEY2. CONCLUSION: A homozygous germline loss-of-function variant in HEY2 leads to critical CHD. The majority of heterozygotes show a myriad of cardiovascular defects.

5.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 182(1): 47-56, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31658438

RESUMO

Objective: Leptin receptor (LepR) deficiency is an autosomal-recessive endocrine disorder causing early-onset severe obesity, hyperphagia and pituitary hormone deficiencies. As effective pharmacological treatment has recently been developed, diagnosing LepR deficiency is urgent. However, recognition is challenging and prevalence is unknown. We aim to elucidate the clinical spectrum and to estimate the prevalence of LepR deficiency in Europe. Design: Comprehensive epidemiologic analysis and systematic literature review. Methods: We curated a list of LEPR variants described in patients and elaborately evaluated their phenotypes. Subsequently, we extracted allele frequencies from the Genome Aggregation Database (gnomAD), consisting of sequencing data of 77 165 European individuals. We then calculated the number of individuals with biallelic disease-causing LEPR variants. Results: Worldwide, 86 patients with LepR deficiency are published. We add two new patients, bringing the total of published patients to 88, of which 21 are European. All patients had early-onset obesity; 96% had hyperphagia; 34% had one or more pituitary hormone deficiencies. Our calculation results in 998 predicted patients in Europe, corresponding to a prevalence of 1.34 per 1 million people (95% CI: 0.95-1.72). Conclusions: This study shows that LepR deficiency is more prevalent in Europe (n = 998 predicted patients) than currently known (n = 21 patients), suggesting that LepR deficiency is underdiagnosed. An important cause for this could be lack of access to genetic testing. Another possible explanation is insufficient recognition, as only one-third of patients has pituitary hormone deficiencies. With novel highly effective treatment emerging, diagnosing LepR deficiency is more important than ever.


Assuntos
Genética Populacional/métodos , Receptores para Leptina/deficiência , Receptores para Leptina/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência
6.
Clin Cancer Res ; 26(2): 505-517, 2020 01 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31649042

RESUMO

PURPOSE: In breast cancer, response rates to immune therapies are generally low and differ significantly across molecular subtypes, urging a better understanding of immunogenicity and immune evasion. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We interrogated large gene-expression data sets including 867 node-negative, treatment-naïve breast cancer patients (microarray data) and 347 breast cancer patients (whole-genome sequencing and transcriptome data) according to parameters of T cells as well as immune microenvironment in relation to patient survival. RESULTS: We developed a 109-immune gene signature that captures abundance of CD8 tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) and is prognostic in basal-like, her2, and luminal B breast cancer, but not in luminal A or normal-like breast cancer. Basal-like and her2 are characterized by highest CD8 TIL abundance, highest T-cell clonality, highest frequencies of memory T cells, and highest antigenicity, yet only the former shows highest expression level of immune and metabolic checkpoints and highest frequency of myeloid suppressor cells. Also, luminal B shows a high antigenicity and T-cell clonality, yet a low abundance of CD8 TILs. In contrast, luminal A and normal-like both show a low antigenicity, and notably, a low and high abundance of CD8 TILs, respectively, which associates with T-cell influx parameters, such as expression of adhesion molecules. CONCLUSIONS: Collectively, our data argue that not only CD8 T-cell presence itself, but rather T-cell clonality, T-cell subset distribution, coinhibition, and antigen presentation reflect occurrence of a CD8 T-cell response in breast cancer subtypes, which have been aborted by distinct T-cell-suppressive mechanisms, providing a rationale for subtype-specific combination immune therapies.


Assuntos
Apresentação do Antígeno/imunologia , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/mortalidade , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Células Clonais/imunologia , Bases de Dados Genéticas/estatística & dados numéricos , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/imunologia , Biomarcadores Tumorais/imunologia , Neoplasias da Mama/classificação , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/imunologia , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Imunoterapia/métodos , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/imunologia , Prognóstico , Receptor ErbB-2/metabolismo , Taxa de Sobrevida , Microambiente Tumoral/imunologia
7.
Br J Cancer ; 122(4): 590-594, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31857718

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previously, it has been suggested that colorectal polyps and carcinomas might be associated with Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome. We aimed to compare the occurrence of colorectal neoplasms between Dutch patients with Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome and their relatives without Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome. METHODS: In all, 399 patients with a pathogenic FLCN mutation and 382 relatives without the familial FLCN mutation were included. Anonymous data on colon and rectum pathology was provided by PALGA: the Dutch Pathology Registry. RESULTS: No significant difference in the percentage of individuals with a history of colorectal carcinoma was found between the two groups (3.6% vs 2.6%, p = 0.54). There was also no significant difference between the age at diagnosis, diameter, differentiation and location of the colorectal carcinomas. Significantly more individuals with Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome underwent removal of colorectal polyps (12.2% vs 6.3%, p = 0.005). However, there was no significant difference between the number of polyps per person, the histology, grade of dysplasia and location of the polyps. CONCLUSION: Our data do not provide evidence for an increased risk for colorectal carcinoma in Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome, arguing against the need for colorectal surveillance. The difference in polyps might be due to a bias caused by a higher number of colonoscopies in patients with Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Birt-Hogg-Dubé/complicações , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Prevalência
8.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(2): 368-378, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31792088

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption have been intensively studied in the general population to assess their effects on the risk of breast cancer, but very few studies have examined these effects in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. Given the high breast cancer risk for mutation carriers and the importance of BRCA1 and BRCA2 in DNA repair, better evidence on the associations of these lifestyle factors with breast cancer risk is essential. METHODS: Using a large international pooled cohort of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers, we conducted retrospective (5,707 BRCA1 mutation carriers and 3,525 BRCA2 mutation carriers) and prospective (2,276 BRCA1 mutation carriers and 1,610 BRCA2 mutation carriers) analyses of alcohol and tobacco consumption using Cox proportional hazards models. RESULTS: For both BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers, none of the smoking-related variables was associated with breast cancer risk, except smoking for more than 5 years before a first full-term pregnancy (FFTP) when compared with parous women who never smoked. For BRCA1 mutation carriers, the HR from retrospective analysis (HRR) was 1.19 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.02-1.39] and the HR from prospective analysis (HRP) was 1.36 (95% CI, 0.99-1.87). For BRCA2 mutation carriers, smoking for more than 5 years before an FFTP showed an association of a similar magnitude, but the confidence limits were wider (HRR = 1.25; 95% CI, 1.01-1.55 and HRP = 1.30; 95% CI, 0.83-2.01). For both carrier groups, alcohol consumption was not associated with breast cancer risk. CONCLUSIONS: The finding that smoking during the prereproductive years increases breast cancer risk for mutation carriers warrants further investigation. IMPACT: This is the largest prospective study of BRCA mutation carriers to assess these important risk factors.

9.
Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd ; 1632019 09 24.
Artigo em Holandês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31556493

RESUMO

Since the first map of the human genome was published in 2001 our knowledge about our genetic code has increased exponentially. In addition to high-risk genes for monogenic diseases, such as Huntington's disease and cystic fibrosis, for a number of common diseases, such as breast cancer and cardiovascular disease, many genetic variants that each have a slight increased-risk effect, have been identified via genome-wide association studies (GWAS). A polygenic risk score (PRS) can be calculated on the basis of these single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), by which an increasingly accurate prediction can be made of an individual's risk for diseases. The results of epidemiological studies in which a PRS is used to predict an individual's total genetic risk for particular diseases are promising. In the future, the PRS could be a valuable addition to traditional monogenic tests. It is, however, important that the predictive value of a genetic risk profile increases further and that it becomes more clear how a clinician must interpret this type of genetic profile - in combination with traditional risk factors.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença , Testes Genéticos/estatística & dados numéricos , Herança Multifatorial/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Medição de Risco/métodos , Algoritmos , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Doenças Cardiovasculares/genética , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Fatores de Risco
10.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 177(3): 723-733, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31302855

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In healthy BRCA1/2 mutation carriers, bilateral risk-reducing mastectomy (BRRM) strongly reduces the risk of developing breast cancer (BC); however, no clear survival benefit of BRRM over BC surveillance has been reported yet. METHODS: In this Dutch multicenter cohort study, we used multivariable Cox models with BRRM as a time-dependent covariable to estimate the associations between BRRM and the overall and BC-specific mortality rates, separately for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. RESULTS: During a mean follow-up of 10.3 years, 722 out of 1712 BRCA1 (42%) and 406 out of 1145 BRCA2 (35%) mutation carriers underwent BRRM. For BRCA1 mutation carriers, we observed 52 deaths (20 from BC) in the surveillance group, and 10 deaths (one from BC) after BRRM. The hazard ratios were 0.40 (95% CI 0.20-0.90) for overall mortality and 0.06 (95% CI 0.01-0.46) for BC-specific mortality. BC-specific survival at age 65 was 93% for surveillance and 99.7% for BRRM. For BRCA2 mutation carriers, we observed 29 deaths (7 from BC) in the surveillance group, and 4 deaths (no BC) after BRRM. The hazard ratio for overall mortality was 0.45 (95% CI 0.15-1.36). BC-specific survival at age 65 was 98% for surveillance and 100% for BRRM. CONCLUSION: BRRM was associated with lower mortality than surveillance for BRCA1 mutation carriers, but for BRCA2 mutation carriers, BRRM may lead to similar BC-specific survival as surveillance. Our findings support a more individualized counseling based on BRCA mutation type.


Assuntos
Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/etiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/prevenção & controle , Heterozigoto , Mutação , Mastectomia Profilática , Neoplasias da Mama/mortalidade , Neoplasias da Mama/cirurgia , Feminino , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Humanos , Mortalidade , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Prognóstico , Mastectomia Profilática/métodos , Vigilância em Saúde Pública , Comportamento de Redução do Risco
11.
J Med Genet ; 56(9): 581-589, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31186341

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The currently known breast cancer-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are presently not used to guide clinical management. We explored whether a genetic test that incorporates a SNP-based polygenic risk score (PRS) is clinically meaningful in non-BRCA1/2 high-risk breast cancer families. METHODS: 101 non-BRCA1/2 high-risk breast cancer families were included; 323 cases and 262 unaffected female relatives were genotyped. The 161-SNP PRS was calculated and standardised to 327 population controls (sPRS). Association analysis was performed using a Cox-type random effect regression model adjusted by family history. Updated individualised breast cancer lifetime risk scores were derived by combining the Breast and Ovarian Analysis of Disease Incidence and Carrier Estimation Algorithm breast cancer lifetime risk with the effect of the sPRS. RESULTS: The mean sPRS for cases and their unaffected relatives was 0.70 (SD=0.9) and 0.53 (SD=0.9), respectively. A significant association was found between sPRS and breast cancer, HR=1.16, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.28, p=0.026. Addition of the sPRS to risk prediction based on family history alone changed screening recommendations in 11.5%, 14.7% and 19.8 % of the women according to breast screening guidelines from the USA (National Comprehensive Cancer Network), UK (National Institute for Health and Care Excellence and the Netherlands (Netherlands Comprehensive Cancer Organisation), respectively. CONCLUSION: Our results support the application of the PRS in risk prediction and clinical management of women from genetically unexplained breast cancer families.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Estudos de Associação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Alelos , Neoplasias da Mama/mortalidade , Neoplasias da Mama/terapia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Gerenciamento Clínico , Genótipo , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Linhagem , Prognóstico , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Medição de Risco , Adulto Jovem
12.
J Med Genet ; 56(10): 654-661, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31040167

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study evaluates 6 years of prenatal rasopathy testing in the Netherlands, updates on previous data and gives recommendations for prenatal rasopathy testing. METHODS: 424 fetal samples, sent in for prenatal rasopathy testing in 2011-2016, were collected. Cohort 1 included 231 samples that were sequenced for 1-5 rasopathy genes. Cohort 2 included 193 samples that were analysed with a 14-gene next generation sequencing (NGS) panel. For all mutation-positive samples in both cohorts, the referring physician provided detailed ultrasound findings and postnatal follow-up. For 168 mutation-negative samples in cohort 2, solely clinical information on the requisition form was collected. RESULTS: In total, 40 (likely) pathogenic variants were detected (9.4%). All fetuses showed a variable degree of involvement of prenatal findings: increased nuchal translucency (NT)/cystic hygroma, distended jugular lymph sacs (JLS), hydrops fetalis, polyhydramnios, pleural effusion, ascites, cardiac defects and renal anomalies. An increased NT was the most common finding. Eight fetuses showed solely an increased NT/cystic hygroma, which were all larger than 5.5 mm. Ascites and renal anomalies appeared to be poor predictors of pathogenic outcome. CONCLUSION: Fetuses with a rasopathy show in general multiple ultrasound findings. The larger the NT and the longer it persists, the more likely it is to find a pathogenic variant. Rasopathy testing is recommended when the fetus shows an isolated increased NT ≥5.0 mm or when NT of ≥3.5 mm and at least one of the following ultrasound anomalies is present: distended JLS, hydrops fetalis, polyhydramnios, pleural effusion, ascites, cardiac defects and renal anomalies.


Assuntos
Linfangioma Cístico/genética , Síndrome de Noonan/genética , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Feto , Testes Genéticos , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Mutação , Países Baixos , Síndrome de Noonan/diagnóstico , Gravidez , Diagnóstico Pré-Natal , Análise de Sequência de DNA
13.
PLoS One ; 14(3): e0212952, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30845233

RESUMO

Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome is associated with an increased risk for renal cell carcinoma. Surveillance is recommended, but the optimal imaging method and screening interval remain to be defined. The main aim of our study was to evaluate the outcomes of RCC surveillance to get insight in the safety of annual US in these patients. Surveillance data and medical records of 199 patients with Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome were collected retrospectively using medical files and a questionnaire. These patients were diagnosed in two Dutch hospitals and data were collected until June 2014. A first screening for renal cell carcinoma was performed in 172/199 patients (86%). Follow-up data were available from 121 patients. The mean follow-up period per patient was 4.2 years. Of the patients known to be under surveillance, 83% was screened at least annually and 94% at least every two years. Thirty-eight renal cell carcinomas had occurred in 23 patients. The mean age at diagnosis of the first tumour was 51. Eighteen tumours were visualized by ultrasound. Nine small tumours (7-27 mm) were visible on MRI or CT and not detected using ultrasound. Our data indicate that compliance to renal screening is relatively high. Furthermore, ultrasound might be a sensitive, cheap and widely available alternative for MRI or part of the MRIs for detecting clinically relevant renal tumours in BHD patients,but the limitations should be considered carefully. Data from larger cohorts are necessary to confirm these observations.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Birt-Hogg-Dubé/complicações , Carcinoma de Células Renais/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Renais/diagnóstico por imagem , Programas de Rastreamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Cooperação do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Síndrome de Birt-Hogg-Dubé/genética , Carcinoma de Células Renais/genética , Feminino , Seguimentos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Rim/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Renais/genética , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Países Baixos , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas/genética , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/genética , Ultrassonografia , Adulto Jovem
14.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 27(2): 244-253, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30258121

RESUMO

The detection of genetic loci associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD) requires large numbers of cases and controls because variant effect sizes are mostly small. We hypothesized that variant effect sizes should increase when individuals who represent the extreme ends of a disease spectrum are considered, as their genomes are assumed to be maximally enriched or depleted with disease-associated genetic variants. We used 1,073 extensively phenotyped AD cases with relatively young age at onset as extreme cases (66.3 ± 7.9 years), 1,664 age-matched controls (66.0 ± 6.5 years) and 255 cognitively healthy centenarians as extreme controls (101.4 ± 1.3 years). We estimated the effect size of 29 variants that were previously associated with AD in genome-wide association studies. Comparing extreme AD cases with centenarian controls increased the variant effect size relative to published effect sizes by on average 1.90-fold (SE = 0.29, p = 9.0 × 10-4). The effect size increase was largest for the rare high-impact TREM2 (R74H) variant (6.5-fold), and significant for variants in/near ECHDC3 (4.6-fold), SLC24A4-RIN3 (4.5-fold), NME8 (3.8-fold), PLCG2 (3.3-fold), APOE-ε2 (2.2-fold), and APOE-ε4 (twofold). Comparing extreme phenotypes enabled us to replicate the AD association for 10 variants (p < 0.05) in relatively small samples. The increase in effect sizes depended mainly on using centenarians as extreme controls: the average variant effect size was not increased in a comparison of extreme AD cases and age-matched controls (0.94-fold, p = 6.8 × 10-1), suggesting that on average the tested genetic variants did not explain the extremity of the AD cases. Concluding, using centenarians as extreme controls in AD case-control studies boosts the variant effect size by on average twofold, allowing the replication of disease-association in relatively small samples.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/genética , Grupos Controle , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/normas , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Seleção de Pacientes , Tamanho da Amostra
15.
J Community Genet ; 10(2): 249-257, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30229537

RESUMO

A Dutch university hospital started offering cystic fibrosis (CF) carrier screening directly to consumers (DTC) through their website in 2010. A 6-year process evaluation was conducted to evaluate the offer. Screening was implemented as intended. However, uptake was lower than expected. Forty-four tests have been requested, partly by couples with a positive family history for CF, which was not the intended target group. Users were generally positive about the screening offer, citing accessibility, ease of testing, anonymity, and perceived shortcomings of regular healthcare as reasons for requesting screening. DTC CF carrier screening via a university hospital website is feasible, but is seldom used. Considering technological advances, continuation of this specific offer is questionable.

16.
Eur J Epidemiol ; 33(12): 1229-1249, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30362018

RESUMO

Although the incidence of dementia increases exponentially with age, some individuals reach more than 100 years with fully retained cognitive abilities. To identify the characteristics associated with the escape or delay of cognitive decline, we initiated the 100-plus Study ( www.100plus.nl ). The 100-plus Study is an on-going prospective cohort study of Dutch centenarians who self-reported to be cognitively healthy, their first-degree family members and their respective partners. We collect demographics, life history, medical history, genealogy, neuropsychological data and blood samples. Centenarians are followed annually until death. PET-MRI scans and feces donation are optional. Almost 30% of the centenarians agreed to post-mortem brain donation. To date (September 2018), 332 centenarians were included in the study. We analyzed demographic statistics of the first 300 centenarians (25% males) included in the cohort. Centenarians came from higher socio-economic classes and had higher levels of education compared to their birth cohort; alcohol consumption of centenarians was similar, and most males smoked during their lifetime. At baseline, the centenarians had a median MMSE score of 25 points (IQR 22.0-27.5); most centenarians lived independently, retained hearing and vision abilities and were independently mobile. Mortality was associated with cognitive functioning: centenarians with a baseline MMSE score ≥ 26 points had a mortality percentage of 17% per annual year  in the second year after baseline, while centenarians with a baseline MMSE score < 26 points had a mortality of  42% per annual year (p = 0.003). The cohort was 2.1-fold enriched with the neuroprotective APOE-ε2 allele relative to 60-80 year-old population controls (p = 4.8 × 10-7), APOE-ε3 was unchanged and the APOE-ε4 allele was 2.3-fold depleted (p = 6.3 × 10-7). Comprehensive characterization of the 100-plus cohort of cognitively healthy centenarians might reveal protective factors that explain the physiology of long-term preserved cognitive health.


Assuntos
Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais/estatística & dados numéricos , Cognição , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais/psicologia , Apolipoproteínas E/genética , Demência/epidemiologia , Demência/etiologia , Escolaridade , Feminino , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários
17.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 26(12): 1752-1758, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30089828

RESUMO

Pontocerebellar hypoplasia (PCH) is a heterogeneous neurodegenerative disorder with a prenatal onset. Using whole-exome sequencing, we identified variants in the gene Coenzyme A (CoA) synthase (COASY) gene, an enzyme essential in CoA synthesis, in four individuals from two families with PCH, prenatal onset microcephaly, and arthrogryposis. In family 1, compound heterozygous variants were identified in COASY: c.[1549_1550delAG]; [1486-3 C>G]. In family 2, all three affected siblings were homozygous for the c.1486-3 C>G variant. In both families, the variants segregated with the phenotype. RNA analysis showed that the c.1486-3 C>G variant leads to skipping of exon 7 with partial retention of intron 7, disturbing the reading frame and resulting in a premature stop codon (p.(Ala496Ilefs*20)). No CoA synthase protein was detected in patient cells by immunoblot analysis and CoA synthase activity was virtually absent. Partial CoA synthase defects were previously described as a cause of COASY Protein-Associated Neurodegeneration (CoPAN), a type of Neurodegeneration and Brain Iron Accumulation (NBIA). Here we demonstrate that near complete loss of function variants in COASY are associated with lethal PCH and arthrogryposis.


Assuntos
Artrogripose/genética , Doenças Cerebelares/genética , Mutação com Perda de Função , Microcefalia/genética , Transferases/genética , Feto Abortado/anormalidades , Artrogripose/patologia , Células Cultivadas , Doenças Cerebelares/patologia , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Microcefalia/patologia , Síndrome , Transferases/metabolismo
18.
J Med Genet ; 55(9): 578-586, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29970488

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Obesity is a global and severe health problem. Due to genetic heterogeneity, the identification of genetic defects in patients with obesity can be time consuming and costly. Therefore, we developed a custom diagnostic targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS)-based analysis to simultaneously identify mutations in 52 obesity-related genes. The aim of this study was to assess the diagnostic yield of this approach in patients with suspected genetic obesity. METHODS: DNA of 1230 patients with obesity (median BMI adults 43.6 kg/m2; median body mass index-SD children +3.4 SD) was analysed in the genome diagnostics section of the Department of Genetics of the UMC Utrecht (The Netherlands) by targeted analysis of 52 obesity-related genes. RESULTS: In 48 patients pathogenic mutations confirming the clinical diagnosis were detected. The majority of these were observed in the MC4R gene (18/48). In an additional 67 patients a probable pathogenic mutation was identified, necessitating further analysis to confirm the clinical relevance. CONCLUSIONS: NGS-based gene panel analysis in patients with obesity led to a definitive diagnosis of a genetic obesity disorder in 3.9% of obese probands, and a possible diagnosis in an additional 5.4% of obese probands. The highest yield was achieved in a selected paediatric subgroup, establishing a definitive diagnosis in 12 out of 164 children with severe early onset obesity (7.3%). These findings give a realistic insight in the diagnostic yield of genetic testing for patients with obesity and could help these patients to receive (future) personalised treatment.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença , Testes Genéticos , Mutação , Obesidade/genética , Polimorfismo Genético , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Heterogeneidade Genética , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Países Baixos , Obesidade/diagnóstico , Linhagem , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Adulto Jovem
19.
PLoS One ; 13(3): e0194938, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29601581

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Down syndrome (DS) is the most frequent genetic cause of intellectual disability. Despite the fact that more than 50 years have passed since the discovery of its genetic aberrations, the exact pathogenesis of the DS phenotype has remained largely unexplained. It was recently hypothesized that the DS pathogenesis involves complex (epi)genetic, molecular and cellular determinants. To date, many reports have addressed epigenetic aberrations associated with DS at different developmental stages/ages and tissue types, but to our best knowledge not in DS newborns. This study aimed to investigate genome-wide methylation patterns in DS newborns compared to non-trisomic newborns. METHOD: We analyzed blood samples obtained from ten newborns with DS and five age-matched non-trisomic newborns. Epigenetic profiles were obtained from extracted DNA using the Illumina Infinium 450K array. Since aberrant blood cell distribution is known to be present in DS, we applied two distinct models: with and without correction for estimated blood cell distribution. RESULTS: Differentially methylated position (DMP) analysis of the uncorrected model detected 19525 significant hits (51,2% hypomethylated). In the corrected model, we found 121953 significant DMPs (49,8% hypomethylated). Independent of the used model we observed a chromosome 21 dosage effect. Moreover, we detected 46 and 145 differentially methylated regions in the uncorrected and corrected model respectively, both showing hypomethylation overrepresentation. Replication analyses of DMPs and DMRs found by Bacalini et al. (2015) showed a large overlap. CONCLUSION: In this study, we found methylation profile differences between DS newborns and controls reflecting a systematically affected epigenetic profile. The observed chromosome 21 dosage effect suggests the involvement of affected essential regulatory factors/regions or altered expression of chromatin modeling enzymes located on chromosome 21. Additional research is necessary to substantiate these hypotheses.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA , Síndrome de Down/sangue , Síndrome de Down/genética , Epigênese Genética , Feminino , Genômica , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino
20.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 26(6): 848-857, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29483665

RESUMO

This observational study aimed to investigate whether the reported association between family history (FH) of breast cancer (BC) or ovarian cancer (OC) and OC risks in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers can be explained by mutation position on the gene. In total, 3310 female BRCA1/2 mutation carriers participating in a nationwide prospective cohort (Hereditary Breast and Ovarian Cancer in the Netherlands) were included. FH was classified according to cancer occurrence in first-degree relatives (BC only, OC only, both, neither) and mutations were classified according to their position on the gene (OC cluster region (OCCR), BC cluster region, neither). The main outcome was OC occurrence. Cox proportional-hazard models were applied to investigate the association between FH and OC risks before and after adjusting for mutation position. Of all women included, 202 were diagnosed with OC. A BC-only FH tended to be associated with lower OC risks when compared with a FH without BC/OC (HR: 0.79, 95% CI: 0.52-1.17; HR: 0.59, 95% CI: 0.33-1.07 for BRCA1 and BRCA2, respectively) while an OC-only FH tended to be associated with higher risks (HR: 1.58, 95% CI: 0.90-2.77; HR: 1.75, 95% CI: 0.70-4.37 for BRCA1 and BRCA2, respectively). After adjusting for mutation position, association between FH and OC risks was slightly smaller in magnitude (HR: 0.85, 95% CI: 0.55-1.30; HR: 0.64, 95% CI: 0.34-1.21 for BC-only FH in BRCA1 and BRCA2, respectively; HR: 1.46, 95% CI: 0.80-2.68; HR: 1.49, 95% CI: 0.44-4.02 for OC-only FH in BRCA1 and BRCA2, respectively), indicating that mutation position explains only part of the association. Considering the magnitude of the observed trend, we do not believe FH should be used to change counseling regarding OC prevention.


Assuntos
Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Anamnese , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Países Baixos , Neoplasias Ovarianas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Fatores de Risco
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