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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32393650

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To systematically analyze soluble interleukin-2 receptor (sIL-2R) in CSF as a diagnostic and disease activity biomarker in patients with sarcoidosis involving the CNS (neurosarcoidosis). METHODS: sIL-2R was determined by chemiluminescent immunoassays in CSF/serum samples from patients with neurosarcoidosis (n = 23), MS (n = 19), neurotuberculosis (n = 8), viral (n = 18) and bacterial (n = 9) meningitis, cerebral lymphoma (n = 15), Guillain-Barré syndrome (n = 8), and 115 patients with noninflammatory neurologic diseases (NINDs) as controls. The sIL-2R index was calculated by dividing the CSF/serum sIL-2R quotient (QsIL-2R) through the CSF/serum albumin quotient (QAlb). sIL-2R quotient diagrams were established by plotting QsIL-2R against QAlb. sIL-2R levels were correlated with clinical, MRI, and CSF disease activity markers of neurosarcoidosis. RESULTS: Patients with neurosarcoidosis had higher CSF sIL-2R, QsIL-2R, and sIL-2R index values than patients with NINDs (p < 0.0001 for all pairwise group comparisons). sIL-2R quotient diagrams demonstrated an intrathecal sIL-2R synthesis in >50% of neurosarcoidosis samples. Similar findings were observed in viral/bacterial meningitis, CNS lymphoma, and, most pronounced, in neurotuberculosis, but not in patients with MS. CSF sIL-2R parameters were associated with clinical disease activity, leptomeningeal gadolinium enhancement, and the CSF white cell count in patients with neurosarcoidosis. CONCLUSIONS: CSF sIL-2R parameters are elevated in patients with neurosarcoidosis, but this finding is not specific for neurosarcoidosis. Nevertheless, CSF sIL-2R parameters may help distinguishing neurosarcoidosis from MS and are associated with clinical, radiologic, and CSF disease activity markers of neurosarcoidosis. CLASSIFICATION OF EVIDENCE: This study provides Class II evidence that CSF sIL-2R parameters distinguish neurosarcoidosis from NINDs and MS.

2.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(20): 11118-11125, 2020 May 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32358198

RESUMO

Cortical network functioning critically depends on finely tuned interactions to afford neuronal activity propagation over long distances while avoiding runaway excitation. This importance is highlighted by the pathological consequences and impaired performance resulting from aberrant network excitability in psychiatric and neurological diseases, such as epilepsy. Theory and experiment suggest that the control of activity propagation by network interactions can be adequately described by a branching process. This hypothesis is partially supported by strong evidence for balanced spatiotemporal dynamics observed in the cerebral cortex; however, evidence of a causal relationship between network interactions and cortex activity, as predicted by a branching process, is missing in humans. Here this cause-effect relationship is tested by monitoring cortex activity under systematic pharmacological reduction of cortical network interactions with antiepileptic drugs. This study reports that cortical activity cascades, presented by the propagating patterns of epileptic spikes, as well as temporal correlations decline precisely as predicted for a branching process. The results provide a missing link to the branching process theory of cortical network function with implications for understanding the foundations of cortical excitability and its monitoring in conditions like epilepsy.

3.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2172, 2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32358560

RESUMO

The human brain has the capacity to rapidly change state, and in epilepsy these state changes can be catastrophic, resulting in loss of consciousness, injury and even death. Theoretical interpretations considering the brain as a dynamical system suggest that prior to a seizure, recorded brain signals may exhibit critical slowing down, a warning signal preceding many critical transitions in dynamical systems. Using long-term intracranial electroencephalography (iEEG) recordings from fourteen patients with focal epilepsy, we monitored key signatures of critical slowing down prior to seizures. The metrics used to detect critical slowing down fluctuated over temporally long scales (hours to days), longer than would be detectable in standard clinical evaluation settings. Seizure risk was associated with a combination of these signals together with epileptiform discharges. These results provide strong validation of theoretical models and demonstrate that critical slowing down is a reliable indicator that could be used in seizure forecasting algorithms.

4.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 84: 106496, 2020 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32304995

RESUMO

Mucociliary clearance, the continuous removal of mucus-trapped particles by cilia-driven directed transport of the airway lining fluid, is the primary innate defense mechanism of the airways. It is potently activated by acetylcholine (ACh) addressing muscarinic receptors with a currently less defined role of nicotinic ACh receptors (nAChR). We here set out to determine their contribution in driving ciliary activity in an explanted mouse trachea preparation utilizing selected agonists and antagonists and nAChR-subunit deficient mice. Nicotine (100 µM) induced an increase in ciliary beat frequency, accompanied by a sharp, but not long lasting increase in particle transport speed (PTS) on the mucosal surface showing marked desensitization within the next 30 min. Nicotine-induced PTS acceleration was sensitive to the general nAChR inhibitors mecamylamine and d-tubocurarine as well as to the α3ß4-nAChR antagonist α-conotoxin AulB, but not to other antagonists primarily addressing α3ß2-nAChR or α4-, α7- and α9-containing nAChR. Agonists at α3ß*-nAChR (epibatidine, cytisine), but not cotinine mimicked the effect. Tracheas from mice with genetic deletion of nAChR subunits α5, α7, α9, α10, α9/10, and ß2 retained full PTS response to nicotine, whereas this was entirely lost in tracheas from mice lacking the ß4-subunit. Collectively, our data show that nicotinic stimulation of α3ß4-nAChR acutely increases PTS to the same extent as the established strong activator ATP. In view of the marked desensitization observed in the present setting, the physiological relevance of these receptors in adapting mucociliary clearance to rapidly changing endogenous or environmental stimuli remains open.

5.
Seizure ; 78: 78-85, 2020 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32272333

RESUMO

Debates on six controversial topics on the network theory of epilepsy were held during two debate sessions, as part of the International Conference for Technology and Analysis of Seizures, 2019 (ICTALS 2019) convened at the University of Exeter, UK, September 2-5 2019. The debate topics were (1) From pathologic to physiologic: is the epileptic network part of an existing large-scale brain network? (2) Are micro scale recordings pertinent for defining the epileptic network? (3) From seconds to years: do we need all temporal scales to define an epileptic network? (4) Is it necessary to fully define the epileptic network to control it? (5) Is controlling seizures sufficient to control the epileptic network? (6) Does the epileptic network want to be controlled? This article, written by the organizing committee for the debate sessions and the debaters, summarizes the arguments presented during the debates on these six topics.

6.
Cells ; 9(3)2020 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32155948

RESUMO

Ameloblastomas are locally invasive and aggressive odontogenic tumors treated via surgical resection, which results in facial deformity and significant morbidity. Few studies have addressed the cellular and molecular events of ameloblastoma onset and progression, thus hampering the development of non-invasive therapeutic approaches. Tumorigenesis is driven by a plethora of factors, among which innervation has been long neglected. Recent findings have shown that innervation directly promotes tumor progression. On this basis, we investigated the molecular characteristics and neurotrophic properties of human ameloblastomas. Our results showed that ameloblastomas express dental epithelial stem cell markers, as well as components of the Notch signaling pathway, indicating persistence of stemness. We demonstrated that ameloblastomas express classical stem cell markers, exhibit stem cell potential, and form spheres. These tumors express also molecules of the Notch signaling pathway, fundamental for stem cells and their fate. Additionally, we showed that ameloblastomas express the neurotrophic factors NGF and BDNF, as well as their receptors TRKA, TRKB, and P75/NGFR, which are responsible for their innervation by trigeminal axons in vivo. In vitro studies using microfluidic devices showed that ameloblastoma cells attract and form connections with these nerves. Innervation of ameloblastomas might play a key role in the onset of this malignancy and might represent a promising target for non-invasive pharmacological interventions.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32098866

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Prognosis of stroke is negatively affected by complications, in particular stroke-associated pneumonia (SAP). We hypothesized that inflammatory and stress biomarkers predict SAP during hospitalization and outcome 3 months after stroke. METHODS: We pooled the clinical data of 2 acute stroke studies with identical assessment: the STRoke Adverse outcome is associated WIth NoSoKomial Infections (STRAWINSKI) and PREDICT studies. Measurement of biomarkers (ultrasensitive procalcitonin [PCTus]; midregional pro-adrenomedullin; midregional pro-atrial natriuretic peptide [MRproANP]; ultrasensitive copeptin [CPus]; C-terminal pro-endothelin) was performed from serum samples drawn on the first 4 days of hospital admission. RESULTS: The combined cohort consists of 573 cases with available backup samples to perform the analysis. SAP was associated with increased admission and maximum levels of all biomarkers. Furthermore, all biomarkers were associated with death and correlated with functional outcome 3 months after stroke. The multivariate logistic regression model retained ultrasensitive CPus and PCTus beyond clinical risk factors for predicting SAP, improving the receiver operating characteristic area under the curve (AUC) from 0.837 to 0.876. In contrast, the biomarkers did not improve the prediction of death and functional outcome in the multivariate model. Cardioembolic strokes were significantly associated with higher values of all biomarkers, whereas discrimination was best for MRproANP (AUC = 0.811 for maximum value). CONCLUSIONS: The tested biomarkers are associated with SAP and poor functional outcome. However, these biomarkers only slightly improve prediction of SAP and do not improve long-term outcome prediction over clinical parameters. MRproANP showed the best discrimination for identifying cardioembolic stroke, warranting further studies to confirm our finding. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: clinicaltrials.gov NCT01264549 and NCT01079728.

8.
Clin Neurophysiol ; 131(4): 866-879, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32066106

RESUMO

The ability to assess seizure risk may help provide timely warnings and more personalized treatment plans for people with epilepsy (PWE). ECG changes are commonly observed in epilepsy which make ECG a promising candidate to monitor seizure risk. Most ECG research in this domain has focused on heart rate-related changes. However, several studies have identified a range of other peri-ictal ECG parameter changes that may potentially prove useful for seizure detection and forecasting. Here, we offer a systematic review of ECG changes in epilepsy outside of heart rate. We performed the systematic literature review according to PRISMA guidelines using key words related to ECG, SUDEP and epilepsy. We identified and screened 502 abstracts, read 110 full papers, and included 24 papers in the final review. Our results suggest that PWE may be more prone to cardiac conduction abnormalities than healthy controls. During interictal periods, PWE were more likely to have abnormal QTc intervals, ST segment abnormalities, elevated T Waves, early repolarization (ER), increased P Wave dispersion and PR intervals when compared to controls. Apart from these baseline abnormalities, changes during the pre-ictal and ictal states have been reported, with arrhythmias, QTc prolongation and ST segment changes being the most common. A better understanding of these state-dependent changes may afford less-cumbersome and less-stigmatizing epilepsy monitoring tools in the future.

10.
J Clin Immunol ; 40(3): 421-434, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31965418

RESUMO

PURPOSE: NEMO-deficient patients present with variable degrees of immunodeficiency. Accordingly, treatment ranges from antibiotic prophylaxis and/or IgG-substitution to allogenic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). The correct estimation of the immunodeficiency is essential to avoid over- as well as under-treatment. We compare the immunological phenotype of a NEMO-deficient patient with a newly-described splice site mutation that causes truncation of the NEMO zinc-finger (ZF) domain and a severe clinical course with the immunological phenotype of three NEMO-deficient patients with missense mutations and milder clinical courses and all previously published patients. METHODS: Lymphocyte subsets, proliferation, and intracellular NEMO-expression were assessed by FACS. NF-κB signal transduction was determined by measuring IκBα-degradation and the production of cytokines upon stimulation with TNF-α, IL-1ß, and TLR-agonists in immortalized fibroblasts and whole blood, respectively. RESULTS: The patient with truncated ZF-domain of NEMO showed low levels of IgM and IgG, reduced class-switched memory B cells, almost complete skewing towards naïve CD45RA+ T cells, impaired T cell proliferation as well as cytokine production upon stimulation with TNF-α, IL-1ß, and TLR-agonists. He suffered from severe infections (sepsis, pneumonia, osteomyelitis) during infancy. In contrast, three patients with missense mutations in IKBKG presented neither skewing of T cells towards naïvety nor impaired T cell proliferation. They are stable on prophylactic IgG-substitution or even off any prophylactic treatment. CONCLUSION: The loss of the ZF-domain and the impaired T cell proliferation accompanied by almost complete persistence of naïve T cells despite severe infections are suggestive for a profound immunodeficiency. Allogenic HSCT should be considered early for these patients before chronic sequelae occur.

11.
J Neurol ; 267(2): 317-323, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31630242

RESUMO

The anti-CD38 antibody daratumumab is approved for treatment of refractory multiple myeloma and acts by depletion of plasma cells and modification of various T-cell functions. Its safety, immunological effects and therapeutic potential was evaluated in a 60-year old patient with life-threatening and treatment-refractory anti-CASPR2 encephalitis requiring medical care and artificial ventilation in an intensive care unit. His autoimmune dysfunction was driven by exceptional high anti-CASPR2 autoantibody titers combined with an abnormally increased T-cell activation. As he remained unresponsive to standard and escalation immunotherapies (methylprednisolone, plasma exchange, immunoadsorption, immunoglobulins, rituximab and bortezomib), therapy was escalated to 13 cycles of 16 mg/kg daratumumab. During the treatment period, clinical, radiological, histological and laboratory findings, including quantification of autoreactive and protective antibody levels and FACS-based immune phenotyping, were analyzed. Daratumumab treatment was associated with significant clinical improvement, substantial reduction of anti-CASPR2 antibody titers, especially in CSF, decrease of immunoglobulin levels and protective vaccine titers, as well as normalization of initially increased T-cell activation markers. However, the patient died of Gram-negative septicemia in a neurorehabilitation center. In conclusion, our findings suggest that daratumumab induces not only depletion of autoreactive long-lived plasma cells associated with improvements of neurological sequelae, but also severe side effects requiring clinical studies investigating efficacy and safety of anti-CD38 therapy in antibody-driven autoimmune encephalitis.

12.
Neuropharmacology ; : 107898, 2019 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31839204

RESUMO

Epilepsy treatment is challenging due to a lack of essential diagnostic tools, including methods for reliable seizure detection in the ambulatory setting, to assess seizure risk over time and to monitor treatment efficacy. This lack of objective diagnostics constitutes a significant barrier to better treatments, raises methodological concerns about the antiseizure medication evaluation process and, to patients, is a main issue contributing to the disease burden. Recent years have seen rapid progress towards better diagnostics that meet these needs of epilepsy patients and clinicians. Availability of comprehensive data and the rise of more powerful computational analysis methods have driven progress in this area. Here, we provide an overview on data- and theory-driven approaches aimed at identifying methods to reliably detect and forecast seizures as well as to monitor brain excitability and treatment efficacy in epilepsy. We provide a particular account on neural criticality, the hypothesis that cortical networks may be poised in a critical state at the boundary between different types of dynamics, and discuss its role in informing diagnostics to track cortex excitability and seizure risk in recent experiments. With the further expansion of digitalization in medicine, tele-medicine and long-term, ambulatory monitoring, these computationally based methods may gain more relevance in epilepsy in the future. This article is part of the special issue entitled 'New Epilepsy Therapies for the 21st Century - From Antiseizure Drugs to Prevention, Modification and Cure of Epilepsy'.

13.
BMJ Open ; 9(10): e032695, 2019 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31666276

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) in adults is characterised by toxic immune activation and a sepsis-like syndrome, leading to high numbers of undiagnosed cases and mortality rates of up to 68%. Early diagnosis and specific immune suppressive treatment are mandatory to avoid fatal outcome, but the diagnostic criteria (HLH-2004) are adopted from paediatric HLH and have not been validated in adults. Experimental studies suggest biomarkers to sufficiently diagnose HLH. However, biomarkers for the diagnosis of adult HLH have not yet been investigated. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The HEMICU (Diagnostic biomarkers for adult haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis in critically ill patients) study aims to estimate the incidence rate of adult HLH among suspected adult patients in intensive care units (ICUs). Screening for HLH will be performed in 16 ICUs of Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin. The inclusion criteria are bicytopaenia, hyperferritinaemia (≥500 µg/L), fever or when HLH is suspected by the clinician. Over a period of 2 years, we expect inclusion of about 100 patients with suspected HLH. HLH will be diagnosed if at least five of the HLH-2004 criteria are fulfilled, together with an expert review; all other included patients will serve as controls. Second, a panel of potential biomarker candidates will be explored. DNA, plasma and serum will be stored in a biobank. The primary endpoint of the study is the incidence rate of adult HLH among suspected adult patients during ICU stay. Out of a variety of measured biomarkers, this study furthermore aims to find highly potential biomarkers for the diagnosis of adult HLH in ICU. The results of this study will contribute to improved recognition and patient outcome of adult HLH in clinical routine. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The institutional ethics committee approved this study on 1 August 2018 (Ethics Committee of Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, EA4/006/18). The results of the study will be disseminated in an international peer-reviewed journal and presented at international conferences. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT03510650.

14.
Biomark Med ; 13(16): 1373-1386, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31617736

RESUMO

Aim: Management of patients with infections within the Emergency Department (ED) is challenging for practitioners, as the identification of infectious causes remains difficult with current techniques. A new combination of two biomarkers was tested with a new rapid flow cytometry technique. Materials & methods: Subjects from the ED were tested for their CD64 on neutrophils (nCD64) and CD169 on monocytes (mCD169) levels and results were compared to their clinical records. Results: Among 139 patients, 29% had confirmed bacterial infections and 5% viral infections. nCD64 and mCD169 respectively showed 88 and 86% sensitivity and 90 and 100% specificity for identifying subjects in bacterial or viral conditions. Conclusion: This point-of-care technique could allow better management of patients in the ED.

15.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 19(12): e422-e436, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31630991

RESUMO

Increasing evidence supports a central role of the immune system in sepsis, but the current view of how sepsis affects immunity, and vice versa, is still rudimentary. The European Group on Immunology of Sepsis has identified major gaps that should be addressed with high priority, such as understanding how immunological alterations predispose to sepsis, key aspects of the immunopathological events during sepsis, and the long-term consequences of sepsis on patient's immunity. We discuss major unmet topics in those three categories, including the role of key immune cells, the cause of lymphopenia, organ-specific immunology, the dynamics of sepsis-associated immunological alterations, the role of the microbiome, the standardisation of immunological tests, the development of better animal models, and the opportunities offered by immunotherapy. Addressing these gaps should help us to better understand sepsis physiopathology, offering translational opportunities to improve its prevention, diagnosis, and care.

16.
Transl Stroke Res ; 2019 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31475302

RESUMO

An accurate etiological classification is key to optimize secondary prevention after ischemic stroke, but the cause remains undetermined in one third of patients. Several studies pointed out the usefulness of circulating gene expression markers to discriminate cardioembolic (CE) strokes, mainly due to atrial fibrillation (AF), while only exploring them in small cohorts. A systematic review of studies analyzing high-throughput gene expression in blood samples to discriminate CE strokes was performed. Significantly dysregulated genes were considered as candidates, and a selection of them was validated by RT-qPCR in 100 patients with defined CE or atherothrombotic (LAA) stroke etiology. Longitudinal performance was evaluated in 12 patients at three time points. Their usefulness as biomarkers for AF was tested in 120 cryptogenic strokes and 100 individuals at high-risk for stroke. Three published studies plus three unpublished datasets were considered for candidate selection. Sixty-seven genes were found dysregulated in CE strokes. CREM, PELI1, and ZAK were verified to be up-regulated in CE vs LAA (p = 0.010, p = 0.003, p < 0.001, respectively), without changes in their expression within the first 24 h after stroke onset. The combined up-regulation of these three biomarkers increased the probability of suffering from CE stroke by 23-fold. In cryptogenic strokes with subsequent AF detection, PELI1 and CREM showed overexpression (p = 0.017, p = 0.059, respectively), whereas in high-risk asymptomatic populations, all three genes showed potential to detect AF (p = 0.007, p = 0.007, p = 0.015). The proved discriminatory capacity of these gene expression markers to detect cardioembolism even in cryptogenic strokes and asymptomatic high-risk populations might bring up their use as biomarkers.

17.
EBioMedicine ; 45: 422-431, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31300348

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The inability to reliably assess seizure risk is a major burden for epilepsy patients and prevents developing better treatments. Recent advances have paved the way for increasingly accurate seizure preictal state detection algorithms, primarily using electrocorticography (ECoG). To develop seizure forecasting for broad clinical and ambulatory use, however, less complex and invasive modalities are needed. Algorithms using scalp electroencephalography (EEG) and electrocardiography (EKG) have also achieved better than chance performance. But it remains unknown how much preictal information is in ECoG versus modalities amenable to everyday use - such as EKG and single channel EEG - and how to optimally extract that preictal information for seizure prediction. METHODS: We apply deep learning - a powerful method to extract information from complex data - on a large epilepsy data set containing multi-day, simultaneous recordings of EKG, ECoG, and EEG, using a variety of feature sets. We use the relative performance of our algorithms to compare the preictal information contained in each modality. RESULTS: We find that single-channel EKG contains a comparable amount of preictal information as scalp EEG with up to 21 channels and that preictal information is best extracted not with standard heart rate measures, but from the power spectral density. We report that preictal information is not preferentially contained in EEG or ECoG channels within the seizure onset zone. CONCLUSION: Collectively, these insights may help to devise future prospective, minimally invasive long-term epilepsy monitoring trials with single-channel EKG as a particularly promising modality.


Assuntos
Aprendizado Profundo/estatística & dados numéricos , Eletrocorticografia/métodos , Epilepsia/diagnóstico , Convulsões/diagnóstico , Eletrocardiografia/estatística & dados numéricos , Eletrocorticografia/estatística & dados numéricos , Eletroencefalografia/estatística & dados numéricos , Epilepsia/fisiopatologia , Epilepsia/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Medicina de Precisão/métodos , Medicina de Precisão/estatística & dados numéricos , Convulsões/fisiopatologia , Convulsões/terapia
18.
PLoS One ; 14(5): e0216234, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31112542

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: In 2015, 4062 unaccompanied minor refugees were registered in Berlin, Germany. According to national policies, basic clinical examination and tuberculosis (TB) screening is a prerequisite to admission to permanent accommodation and schooling for every refugee. This article evaluates the use of an interferon-γ-release-assay (IGRA) during the initial examination and TB screening of 970 unaccompanied minor refugees. RESULTS: IGRA test were obtained during TB screening for 301 (31.0%) of 970 adolescents not previously screened for TB. Positive IGRA results were obtained in 13.9% (42/301). Most of the 42 IGRA-positive refugees originated from Afghanistan or Syria (n?20 and 10 respectively). Two IGRA-positive adolescents were lost to follow-up, 2 were diagnosed with TB and the remaining 38 diagnosed with latent TB infection (LTBI). Demographic features of the 40 patients with positive IGRA result were as follows: 39 male, median age 16.8 years (IQR 16.0-17.2y), none meeting underweight criteria (median BMI 21.3kg/m2). On initial chest X-ray 2/40 participants had signs of active TB, while in 38 active disease was excluded and the diagnosis of latent TB infection (LTBI) made. Active hepatitis B-co-infection was diagnosed in 3/38 patients. All patients with LTBI received Isoniazid and Rifampicin for 3 months without occurrence of severe adverse events. The most frequently observed side effect was transient upper abdominal pain (n = 5). Asymptomatic elevation of liver transaminases was seen in 2 patients. 29 patients completed treatment with no signs of TB disease at the end of chemoprevention and 9 were lost to follow up. CONCLUSION: Screening for TB infection in minor refugees was feasible in our setting with a relatively high rate of TB infection detected. Chemopreventive treatment was tolerated well regardless of underlying hepatitis-B-status. Minor refugees migrating to Germany should be screened for TB infection, instead of TB disease only, regardless of the background TB incidence.


Assuntos
Quimioprevenção/métodos , Refugiados , Tuberculose/diagnóstico , Tuberculose/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Berlim , Feminino , Alemanha , Hepatite B/complicações , Humanos , Isoniazida/efeitos adversos , Isoniazida/uso terapêutico , Tuberculose Latente/diagnóstico , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Menores de Idade , Rifampina/efeitos adversos , Rifampina/uso terapêutico , Tuberculose/complicações
19.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2263, 2019 05 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31118448

RESUMO

All memory T cells mount an accelerated response on antigen reencounter, but significant functional heterogeneity is present within the respective memory T-cell subsets as defined by CCR7 and CD45RA expression, thereby warranting further stratification. Here we show that several surface markers, including KLRB1, KLRG1, GPR56, and KLRF1, help define low, high, or exhausted cytokine producers within human peripheral and intrahepatic CD4+ memory T-cell populations. Highest simultaneous production of TNF and IFN-γ is observed in KLRB1+KLRG1+GPR56+ CD4 T cells. By contrast, KLRF1 expression is associated with T-cell exhaustion and reduced TNF/IFN-γ production. Lastly, TCRß repertoire analysis and in vitro differentiation support a regulated, progressive expression for these markers during CD4+ memory T-cell differentiation. Our results thus help refine the classification of human memory T cells to provide insights on inflammatory disease progression and immunotherapy development.


Assuntos
Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Hepatopatias/imunologia , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas-G/metabolismo , Receptores Semelhantes a Lectina de Células NK/metabolismo , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/metabolismo , Citocinas/imunologia , Humanos , Memória Imunológica , Fígado/patologia , Hepatopatias/sangue , Hepatopatias/patologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas-G/imunologia , Receptores Semelhantes a Lectina de Células NK/imunologia
20.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(6)2019 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30917608

RESUMO

Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) defines a group of solid tumors originating from the mucosa of the upper aerodigestive tract, pharynx, larynx, mouth, and nasal cavity. It has a metastatic evolution and poor prognosis and is the sixth most common cancer in the world, with 600,000 new cases reported every year. HNSCC heterogeneity and complexity is reflected in a multistep progression, involving crosstalk between several molecular pathways. The Notch pathway is associated with major events supporting cancerogenic evolution: cell proliferation, self-renewal, angiogenesis, and preservation of a pro-oncogenic microenvironment. Additionally, Notch is pivotal in tumor development and plays a dual role acting as both oncogene and tumor suppressor. In this review, we summarize the role of the Notch pathway in HNSCC, with a special focus on its compelling role in major events of tumor initiation and growth.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/metabolismo , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/metabolismo , Receptores Notch/metabolismo , Animais , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/genética , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/genética , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/patologia , Humanos , Receptores Notch/genética , Transdução de Sinais
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