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1.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(10): e2127799, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34665240

RESUMO

Importance: Mortality across US counties varies considerably, from 252 to 1847 deaths per 100 000 people in 2018. Although patient satisfaction with health care is associated with patient- and facility-level health outcomes, the association between health care satisfaction and community-level health outcomes is not known. Objective: To examine the association between online ratings of health care facilities and mortality across US counties and to identify language specific to 1-star (lowest rating) and 5-star (highest rating) reviews in counties with high vs low mortality. Design, Setting, and Participants: This retrospective population-based cross-sectional study examined reviews and ratings of 95 120 essential health care facilities across 1301 US counties. Counties that had at least 1 essential health care facility with reviews available on Yelp, an online review platform, were included. Essential health care was defined according to the 10 essential health benefits covered by Affordable Care Act insurance plans. Main Outcomes and Measures: The mean rating of essential health care facilities was calculated by county from January 1, 2015, to December 31, 2019. Ratings were on a scale of 1 to 5 stars, with 1 being the worst rating and 5 the best. County-level composite measures of health behaviors, clinical care, social and economic factors, and physical environment were obtained from the University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health County Health Rankings database. The 2018 age-adjusted mortality by county was obtained from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Wide-ranging Online Data for Epidemiological Research database. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to estimate the association between mean facility rating and mortality, adjusting for county health ranking variables. Words with frequencies of use that were significantly different across 1-star and 5-star reviews in counties with high vs low mortality were identified. Results: The 95 120 facilities meeting inclusion criteria were distributed across 1301 of 3142 US counties (41.4%). At the county level, a 1-point increase in mean rating was associated with a mean (SE) age-adjusted decrease of 18.05 (3.68) deaths per 100 000 people (P < .001). Words specific to 1-star reviews in high-mortality counties included told, rude, and wait, and words specific to 5-star reviews in low-mortality counties included Dr, pain, and professional. Conclusions and Relevance: This study found that, at the county level, higher online ratings of essential health care facilities were associated with lower mortality. Equivalent online ratings did not necessarily reflect equivalent experiences of care across counties with different mortality levels, as evidenced by variations in the frequency of use of key words in reviews. These findings suggest that online ratings and reviews may provide insight into unequal experiences of essential health care.

2.
Am J Perinatol ; 2021 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34450673

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Urban neighborhood greenness is associated with greater cardiovascular health in the general population, and with better pregnancy and neonatal outcomes. Hypertension in pregnancy is a leading cause of maternal mortality and long-term cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in women. We sought to examine the association between greenness and hypertensive disorders of pregnancy. STUDY DESIGN: This study is a secondary analysis of a prospective cohort study of 1,943 women who received prenatal care from December 2013 to December 2016 at a single, urban, and tertiary academic medical center in Philadelphia, PA. Greenness measure was quantified via residential tree canopy cover within circumferential buffers of 100- and 500-meter radii around participants' homes. Associations between greenness and hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (defined as gestational hypertension or preeclampsia) were estimated by using multilevel logistic regression accounting for maternal sociodemographic information (race-ethnicity, insurance status, and age) medical history (diabetes, body mass index, smoking history, and parity), neighborhood deprivation index, and including 1,225 Philadelphia residents for whom key exposure and outcome data were available. RESULTS: At baseline, the participants' mean (SD) age was 27.5 (5.9) years, (range: 14-44 years). The majority of participants were non-Hispanic Black (857, 70.2%). Participants with less residential tree canopy cover were significantly more likely to have hypertensive disorders of pregnancy. The multivariable-adjusted odds ratio of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy among participants with less than 10% compared with those with greater than 30% tree canopy cover was 2.14 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.11-4.15) within 100-meter buffer. CONCLUSION: In our cohort, greenness was associated with lower hypertensive disorders of pregnancy odds. Our findings add to evidence that greenness may confer health benefits and warrant further investigations in identifying whether there is a causal pathway through which greenness may be protective against hypertensive disorders of pregnancy. KEY POINTS: · Low residential tree canopy is associated with increased risk of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy. · 100-meter buffers are most sensitive in identifying associations between tree canopy and HDP risk. · The role of greenness against hypertensive disorders of pregnancy should be further studied experimentally.

3.
Environ Res ; 201: 111620, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34216611

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine the association of urban residential tree canopy cover with perceived stress in a cohort of pregnant women in Philadelphia, PA, and explore whether this association differed among participants with a history of anxiety and depression. STUDY DESIGN: We performed a secondary analysis of 1294 participants of the Motherhood & Microbiome (M&M) pregnancy cohort who lived in Philadelphia, with first visit perceived stress (Cohen's Perceived Stress Scale, PSS-14), and key covariate data. Tree canopy cover was calculated as percent cover within 100 and 500 m radii buffers around participants' homes. We performed multilevel mixed effects linear regression models, with perceived stress as the dependent variable. The main independent variable was tree canopy coverage. Individual-level covariates included season of last menstrual period, history of depression or anxiety, race/ethnicity, insurance, parity, and age. Census tract neighborhood deprivation index was used to account for area-level socioeconomic confounding variables. We also examined whether a history of anxiety or depression, modified the association between tree canopy coverage and perceived stress. RESULTS: Most participants were non-Hispanic Black (70.6%, n = 913), on Medicaid or uninsured (60.4%, n = 781), and 15.8% (n = 204) of participants had a prior history of depression or anxiety. We did not detect associations between tree canopy coverage and perceived stress overall. However, we detected effect modification; among participants with a history of depression or anxiety, each standard deviation increase in tree canopy cover was associated with lower PSS-14 in 100 m buffers (ß -1.0, 95% CI -1.8, -0.2), but not among participants with no histories of depression or anxiety (ß 0.2, 95% CI -0.3, 0.7) (interaction P = 0.007). Results were similar in directionality but not statistically significant within 500 m buffers. CONCLUSION: Residential tree canopy coverage was associated with reduced perceived stress among urban-dwelling pregnant women with history of anxiety or depression. Future studies of the effects of greenness and other stress-reducing efforts should consider underlying mental health conditions as effect modifiers.


Assuntos
Gestantes , Árvores , Humanos , Gravidez , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia
4.
JMIR Hum Factors ; 2021 Jul 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34264197

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The use of graphic narratives, defined as stories that use images for narration, is growing in health communication. OBJECTIVE: In this study, we describe the design and implementation of a graphic narrative screensaver (GNS) to communicate a guideline recommendation (avoiding low-value acid suppressive therapy (AST) use in hospital inpatients), and examine the comparative effectiveness of the GNS versus a text-based screensaver (TBS) on clinical practice (low-value AST prescriptions) and clinician recall. METHODS: During a two-year period, GNS and TBS were displayed on inpatient clinical workstations. The number of new AST prescriptions were examined in the four quarters before, the three quarters during, and the one quarter after screensavers were implemented. Additionally, an electronic survey was sent to resident physicians one year after the intervention to assess screensaver recall. RESULTS: Designing an aesthetically engaging graphic that could be rapidly understood was critical in the development of the GNS. The odds of receiving an AST prescription on medicine and medicine subspecialty services after the screensavers were implemented was lower for all 4 quarters (GNS and TBS broadcast together; only TBS broadcast; only GNS broadcast; no AST screensavers broadcast) compared to the quarter prior to implementation (Odds Ratio (OR) 0.85, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 0.78-0.92; OR 0.89, CI 0.82-0.97; OR 0.87, CI 0.80-0.95; OR 0.81, CI 0.75-0.89, respectively; p<0.0001 for all comparisons). There were no statistically significant decreases for other high volume services such as the surgical services. These declines appear to have begun prior to screensaver implementation. When surveyed about the screensaver content one year later, resident physicians recalled both the GNS and TBS (61% vs 77%, p=0.07), and were more likely to recall the main message of the GNS compared to the TBS (70% vs 2%, p <0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: It is feasible to use a graphic narrative embedded in a broadcast screensaver to communicate a guideline recommendation, but further study is needed to determine the impact of graphic narratives on clinical practice.

5.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(7): e2118801, 2021 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34323984

RESUMO

Importance: Although racial disparities in acute pain control are well established, the role of patient analgesic preference and the factors associated with these disparities remain unclear. Objective: To characterize racial disparities in opioid prescribing for acute pain after accounting for patient preference and to test the hypothesis that racial disparities may be mitigated by giving clinicians additional information about their patients' treatment preferences and risk of opioid misuse. Design, Setting, and Participants: This study is a secondary analysis of data collected from Life STORRIED (Life Stories for Opioid Risk Reduction in the ED), a multicenter randomized clinical trial conducted between June 2017 and August 2019 in the emergency departments (EDs) of 4 academic medical centers. Participants included 1302 patients aged 18 to 70 years who presented to the ED with ureter colic or musculoskeletal back and/or neck pain. Interventions: The treatment arm was randomized to receive a patient-facing intervention (not examined in this secondary analysis) and a clinician-facing intervention that consisted of a form containing information about each patient's analgesic treatment preference and risk of opioid misuse. Main Outcomes and Measures: Concordance between patient preference for opioid-containing treatment (assessed before ED discharge) and receipt of an opioid prescription at ED discharge. Results: Among 1302 participants in the Life STORRIED clinical trial, 1012 patients had complete demographic and treatment preference data available and were included in this secondary analysis. Of those, 563 patients (55.6%) self-identified as female, with a mean (SD) age of 40.8 (14.1) years. A total of 455 patients (45.0%) identified as White, 384 patients (37.9%) identified as Black, and 173 patients (17.1%) identified as other races. After controlling for demographic characteristics and clinical features, Black patients had lower odds than White patients of receiving a prescription for opioid medication at ED discharge (odds ratio [OR], 0.42; 95% CI, 0.27-0.65). When patients who did and did not prefer opioids were considered separately, Black patients continued to have lower odds of being discharged with a prescription for opioids compared with White patients (among those who preferred opioids: OR, 0.43 [95% CI, 0.24-0.77]; among those who did not prefer opioids: OR, 0.45 [95% CI, 0.23-0.89]). These disparities were not eliminated in the treatment arm, in which clinicians were given additional data about their patients' treatment preferences and risk of opioid misuse. Conclusions and Relevance: In this secondary analysis of data from a randomized clinical trial, Black patients received different acute pain management than White patients after patient preference was accounted for. These disparities remained after clinicians were given additional patient-level data, suggesting that a lack of patient information may not be associated with opioid prescribing disparities. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03134092.

7.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; 17(9): 2868-2872, 2021 09 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33970786

RESUMO

Widespread SARS-CoV-2 vaccine uptake will be critical to resolution of the COVID-19 pandemic. Politicians have the potential to impact vaccine sentiment and uptake through vaccine-related communication with the public. We used tweets (n = 6,201), abstracted from Quorum, a public affairs software platform, to examine changes in the frequency of vaccine-related communication by legislators on the social media platform, Twitter. We found an increase in vaccine-related tweets by legislators following the arrival of SARS-CoV-2 in the United States. In the pre-COVID-19 era the majority of vaccine-related tweets were generated by Democrat and state senators. The increase in tweets following the arrival of COVID-19, however, was greater among Republican and federal legislators than Democrat or state legislators. This suggests that legislators who were previously less engaged in public discussion of vaccination, became engaged following the arrival of SARS-CoV-2, which may have implications for COVID-19 vaccine uptake among their followers.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Mídias Sociais , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , SARS-CoV-2 , Estados Unidos
8.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(6): e27300, 2021 06 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33939620

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As policy makers continue to shape the national and local responses to the COVID-19 pandemic, the information they choose to share and how they frame their content provide key insights into the public and health care systems. OBJECTIVE: We examined the language used by the members of the US House and Senate during the first 10 months of the COVID-19 pandemic and measured content and sentiment based on the tweets that they shared. METHODS: We used Quorum (Quorum Analytics Inc) to access more than 300,000 tweets posted by US legislators from January 1 to October 10, 2020. We used differential language analyses to compare the content and sentiment of tweets posted by legislators based on their party affiliation. RESULTS: We found that health care-related themes in Democratic legislators' tweets focused on racial disparities in care (odds ratio [OR] 2.24, 95% CI 2.22-2.27; P<.001), health care and insurance (OR 1.74, 95% CI 1.7-1.77; P<.001), COVID-19 testing (OR 1.15, 95% CI 1.12-1.19; P<.001), and public health guidelines (OR 1.25, 95% CI 1.22-1.29; P<.001). The dominant themes in the Republican legislators' discourse included vaccine development (OR 1.51, 95% CI 1.47-1.55; P<.001) and hospital resources and equipment (OR 1.22, 95% CI 1.18-1.25). Nonhealth care-related topics associated with a Democratic affiliation included protections for essential workers (OR 1.55, 95% CI 1.52-1.59), the 2020 election and voting (OR 1.31, 95% CI 1.27-1.35), unemployment and housing (OR 1.27, 95% CI 1.24-1.31), crime and racism (OR 1.22, 95% CI 1.18-1.26), public town halls (OR 1.2, 95% CI 1.16-1.23), the Trump Administration (OR 1.22, 95% CI 1.19-1.26), immigration (OR 1.16, 95% CI 1.12-1.19), and the loss of life (OR 1.38, 95% CI 1.35-1.42). The themes associated with the Republican affiliation included China (OR 1.89, 95% CI 1.85-1.92), small business assistance (OR 1.27, 95% CI 1.23-1.3), congressional relief bills (OR 1.23, 95% CI 1.2-1.27), press briefings (OR 1.22, 95% CI 1.19-1.26), and economic recovery (OR 1.2, 95% CI 1.16-1.23). CONCLUSIONS: Divergent language use on social media corresponds to the partisan divide in the first several months of the course of the COVID-19 public health crisis.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/psicologia , Comunicação em Saúde , Mídias Sociais/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Idioma , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
9.
Psychiatr Serv ; 72(7): 776-783, 2021 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34015944

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Previous studies indicate that patients' satisfaction with mental health care is correlated with both treatment outcomes and quality of life. The aims of this study were to describe online reviews of mental health treatment facilities, including key themes in review content, and to evaluate the correlation between narrative review themes, facility characteristics, and review ratings. METHODS: United States National Mental Health Services Survey (N-MHSS) facilities were linked to corresponding Yelp pages, created between March 2007 and September 2019. Correlations between review ratings and both machine learning-generated latent Dirichlet allocation topics and N-MHSS-reported facility characteristics were measured by using Spearman's rank-order correlation coefficient. Significance was defined by a Bonferroni-adjusted p<0.001. RESULTS: Of 10,191 unique mental health treatment facilities, 1,383 (13.6%) had relevant Yelp pages with 8,133 corresponding reviews. The number of newly reviewed facilities and the number of new reviews increased throughout the study period. Narrative topics positively correlated with review ratings included caring staff (Spearman's ρ=0.39) and nonpharmacologic treatment (ρ=0.16). Topics negatively correlated with review ratings included rude staff (ρ=-0.14) and safety and abuse (ρ=-0.14). Of 126 N-MHSS survey items, 11 were positively correlated with review rating, including "outpatient mental health facility" (ρ=0.13), and 33 were negatively correlated with review rating, including accepting Medicare (ρ=-0.21). CONCLUSIONS: Narrative topics provide information beyond what is currently collected through the N-MHSS. Topics associated with positive and negative reviews, such as staff attitude toward patients, can guide improvement in patients' satisfaction and engagement with mental health care.


Assuntos
Saúde Mental , Qualidade de Vida , Idoso , Humanos , Medicare , Satisfação do Paciente , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde , Estados Unidos
10.
Healthc (Amst) ; 9(3): 100545, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33901987

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine the feasibility of the Practical Alternative to Hospitalization (PATH) program, an intervention that offers ED clinicians an outpatient care pathway for patients initially designated for inpatient admission or observation. METHODS: We evaluated a novel care delivery model that was piloted at a tertiary academic medical center in December 2019. An advanced practice provider screened patients designated for inpatient admission or observation and identified eligible participants. Outpatient services were customized for each patient but primarily included care coordination and monitoring through telemedicine and home health services. The primary feasibility outcome was the proportion of eligible patients who were enrolled in the program, as well as patient outcomes after discharge including return ED visits and averted ED boarding time. RESULTS: A total of 199 patients were designated for inpatient admission or observation during PATH program hours. Of 52 eligible patients, 30 (58%) were enrolled. The mean participant age was 62.5 years (SD 17.5), and 25 (83%) had non-Hispanic Black race/ethnicity. The most common disease conditions were chest pain, heart failure, and hyperglycemia. 4 (13%) enrolled patients returned to an ED within 30 days. We estimate that ED boarding time was reduced by 8.2 h (SD 8.1) per patient. CONCLUSION: Emergency physicians and patients were willing to use a novel service that provided an alternative disposition to hospitalization. IMPLICATIONS: alternative payment models that seek to reduce hospital utilization and cost may consider strengthening systems to monitor and coordinate care for patients after ED discharge.

11.
Am J Emerg Med ; 47: 154-157, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33812332

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the rate at which commercially-insured patients fill prescriptions for naloxone after an opioid-related ED encounter as well as patient characteristics associated with obtaining naloxone. METHODS: This is a retrospective cohort study of adult patients discharged from the ED following treatment for an opioid-related condition from 2016 to 2018 using a commercial insurance claims database (Optum Clinformatics® Data Mart). The primary outcome was a pharmacy claim for naloxone in the 30 days following the ED encounter. A multivariable logistic regression model examined the association of patient characteristics with filled naloxone prescriptions, and predictive margins were used to report adjusted probabilities with 95% confidence intervals. RESULTS: 21,700 patients had opioid-related ED encounters during the study period, of which 1743 (8.0%) had encounters for heroin overdose, 8825 (40.7%) for overdose due to other opioids, 5400 (24.9%) for withdrawal, and 5732 (26.4%) for other opioid use disorder conditions. 230 patients (1.1%) filled a prescription for naloxone within 30 days. Patients with heroin overdose (2.6%; 95%CI 1.7 to 3.4), recent prescriptions for opioid analgesics (1.4%; 95%CI 1.1 to 1.7), recent prescriptions for buprenorphine (1.9%; 95%CI 1.0 to 2.9), and naloxone prescriptions in the prior year (3.3%; 95%CI 1.8 to 4.8) were more likely to obtain naloxone. The rate was significantly higher in 2018 [1.9% (95%CI 1.5 to 2.2)] as compared to 0.4% (95%CI 0.3 to 0.6) in 2016. CONCLUSIONS: Few patients use insurance to obtain naloxone by prescription following opioid-related ED encounters. Clinical and policy interventions should expand distribution of this life-saving medication in the ED.


Assuntos
Overdose de Drogas/epidemiologia , Prescrições de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Naloxona/uso terapêutico , Antagonistas de Entorpecentes/uso terapêutico , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/epidemiologia , Síndrome de Abstinência a Substâncias/epidemiologia , Adulto , Bases de Dados Factuais , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Seguro Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
12.
Int J Equity Health ; 20(1): 75, 2021 03 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33691724

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We analyze the degree to which community violence in Mexico, largely due to organized crime violence, affects health care service utilization. METHODS: This study exploits temporal and geographic variation in monthly county-level homicide rates, matching outpatient service utilization from individual longitudinal measures. Sensitivity analyses test for an age specific concentration of violence, respiratory conditions that are likely unrelated to violence, insurance status and health center availability per capita. We test for distributional responses to violence by urban and rural localities. RESULTS: The likelihood of service utilization increases by 5.2% with each additional homicide per 100,000. When we include self-reported health conditions in the model, our main coefficient remains significant at 4.5%. We find no added effect to our results from interaction terms for age specific concentration of violence, respiratory conditions, insurance status, or health center availability. A substantial increase of 11.7% in the likelihood of service utilization occurs in localities with > = 100,000 inhabitants, suggesting that service utilization is sensitive to the location of violence. CONCLUSIONS: Results highlight the relationship between and increase in violence at the local level and an increase in health care service utilization. This study is among the first to examine this relationship empirically in Mexico. Future research is needed to shed more light on this relationship and its mechanisms.


Assuntos
Atenção à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Homicídio , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/etnologia , Violência , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , México , População Rural
13.
Obstet Gynecol ; 137(4): 687-694, 2021 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33706349

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe trends and factors associated with medication administration for opioid use disorder (OUD) and retention in treatment among pregnant women with OUD. METHODS: This is a retrospective, nationwide, cross-sectional analysis of treatment episodes for primary OUD among pregnant women from 2013 to 2017. The primary outcome was initiation of methadone, buprenorphine, or naltrexone. Secondary outcomes were retention in treatment defined as length of treatment episode lasting six months or greater, and completion of treatment. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression were applied to describe trends in, and identify factors associated with the outcomes. RESULTS: There were 42,239 treatment episodes for primary OUD among pregnant women who reported using heroin (65.0%, 27,459), synthetic opioid (33.2%, 14,034), or nonprescribed methadone (1.8%, 746) between 2013 and 2017. Medications for OUD were administered in 47.4% (20,013) of episodes. Retention in treatment occurred in 16.6% of episodes without medications for OUD, and 37.8% of episodes with medications for OUD (P=.01). The rate of medication administration for OUD increased from 41.0% in 2013 to 52.0% in 2017; however, retention rates declined from 39.0% to 33.0% among treatment episodes with medication for OUD. History of at least one prior treatment episode was associated with both administration of medications for OUD and retention in treatment. CONCLUSION: In spite of current guidelines, most treatment episodes for OUD during pregnancy did not involve administration of medications for OUD. Although administration of medications for OUD has improved over time, retention in treatment is lagging. These findings highlight gaps in the U.S. addiction care system.


Assuntos
Tratamento de Substituição de Opiáceos/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/epidemiologia , Complicações na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Cuidado Pré-Natal , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Antagonistas de Entorpecentes/uso terapêutico , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/terapia , Cooperação do Paciente , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/terapia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
14.
Subst Abus ; : 1-5, 2021 Mar 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33751909

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Improving linkage to opioid use disorder (OUD) treatment and services is a public health priority. Public libraries, a community resource for health information, may be well positioned to support and guide people who use drugs, as well as their families and friends. In this study, we sought to evaluate the availability and types of resources offered to patrons inquiring about OUD information, OUD treatment, and naloxone access. Methods: We conducted an audit (secret shopper) study from April 2019 to June 2019 in which an auditor anonymously called Pennsylvania public libraries. We used a purposive sampling strategy to select libraries located in geographically diverse regions across the urban-rural continuum. We categorized responses and verified via phone or website whether referrals to treatment centers and other organizations provided OUD treatment or services. Results: We obtained responses from 100 public libraries located across 48 of the 67 counties in Pennsylvania. Among the libraries that responded, 57 provided health information resources (e.g., books, websites) and 82 provided "next step" referrals to an organization that could provide further assistance. Among the libraries that provided referrals, 39 were to treatment centers, of which 33 were specifically to treatment centers that offer medications for OUD. Of the responding libraries, 28 communicated information about naloxone access. Conclusion: Public libraries can and do connect patrons to OUD treatment and support services; however, there is wide interlibrary variation in the resources presented, demonstrating opportunities for improvement in how libraries engage and refer patrons with substance use needs.

16.
J Gen Intern Med ; 2021 Mar 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33782896

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The opioid epidemic is widely recognized as a legislative priority, but there is substantial variation in state adoption of evidence-based policy. State legislators' use of social media to disseminate information and to indicate support for specific initiatives continues to grow and may reflect legislators' openness to opioid-related policy change. OBJECTIVE: We sought to identify changes in the national dialogue regarding the opioid epidemic among Democratic and Republican state legislators and to estimate changing partisanship around understanding and addressing the epidemic over time. DESIGN: Longitudinal natural language processing analysis. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 4083 US state legislators in office between 2014 and 2019 with any opioid-related social media posts. MAIN MEASURES: Association between opioid-related post volume and state overdose mortality, as measured by Kendall's rank correlation coefficient. Latent Dirichlet allocation analysis of all social media posts to identify key opioid-related topics. Longitudinal analysis of differences in the prevalence of key topics among Democrats and Republicans over time. KEY RESULTS: In total, 43,558 social media posts met inclusion criteria, with the vast majority to Twitter (n=28,564; 65.6%) or Facebook (n=14,283; 32.8%). Posts were more likely to mention fentanyl and less likely to mention heroin over time. The volume of opioid-related content was positively associated with state-level unintentional overdose mortality among both Democrats (tau=0.42, P<.001) and Republicans (tau=0.39, P<.001). Democrats' social media content has increasingly spoken to holding pharmaceutical companies accountable, while Republicans' social media content has increasingly spoken to curbing illicit drug trade. Overall, partisanship across topics increased from 2016 to 2019. CONCLUSION: The volume of opioid-related social media posts by US state legislators between 2014 and 2019 is associated with state-level overdose mortality, but the content across parties is significantly different. Democrats' and Republicans' social media posts may reflect growing partisanship regarding how best to address the overdose epidemic.

17.
Psychiatr Serv ; 72(9): 1048-1056, 2021 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33593105

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: In 2019, Pennsylvania established a voluntary financial incentive program designed to increase the engagement in addiction treatment for Medicaid patients with opioid use disorder after emergency department (ED) encounters. In this qualitative study involving hospital leaders, the authors examined decisions leading to participation in this program as well as barriers and facilitators that influenced its implementation. METHODS: Twenty semistructured interviews were conducted with leaders from a diverse sample of hospitals and health systems across Pennsylvania. Interviews were planned and analyzed following the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research. An iterative approach was used to analyze the interviews and determine key themes and patterns regarding implementation of this policy initiative in hospitals. RESULTS: The authors identified six key themes that reflected barriers and facilitators to hospital participation in the program. Participation in the program was facilitated by community partners capable of arranging outpatient treatment for opioid use disorder, incentive payments focusing hospital leadership on opioid treatment pathways, multidisciplinary planning, and flexibility in adapting pathways for local needs. Barriers to program participation concerned the implementation of buprenorphine prescribing and the measurement of treatment outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: A financial incentive policy encouraged hospitals to enact rapid system and practice changes to support treatment for opioid use disorder, although challenges remained in implementing evidence-based treatment-specifically, initiation of buprenorphine-for patients visiting the ED. Analysis of treatment outcomes is needed to further evaluate this policy initiative, but new delivery and payment models may improve systems to treat patients who have an opioid use disorder.


Assuntos
Buprenorfina , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Humanos , Motivação , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/tratamento farmacológico , Políticas , Estados Unidos
18.
J Interpers Violence ; : 886260521990832, 2021 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33527877

RESUMO

Mexico's violence related to organized crime activity has grown to epidemic levels in the last 12 years. We interviewed 22 Mexican health care providers from five states to examine how violence impacts health care services and health. We transcribed and analyzed semi-structured interviews using framework analysis. Our findings describe the ways in which community violence in Mexico permeates health care services, impacting health care providers, and the health of patients. We developed a model to reflect our main themes that illustrate how violence permeates health care services over geographic space and time. We identified three thematic categories: (a) the impact of violence on health care facilities and service provision, (b) the impact of violence on providers, and (c) the impact of violence on the health of the community. Our model articulates a dynamic process of the spread and permeation of violence. Prior literature focuses on the impact of violence as an occupational hazard and the effect of war or civil conflict on health care services. We extend this literature by documenting the impacts of widespread violence on Mexican health care services and providers. We discuss how violence impacts services, providers, and health in a country that is not officially at war. We compare our findings to previous literature on occupational violence in health professions and the impacts on health services in official war zones. Finally, we highlight the implications for health care practice and policy. We suggest that violence should be considered throughout the care continuum in Mexico and make the case for violence as a structural contributor to health and health disparities in Mexico. We suggest additional research on this under-investigated topic.

20.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(12): e2029043, 2020 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33306115

RESUMO

Importance: The incidence of opioid use during pregnancy is increasing, and drug overdoses are a leading cause of postpartum mortality. Most women who are pregnant do not receive medications for treatment of opioid use disorder, despite the mortality benefit that these agents confer. Furthermore, buprenorphine is associated with milder symptoms of neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) compared with methadone. Objective: To describe the prevalence and geographic distribution across the US of obstetrician-gynecologists who can prescribe buprenorphine (henceforth described as X-waivered) in 2019. Design, Setting, and Participants: A cross-sectional, nationwide study linking physician-specific data to county- and state-level data was conducted from September 1, 2019, to March 31, 2020. Data were obtained on 31 211 obstetrician-gynecologists who accept Medicaid insurance through the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services Physician Compare data set and linked to the Drug Addiction Treatment Act buprenorphine-waived clinician list. Exposures: State-level NAS incidence and county-level uninsured rates and rurality. Main Outcomes and Measures: Prevalence and geographic distribution of obstetrician-gynecologists who are trained to prescribe buprenorphine. Results: Among the 31 211 identified obstetrician-gynecologists, 18 710 (59.9%) were women. Most had hospital privileges (23 236 [74.4%]) and worked in metropolitan counties (28 613 [91.7%]). Only 560 of the identified obstetrician-gynecologists (1.8%) were X-waivered. Obstetrician-gynecologists in counties with fewer than 5% uninsured residents had nearly twice the odds of being X-waivered (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.59; 95% CI, 1.04-2.44; P = .04) compared with those in counties with greater than 15% uninsured residents. Compared with those located in metropolitan counties, obstetrician-gynecologists in suburban counties (eg, urban population of ≥20 000 and adjacent to a metropolitan area) were more likely to be X-waivered (aOR, 1.85; 95% CI, 1.26-2.71; P = .002). Compared with states with an NAS rate of 5 per 1000 births or less, obstetrician-gynecologists in states with an NAS rate of 15 per 1000 births or greater had nearly 5 times the odds of being X-waivered (aOR, 4.94; 95% CI, 3.60-6.77; P < .001). Obstetrician-gynecologists without hospital privileges were more likely to be X-waivered (aOR, 1.32; 95% CI, 1.08-1.61; P = .007). Conclusions and Relevance: Fewer than 2% of obstetrician-gynecologists who accept Medicaid are able to prescribe buprenorphine, and their geographic distribution appears to be skewed in favor of suburban counties. This finding suggests that there is an opportunity for health systems and professional societies to incentivize X-waiver trainings among obstetrician-gynecologists to increase patients' access to buprenorphine, especially during pregnancy.


Assuntos
Buprenorfina , Metadona , Síndrome de Abstinência Neonatal , Obstetrícia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides , Médicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Complicações na Gravidez , Adulto , Buprenorfina/administração & dosagem , Buprenorfina/efeitos adversos , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Medicaid , Metadona/administração & dosagem , Metadona/efeitos adversos , Antagonistas de Entorpecentes/administração & dosagem , Antagonistas de Entorpecentes/efeitos adversos , Síndrome de Abstinência Neonatal/epidemiologia , Síndrome de Abstinência Neonatal/etiologia , Síndrome de Abstinência Neonatal/prevenção & controle , Obstetrícia/educação , Obstetrícia/métodos , Obstetrícia/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/diagnóstico , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/diagnóstico , Complicações na Gravidez/tratamento farmacológico , Complicações na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Saúde da População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Desenvolvimento de Pessoal/métodos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
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