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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31302855

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In healthy BRCA1/2 mutation carriers, bilateral risk-reducing mastectomy (BRRM) strongly reduces the risk of developing breast cancer (BC); however, no clear survival benefit of BRRM over BC surveillance has been reported yet. METHODS: In this Dutch multicenter cohort study, we used multivariable Cox models with BRRM as a time-dependent covariable to estimate the associations between BRRM and the overall and BC-specific mortality rates, separately for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. RESULTS: During a mean follow-up of 10.3 years, 722 out of 1712 BRCA1 (42%) and 406 out of 1145 BRCA2 (35%) mutation carriers underwent BRRM. For BRCA1 mutation carriers, we observed 52 deaths (20 from BC) in the surveillance group, and 10 deaths (one from BC) after BRRM. The hazard ratios were 0.40 (95% CI 0.20-0.90) for overall mortality and 0.06 (95% CI 0.01-0.46) for BC-specific mortality. BC-specific survival at age 65 was 93% for surveillance and 99.7% for BRRM. For BRCA2 mutation carriers, we observed 29 deaths (7 from BC) in the surveillance group, and 4 deaths (no BC) after BRRM. The hazard ratio for overall mortality was 0.45 (95% CI 0.15-1.36). BC-specific survival at age 65 was 98% for surveillance and 100% for BRRM. CONCLUSION: BRRM was associated with lower mortality than surveillance for BRCA1 mutation carriers, but for BRCA2 mutation carriers, BRRM may lead to similar BC-specific survival as surveillance. Our findings support a more individualized counseling based on BRCA mutation type.

2.
J Med Genet ; 56(9): 581-589, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31186341

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The currently known breast cancer-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are presently not used to guide clinical management. We explored whether a genetic test that incorporates a SNP-based polygenic risk score (PRS) is clinically meaningful in non-BRCA1/2 high-risk breast cancer families. METHODS: 101 non-BRCA1/2 high-risk breast cancer families were included; 323 cases and 262 unaffected female relatives were genotyped. The 161-SNP PRS was calculated and standardised to 327 population controls (sPRS). Association analysis was performed using a Cox-type random effect regression model adjusted by family history. Updated individualised breast cancer lifetime risk scores were derived by combining the Breast and Ovarian Analysis of Disease Incidence and Carrier Estimation Algorithm breast cancer lifetime risk with the effect of the sPRS. RESULTS: The mean sPRS for cases and their unaffected relatives was 0.70 (SD=0.9) and 0.53 (SD=0.9), respectively. A significant association was found between sPRS and breast cancer, HR=1.16, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.28, p=0.026. Addition of the sPRS to risk prediction based on family history alone changed screening recommendations in 11.5%, 14.7% and 19.8 % of the women according to breast screening guidelines from the USA (National Comprehensive Cancer Network), UK (National Institute for Health and Care Excellence and the Netherlands (Netherlands Comprehensive Cancer Organisation), respectively. CONCLUSION: Our results support the application of the PRS in risk prediction and clinical management of women from genetically unexplained breast cancer families.

3.
J Med Genet ; 2019 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31040167

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study evaluates 6 years of prenatal rasopathy testing in the Netherlands, updates on previous data and gives recommendations for prenatal rasopathy testing. METHODS: 424 fetal samples, sent in for prenatal rasopathy testing in 2011-2016, were collected. Cohort 1 included 231 samples that were sequenced for 1-5 rasopathy genes. Cohort 2 included 193 samples that were analysed with a 14-gene next generation sequencing (NGS) panel. For all mutation-positive samples in both cohorts, the referring physician provided detailed ultrasound findings and postnatal follow-up. For 168 mutation-negative samples in cohort 2, solely clinical information on the requisition form was collected. RESULTS: In total, 40 (likely) pathogenic variants were detected (9.4%). All fetuses showed a variable degree of involvement of prenatal findings: increased nuchal translucency (NT)/cystic hygroma, distended jugular lymph sacs (JLS), hydrops fetalis, polyhydramnios, pleural effusion, ascites, cardiac defects and renal anomalies. An increased NT was the most common finding. Eight fetuses showed solely an increased NT/cystic hygroma, which were all larger than 5.5 mm. Ascites and renal anomalies appeared to be poor predictors of pathogenic outcome. CONCLUSION: Fetuses with a rasopathy show in general multiple ultrasound findings. The larger the NT and the longer it persists, the more likely it is to find a pathogenic variant. Rasopathy testing is recommended when the fetus shows an isolated increased NT ≥5.0 mm or when NT of ≥3.5 mm and at least one of the following ultrasound anomalies is present: distended JLS, hydrops fetalis, polyhydramnios, pleural effusion, ascites, cardiac defects and renal anomalies.

4.
PLoS One ; 14(3): e0212952, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30845233

RESUMO

Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome is associated with an increased risk for renal cell carcinoma. Surveillance is recommended, but the optimal imaging method and screening interval remain to be defined. The main aim of our study was to evaluate the outcomes of RCC surveillance to get insight in the safety of annual US in these patients. Surveillance data and medical records of 199 patients with Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome were collected retrospectively using medical files and a questionnaire. These patients were diagnosed in two Dutch hospitals and data were collected until June 2014. A first screening for renal cell carcinoma was performed in 172/199 patients (86%). Follow-up data were available from 121 patients. The mean follow-up period per patient was 4.2 years. Of the patients known to be under surveillance, 83% was screened at least annually and 94% at least every two years. Thirty-eight renal cell carcinomas had occurred in 23 patients. The mean age at diagnosis of the first tumour was 51. Eighteen tumours were visualized by ultrasound. Nine small tumours (7-27 mm) were visible on MRI or CT and not detected using ultrasound. Our data indicate that compliance to renal screening is relatively high. Furthermore, ultrasound might be a sensitive, cheap and widely available alternative for MRI or part of the MRIs for detecting clinically relevant renal tumours in BHD patients,but the limitations should be considered carefully. Data from larger cohorts are necessary to confirm these observations.

5.
Eur J Epidemiol ; 2018 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30362018

RESUMO

Although the incidence of dementia increases exponentially with age, some individuals reach more than 100 years with fully retained cognitive abilities. To identify the characteristics associated with the escape or delay of cognitive decline, we initiated the 100-plus Study ( www.100plus.nl ). The 100-plus Study is an on-going prospective cohort study of Dutch centenarians who self-reported to be cognitively healthy, their first-degree family members and their respective partners. We collect demographics, life history, medical history, genealogy, neuropsychological data and blood samples. Centenarians are followed annually until death. PET-MRI scans and feces donation are optional. Almost 30% of the centenarians agreed to post-mortem brain donation. To date (September 2018), 332 centenarians were included in the study. We analyzed demographic statistics of the first 300 centenarians (25% males) included in the cohort. Centenarians came from higher socio-economic classes and had higher levels of education compared to their birth cohort; alcohol consumption of centenarians was similar, and most males smoked during their lifetime. At baseline, the centenarians had a median MMSE score of 25 points (IQR 22.0-27.5); most centenarians lived independently, retained hearing and vision abilities and were independently mobile. Mortality was associated with cognitive functioning: centenarians with a baseline MMSE score ≥ 26 points had a mortality percentage of 17% per annual year  in the second year after baseline, while centenarians with a baseline MMSE score < 26 points had a mortality of  42% per annual year (p = 0.003). The cohort was 2.1-fold enriched with the neuroprotective APOE-ε2 allele relative to 60-80 year-old population controls (p = 4.8 × 10-7), APOE-ε3 was unchanged and the APOE-ε4 allele was 2.3-fold depleted (p = 6.3 × 10-7). Comprehensive characterization of the 100-plus cohort of cognitively healthy centenarians might reveal protective factors that explain the physiology of long-term preserved cognitive health.

6.
J Community Genet ; 2018 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30229537

RESUMO

A Dutch university hospital started offering cystic fibrosis (CF) carrier screening directly to consumers (DTC) through their website in 2010. A 6-year process evaluation was conducted to evaluate the offer. Screening was implemented as intended. However, uptake was lower than expected. Forty-four tests have been requested, partly by couples with a positive family history for CF, which was not the intended target group. Users were generally positive about the screening offer, citing accessibility, ease of testing, anonymity, and perceived shortcomings of regular healthcare as reasons for requesting screening. DTC CF carrier screening via a university hospital website is feasible, but is seldom used. Considering technological advances, continuation of this specific offer is questionable.

7.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 2018 Sep 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30258121

RESUMO

The detection of genetic loci associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD) requires large numbers of cases and controls because variant effect sizes are mostly small. We hypothesized that variant effect sizes should increase when individuals who represent the extreme ends of a disease spectrum are considered, as their genomes are assumed to be maximally enriched or depleted with disease-associated genetic variants. We used 1,073 extensively phenotyped AD cases with relatively young age at onset as extreme cases (66.3 ± 7.9 years), 1,664 age-matched controls (66.0 ± 6.5 years) and 255 cognitively healthy centenarians as extreme controls (101.4 ± 1.3 years). We estimated the effect size of 29 variants that were previously associated with AD in genome-wide association studies. Comparing extreme AD cases with centenarian controls increased the variant effect size relative to published effect sizes by on average 1.90-fold (SE = 0.29, p = 9.0 × 10-4). The effect size increase was largest for the rare high-impact TREM2 (R74H) variant (6.5-fold), and significant for variants in/near ECHDC3 (4.6-fold), SLC24A4-RIN3 (4.5-fold), NME8 (3.8-fold), PLCG2 (3.3-fold), APOE-ε2 (2.2-fold), and APOE-ε4 (twofold). Comparing extreme phenotypes enabled us to replicate the AD association for 10 variants (p < 0.05) in relatively small samples. The increase in effect sizes depended mainly on using centenarians as extreme controls: the average variant effect size was not increased in a comparison of extreme AD cases and age-matched controls (0.94-fold, p = 6.8 × 10-1), suggesting that on average the tested genetic variants did not explain the extremity of the AD cases. Concluding, using centenarians as extreme controls in AD case-control studies boosts the variant effect size by on average twofold, allowing the replication of disease-association in relatively small samples.

8.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 26(12): 1752-1758, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30089828

RESUMO

Pontocerebellar hypoplasia (PCH) is a heterogeneous neurodegenerative disorder with a prenatal onset. Using whole-exome sequencing, we identified variants in the gene Coenzyme A (CoA) synthase (COASY) gene, an enzyme essential in CoA synthesis, in four individuals from two families with PCH, prenatal onset microcephaly, and arthrogryposis. In family 1, compound heterozygous variants were identified in COASY: c.[1549_1550delAG]; [1486-3 C>G]. In family 2, all three affected siblings were homozygous for the c.1486-3 C>G variant. In both families, the variants segregated with the phenotype. RNA analysis showed that the c.1486-3 C>G variant leads to skipping of exon 7 with partial retention of intron 7, disturbing the reading frame and resulting in a premature stop codon (p.(Ala496Ilefs*20)). No CoA synthase protein was detected in patient cells by immunoblot analysis and CoA synthase activity was virtually absent. Partial CoA synthase defects were previously described as a cause of COASY Protein-Associated Neurodegeneration (CoPAN), a type of Neurodegeneration and Brain Iron Accumulation (NBIA). Here we demonstrate that near complete loss of function variants in COASY are associated with lethal PCH and arthrogryposis.

9.
J Med Genet ; 55(9): 578-586, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29970488

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Obesity is a global and severe health problem. Due to genetic heterogeneity, the identification of genetic defects in patients with obesity can be time consuming and costly. Therefore, we developed a custom diagnostic targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS)-based analysis to simultaneously identify mutations in 52 obesity-related genes. The aim of this study was to assess the diagnostic yield of this approach in patients with suspected genetic obesity. METHODS: DNA of 1230 patients with obesity (median BMI adults 43.6 kg/m2; median body mass index-SD children +3.4 SD) was analysed in the genome diagnostics section of the Department of Genetics of the UMC Utrecht (The Netherlands) by targeted analysis of 52 obesity-related genes. RESULTS: In 48 patients pathogenic mutations confirming the clinical diagnosis were detected. The majority of these were observed in the MC4R gene (18/48). In an additional 67 patients a probable pathogenic mutation was identified, necessitating further analysis to confirm the clinical relevance. CONCLUSIONS: NGS-based gene panel analysis in patients with obesity led to a definitive diagnosis of a genetic obesity disorder in 3.9% of obese probands, and a possible diagnosis in an additional 5.4% of obese probands. The highest yield was achieved in a selected paediatric subgroup, establishing a definitive diagnosis in 12 out of 164 children with severe early onset obesity (7.3%). These findings give a realistic insight in the diagnostic yield of genetic testing for patients with obesity and could help these patients to receive (future) personalised treatment.

10.
PLoS One ; 13(3): e0194938, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29601581

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Down syndrome (DS) is the most frequent genetic cause of intellectual disability. Despite the fact that more than 50 years have passed since the discovery of its genetic aberrations, the exact pathogenesis of the DS phenotype has remained largely unexplained. It was recently hypothesized that the DS pathogenesis involves complex (epi)genetic, molecular and cellular determinants. To date, many reports have addressed epigenetic aberrations associated with DS at different developmental stages/ages and tissue types, but to our best knowledge not in DS newborns. This study aimed to investigate genome-wide methylation patterns in DS newborns compared to non-trisomic newborns. METHOD: We analyzed blood samples obtained from ten newborns with DS and five age-matched non-trisomic newborns. Epigenetic profiles were obtained from extracted DNA using the Illumina Infinium 450K array. Since aberrant blood cell distribution is known to be present in DS, we applied two distinct models: with and without correction for estimated blood cell distribution. RESULTS: Differentially methylated position (DMP) analysis of the uncorrected model detected 19525 significant hits (51,2% hypomethylated). In the corrected model, we found 121953 significant DMPs (49,8% hypomethylated). Independent of the used model we observed a chromosome 21 dosage effect. Moreover, we detected 46 and 145 differentially methylated regions in the uncorrected and corrected model respectively, both showing hypomethylation overrepresentation. Replication analyses of DMPs and DMRs found by Bacalini et al. (2015) showed a large overlap. CONCLUSION: In this study, we found methylation profile differences between DS newborns and controls reflecting a systematically affected epigenetic profile. The observed chromosome 21 dosage effect suggests the involvement of affected essential regulatory factors/regions or altered expression of chromatin modeling enzymes located on chromosome 21. Additional research is necessary to substantiate these hypotheses.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA , Síndrome de Down/sangue , Síndrome de Down/genética , Epigênese Genética , Feminino , Genômica , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino
11.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 26(6): 848-857, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29483665

RESUMO

This observational study aimed to investigate whether the reported association between family history (FH) of breast cancer (BC) or ovarian cancer (OC) and OC risks in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers can be explained by mutation position on the gene. In total, 3310 female BRCA1/2 mutation carriers participating in a nationwide prospective cohort (Hereditary Breast and Ovarian Cancer in the Netherlands) were included. FH was classified according to cancer occurrence in first-degree relatives (BC only, OC only, both, neither) and mutations were classified according to their position on the gene (OC cluster region (OCCR), BC cluster region, neither). The main outcome was OC occurrence. Cox proportional-hazard models were applied to investigate the association between FH and OC risks before and after adjusting for mutation position. Of all women included, 202 were diagnosed with OC. A BC-only FH tended to be associated with lower OC risks when compared with a FH without BC/OC (HR: 0.79, 95% CI: 0.52-1.17; HR: 0.59, 95% CI: 0.33-1.07 for BRCA1 and BRCA2, respectively) while an OC-only FH tended to be associated with higher risks (HR: 1.58, 95% CI: 0.90-2.77; HR: 1.75, 95% CI: 0.70-4.37 for BRCA1 and BRCA2, respectively). After adjusting for mutation position, association between FH and OC risks was slightly smaller in magnitude (HR: 0.85, 95% CI: 0.55-1.30; HR: 0.64, 95% CI: 0.34-1.21 for BC-only FH in BRCA1 and BRCA2, respectively; HR: 1.46, 95% CI: 0.80-2.68; HR: 1.49, 95% CI: 0.44-4.02 for OC-only FH in BRCA1 and BRCA2, respectively), indicating that mutation position explains only part of the association. Considering the magnitude of the observed trend, we do not believe FH should be used to change counseling regarding OC prevention.

12.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 26(2): 166-175, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29321671

RESUMO

Technological developments have enabled carrier screening for multiple disorders. This study evaluated experiences with a preconception carrier screening offer for four recessive disorders in a Dutch founder population. Questionnaires were completed by 182 attendees pretesting and posttesting and by 137 non-attendees. Semistructured interviews were conducted with seven of the eight carrier couples. Attendees were mainly informed about the existence of screening by friends/colleagues (49%) and family members (44%). Familiarity with the genetic disorders was high. Knowledge after counseling increased (p < 0.001); however, still 9%, compared to 29% before counseling, wrongly mentioned an increased risk of having an affected child if both parents are carriers of different disorders. Most attendees (97%) recalled their test results correctly, but two couples reported being carrier of another disorder than reported. Overall, 63% felt worried while waiting for results but anxiety levels returned to normal afterwards. In all, 2/39 (5%) carriers felt less healthy. Screened individuals were very satisfied; they did not regret testing (97%) and would recommend testing to others (97%). The majority (94%) stated that couples should always have a pretest consultation, preferably by a genetic counselor rather than their general practitioner (83%). All carrier couples made reproductive decisions based on their results. Main reason for non-attendance was unawareness of the screening offer. With expanded carrier screening, adequately informing couples pretest and posttesting is of foremost importance. Close influencers (family/friends) can be used to raise awareness of a screening offer. Our findings provide lessons for the implementation of expanded carrier screening panels in other communities and other settings.

13.
Eur J Med Genet ; 61(4): 213-218, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29191497

RESUMO

A higher diagnostic yield from new diagnostic techniques makes re-evaluation in patients with intellectual disability without a causal diagnosis valuable, and is currently only performed after new referral. Active recontacting might serve a larger group of patients. We aimed to evaluate parental perspectives regarding recontacting and its feasibility in clinical genetic practice. A recontacting pilot was performed in two cohorts of children with intellectual disability. In cohort A, parents were recontacted by phone and in cohort B by letter, to invite them for a re-evaluation due to the new technologies (array CGH and exome sequencing, respectively). Parental opinions, preferences and experiences with recontacting were assessed by a self-administered questionnaire, and the feasibility of this pilot was evaluated. 47 of 114 questionnaires were returned. In total, 87% of the parents believed that all parents should be recontacted in light of new insights, 17% experienced an (positive or negative) emotional reaction. In cohort A, approached by phone, 36% made a new appointment for re-evaluation, and in cohort B, approached by letter, 4% did. Most parents have positive opinions on recontacting. Recontacting might evoke emotional responses that may need attention. Recontacting is feasible but time-consuming and a large additional responsibility for clinical geneticists.


Assuntos
Dever de Recontatar , Aconselhamento Genético/psicologia , Testes Genéticos/normas , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Pais/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Atitude , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Aconselhamento Genético/normas , Testes Genéticos/legislação & jurisprudência , Humanos , Masculino
14.
J Genet Couns ; 27(4): 947-954, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29270849

RESUMO

Follow-up studies on predictive testing for hereditary neurodegenerative diseases mainly focussed on psychological outcomes. We investigated whether the social and personal life of mutation carriers differ negatively from non-carriers and untested at-risk individuals. Asymptomatic individuals (≥ 35 years) who received a genetic test result for Huntington's disease, frontotemporal dementia or Alzheimer's disease more than 2 years before the onset of the study and untested subjects at 50% risk were invited to complete a questionnaire and an additional questionnaire with extra or adjusted items. Of the 283 selected individuals, 115 returned a positive informed consent (response rate 39.6%). Of these, 17 carriers, 30 non-carriers and 27 untested persons (n = 74) fulfilled the criteria and completed both questionnaires. We found no significant differences in employment, financial situation and lifestyle or anxiety and depression between carriers and non-carriers or untested individuals at risk. Carriers were more often single and childless, though these differences were not significant. The findings of this study suggest that the result of predictive testing on adult-onset neurodegenerative diseases does not have a large negative effect on social and personal life, although these observations should be interpreted with caution because of the small number of participants and low response rate.

15.
Cancer Cell ; 32(2): 238-252.e9, 2017 08 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28810146

RESUMO

Blood-based liquid biopsies, including tumor-educated blood platelets (TEPs), have emerged as promising biomarker sources for non-invasive detection of cancer. Here we demonstrate that particle-swarm optimization (PSO)-enhanced algorithms enable efficient selection of RNA biomarker panels from platelet RNA-sequencing libraries (n = 779). This resulted in accurate TEP-based detection of early- and late-stage non-small-cell lung cancer (n = 518 late-stage validation cohort, accuracy, 88%; AUC, 0.94; 95% CI, 0.92-0.96; p < 0.001; n = 106 early-stage validation cohort, accuracy, 81%; AUC, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.83-0.95; p < 0.001), independent of age of the individuals, smoking habits, whole-blood storage time, and various inflammatory conditions. PSO enabled selection of gene panels to diagnose cancer from TEPs, suggesting that swarm intelligence may also benefit the optimization of diagnostics readout of other liquid biopsy biosources.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Inteligência Artificial , Plaquetas/fisiologia , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/diagnóstico , Diagnóstico por Computador/métodos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/sangue , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/genética , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Inflamação/sangue , Inflamação/diagnóstico , Inflamação/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/sangue , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Máquina de Vetores de Suporte
16.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 25(8): 973-981, 2017 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28537274

RESUMO

Accumulating evidence suggests that genetic variants in the SORL1 gene are associated with Alzheimer disease (AD), but a strategy to identify which variants are pathogenic is lacking. In a discovery sample of 115 SORL1 variants detected in 1908 Dutch AD cases and controls, we identified the variant characteristics associated with SORL1 variant pathogenicity. Findings were replicated in an independent sample of 103 SORL1 variants detected in 3193 AD cases and controls. In a combined sample of the discovery and replication samples, comprising 181 unique SORL1 variants, we developed a strategy to classify SORL1 variants into five subtypes ranging from pathogenic to benign. We tested this pathogenicity screen in SORL1 variants reported in two independent published studies. SORL1 variant pathogenicity is defined by the Combined Annotation Dependent Depletion (CADD) score and the minor allele frequency (MAF) reported by the Exome Aggregation Consortium (ExAC) database. Variants predicted strongly damaging (CADD score >30), which are extremely rare (ExAC-MAF <1 × 10-5) increased AD risk by 12-fold (95% CI 4.2-34.3; P=5 × 10-9). Protein-truncating SORL1 mutations were all unknown to ExAC and occurred exclusively in AD cases. More common SORL1 variants (ExAC-MAF≥1 × 10-5) were not associated with increased AD risk, even when predicted strongly damaging. Findings were independent of gender and the APOE-ɛ4 allele. High-risk SORL1 variants were observed in a substantial proportion of the AD cases analyzed (2%). Based on their effect size, we propose to consider high-risk SORL1 variants next to variants in APOE, PSEN1, PSEN2 and APP for personalized risk assessments in clinical practice.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/genética , Proteínas Relacionadas a Receptor de LDL/genética , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/genética , Mutação , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Doença de Alzheimer/diagnóstico , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Masculino , Fenótipo
17.
J Community Genet ; 8(4): 327-333, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28555434

RESUMO

Genetically isolated populations exist worldwide. Specific genetic disorders, including rare autosomal recessive disorders may have high prevalences in these populations. We searched for Dutch genetically isolated populations and their autosomal recessive founder mutations. We investigated whether these founder mutations are covered in the (preconception) expanded carrier screening tests of five carrier screening providers. Our results show that the great majority of founder mutations are not covered in these screening panels, and these panels may thus not be appropriate for use in founder populations. It is therefore important to be aware of founder mutations in a population when offering carrier tests.

18.
Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet ; 174(3): 220-226, 2017 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27277535

RESUMO

Lobar cerebral microbleeds are most often sporadic and associated with Alzheimer's disease. The aim of our study was to identify the underlying genetic defect in a family with cognitive complaints and multiple lobar microbleeds and a positive family history for early onset Alzheimer's disease. We performed exome sequencing followed by Sanger sequencing for validation purposes on genomic DNA of three siblings with cognitive complaints, reduced amyloid-beta-42 in CSF and multiple cerebral lobar microbleeds. We checked for the occurrence of the variant in a cohort of 363 patients with early onset dementia and/or microbleeds. A novel frameshift variant (c.236_237delAC) generating a premature stop codon in the CCM2 gene shared by all three siblings was identified. Pathogenicity of the variant was supported by the presence of cerebral cavernous malformations in two of the siblings and by the absence of the variant exome variant databases. Two siblings were homozygous for APOE-ϵ4; one heterozygous. The cognitive complaints, reduced amyloid-beta-42 in CSF and microbleeds suggest preclinical Alzheimer's disease, but the stability of the cognitive complaints does not. We hypothesize that the phenotype in this family may be due to a combination of the CCM2 variant and the APOE status. © 2016 The Authors. American Journal of Medical Genetics Part B: Neuropsychiatric Genetics Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/genética , Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Adulto , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/genética , Proteínas de Transporte/metabolismo , Hemorragia Cerebral/genética , Cognição , Transtornos Cognitivos/genética , Demência/etiologia , Demência/genética , Feminino , Variação Genética/genética , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Linhagem , Análise de Sequência de DNA
19.
Retina ; 37(1): 161-172, 2017 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27380427

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To examine the long-term clinical course and variability in a large pedigree segregating CRB1 type autosomal recessive retinitis pigmentosa. METHODS: An observational case study of 30 patients with CRB1 type autosomal recessive retinitis pigmentosa, homozygous for the CRB1 c.3122T > C; p.(Met1041Thr) mutation from a Dutch genetically isolated population in which the CRB1 gene was originally identified. The authors evaluated medical records, analyzed a questionnaire, and performed a comprehensive ophthalmic examination, including optical coherence tomography. RESULTS: Mean follow-up was 19 years (range 0-45 years, SD 15 years). With aging, patients showed progressive visual decline, deterioration of visual fields, increasing narrowing of the anterior chamber, increased prevalence of cataract, and an increase in the amount of intraretinal pigmentations. Fifty percent of patients had a visual acuity of ≤0.3 at Age 18 and of ≤0.1 at Age 35. Electroretinogram responses were severely reduced or absent already at a young age and optical coherence tomography showed increased retinal thickness with often cystoid maculopathy at young age, and thinning of the retina and disorientation of the photoreceptor layer in the late stages. The clinical course showed considerable interindividual variability, but intraindividual similarity between both eyes was the rule. CONCLUSION: The wide and variable clinical spectrum in patients with the same CRB1 mutation supports the hypothesis that the CRB1 type autosomal recessive retinitis pigmentosa-phenotype is modulated by other factors. The clinical variability will make it harder to evaluate the effect of (upcoming) therapies for retinitis pigmentosa, although because of the intraindividual similarity between both eyes, the contralateral eye can be used as an excellent internal control.


Assuntos
Proteínas do Olho/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Mutação , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Eletrorretinografia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo , Retinite Pigmentosa/genética , Retinite Pigmentosa/patologia , Retinite Pigmentosa/fisiopatologia , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica , Transtornos da Visão/etiologia , Transtornos da Visão/fisiopatologia , Acuidade Visual/fisiologia , Campos Visuais/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
20.
Fam Cancer ; 16(2): 271-277, 2017 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27826806

RESUMO

Since the 1980s the genetic cause of many hereditary tumor syndromes has been elucidated. As a consequence, carriers of a deleterious mutation in these genes may opt for prenatal diagnoses (PND). We studied the uptake of prenatal diagnosis for five hereditary cancer syndromes in the Netherlands. Uptake for retinoblastoma (Rb) was compared with uptake for Von Hippel-Lindau disease (VHL), Li-Fraumeni syndrome (LFS), familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP), and hereditary breast ovarian cancer (HBOC). A questionnaire was completed by all nine DNA-diagnostic laboratories assessing the number of independent mutation-positive families identified from the start of diagnostic testing until May 2013, and the number of PNDs performed for these syndromes within these families. Of 187 families with a known Rb-gene mutation, 22 had performed PND (11.8%), this was significantly higher than uptake for FAP (1.6%) and HBOC (<0.2%). For VHL (6.5%) and LFS (4.9%) the difference was not statistically significant. PND for Rb started 3 years after introduction of diagnostic DNA testing and remained stable over the years. For the other cancer syndromes PND started 10-15 years after the introduction and uptake for PND showed an increase after 2009. We conclude that uptake of PND for Rb was significantly higher than for FAP and HBOC, but not different from VHL and LFS. Early onset, high penetrance, lack of preventive surgery and perceived burden of disease may explain these differences.


Assuntos
Detecção Precoce de Câncer/estatística & dados numéricos , Genes do Retinoblastoma/genética , Testes Genéticos/estatística & dados numéricos , Síndromes Neoplásicas Hereditárias/diagnóstico , Diagnóstico Pré-Natal/estatística & dados numéricos , Retinoblastoma/diagnóstico , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/métodos , Feminino , Aconselhamento Genético , Humanos , Mutação , Síndromes Neoplásicas Hereditárias/genética , Países Baixos , Gravidez , Diagnóstico Pré-Natal/métodos , Retinoblastoma/genética , Estudos Retrospectivos , Inquéritos e Questionários
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