Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 98
Filtrar
1.
J Community Health ; 2022 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35020100

RESUMO

In the U.S., overdoses have become a health crisis in both public and private places. We describe the impact of the overdose crisis in public libraries across five U.S. states, and the front-line response of public library workers. We conducted a cross-sectional survey, inviting one worker to respond at each public library in five randomly selected states (CO, CT, FL, MI, and VA), querying participants regarding substance use and overdose in their communities and institutions, and their preparedness to respond. We describe substance use and overdose patterns, as well as correlates of naloxone uptake, in public libraries. Participating library staff (N = 356) reported witnessing alcohol use (45%) and injection drug use (14%) in their libraries in the previous month. Across states surveyed, 12% of respondents reported at least one on-site overdose in the prior year, ranging from a low of 10% in MI to a high of 17% in FL. There was wide variation across states in naloxone uptake at libraries, ranging from 0% of represented libraries in FL to 33% in CO. Prior on-site overdose was associated with higher odds of naloxone uptake by the library (OR 2.5, 95% CI 1.1-5.7). Although 24% of respondents had attended a training regarding substance use in the prior year, over 90% of respondents wanted to receive additional training on the topic. Public health professionals should partner with public libraries to expand and strengthen substance use outreach and overdose prevention efforts.

2.
SSM Qual Res Health ; 1: 100013, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34870265

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic and ensuing service delivery interruptions had serious impacts on people who use drugs (PWUD) and people experiencing homelessness, including instability in the drug supply, decreased access to substance use disorder (SUD) treatment and harm reduction supplies, increased substance use and relapse due to stress and isolation, inability to properly isolate and quarantine without stable housing, and risk of COVID-19 spread in congregate living spaces. At the same time, many have noted a potential opportunity for rapid change in health, housing, and drug policy despite previous stagnation-referred to as a "punctuated equilibrium" by Baumgartner and Jones-in response to the pandemic. The pandemic forced some important policy interventions in the United States at both national and local levels, including eviction moratoriums and loosening of drug policy related to substance use treatment. However, to what extent some of these changes will be sustained past the current COVID-19 crisis is still unclear, as is how drug and housing related policy shifts have impacted the work of frontline overdose prevention, substance use treatment, and homelessness advocacy workers. In this qualitative study, we used semi-structured interviews to assess how Philadelphia's harm reduction advocates, community organizers, and SUD treatment clinicians have responded to the overdose and homelessness crises during COVID-19, and how they predict the pandemic and ensuing policy changes will impact the future of overdose prevention, harm reduction efforts, and homelessness advocacy. We interviewed 30 eligible participants during July and August 2020. The analysis of these data yielded three themes: 1/"None of it should be new to anybody": COVID-era issues impacting PWUD and people experiencing homelessness are extensions of existing problems; 2/"An opportunity to actually benefit in some way from this crisis": Possibility for innovation and improved care for PWUD and people experiencing homelessness; and 3/"Nothing we've tried has worked, so we have to be uncomfortable and creative": The uncertain path forward. Despite the many barriers that participants faced to promoting the health and well-being of marginalized communities during the pandemic, they also believed that the pandemic presented an important opportunity for positive policy change that has the potential to promote drug user health into the future, including a continuation of loosened federal restrictions on substance use disorder treatment, legalization of safe consumption spaces, safe supply of substances, and progressive, creative housing solutions.

3.
Ann Emerg Med ; 2021 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34922776

RESUMO

STUDY OBJECTIVE: There is strong evidence supporting emergency department (ED)-initiated buprenorphine for opioid use disorder, but less is known about how to implement this practice. Our aim was to describe implementation, maintenance, and provider adoption of a multicomponent strategy for opioid use disorder treatment in 3 urban, academic EDs. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective analysis of electronic health record data for adult patients with opioid use disorder-related visits before (March 2017 to November 2018) and after (December 2018 to July 2020) implementation. We describe patient characteristics, clinical treatment, and process measures over time and conducted an interrupted time series analysis using a patient-level multivariable logistic regression model to assess the association of the interventions with buprenorphine use and other outcomes. Finally, we report provider-level variation in prescribing after implementation. RESULTS: There were 2,665 opioid use disorder-related visits during the study period: 28% for overdose, 8% for withdrawal, and 64% for other conditions. Thirteen percent of patients received medications for opioid use disorder during or after their ED visit overall. Following intervention implementation, there were sustained increases in treatment and process measures, with a net increase in total buprenorphine of 20% in the postperiod (95% confidence interval 16% to 23%). In the adjusted patient-level model, there was an immediate increase in the probability of buprenorphine treatment of 24.5% (95% confidence interval 12.1% to 37.0%) with intervention implementation. Seventy percent of providers wrote at least 1 buprenorphine prescription, but provider-level buprenorphine prescribing ranged from 0% to 61% of opioid use disorder-related encounters. CONCLUSION: A combination of strategies to increase ED-initiated opioid use disorder treatment was associated with sustained increases in treatment and process measures. However, adoption varied widely among providers, suggesting that additional strategies are needed for broader uptake.

4.
Harm Reduct J ; 18(1): 119, 2021 11 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34823538

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The majority of individuals with opioid use disorder (OUD) face access barriers to evidence-based treatment, and the COVID-19 pandemic has exacerbated the United States (US) opioid overdose crisis. However, the pandemic has also ushered in rapid transitions to telehealth in the USA, including for substance use disorder treatment with buprenorphine. These changes have the potential to mitigate barriers to care or to exacerbate pre-existing treatment inequities. The objective of this study was to qualitatively explore Philadelphia-based low-barrier, harm-reduction oriented, opioid use disorder (OUD) treatment provider perspectives about and experiences with telehealth during the COVID-19 pandemic, and to assess their desire to offer telehealth to patients at their programs in the future. METHODS: We interviewed 22 OUD treatment prescribers and staff working outpatient programs offering OUD treatment with buprenorphine in Philadelphia during July and August 2020. All participants worked at low-barrier treatment programs that provide buprenorphine using a harm reduction-oriented approach and without mandating counseling or other requirements as a condition of treatment. We analyzed the data using thematic content analysis. RESULTS: Our analysis yielded three themes: 1/ Easier access for some: telehealth facilitates care for many patients who have difficulty attending in-person appointments due to logistical and psychological barriers; 2/ A layered digital divide: engagement with telehealth can be seriously limited by patients' access to and comfort with technology; and 3/ Clinician control: despite some clinic staff beliefs that patients should have the freedom to choose their treatment modality, patients' access to treatment via telehealth may hinge on clinician perceptions of patient "stability" rather than patient preferences. CONCLUSIONS: Telehealth may address many access issues, however, barriers to implementation remain, including patient ability and desire to attend healthcare appointments virtually. In addition, the potential for telehealth models to extend OUD care to patients currently underserved by in-person models may partially depend on clinician comfort treating patients deemed "unstable" via this modality. The ability of telehealth to expand access to OUD care for individuals who have previously struggled to engage with in-person care will likely be limited if these patients are not given the opportunity to receive treatment via telehealth.


Assuntos
Buprenorfina , COVID-19 , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides , Telemedicina , Buprenorfina/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Tratamento de Substituição de Opiáceos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/epidemiologia , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Estados Unidos
5.
Ann Intern Med ; 2021 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34781715

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although most patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection can be safely managed at home, the need for hospitalization can arise suddenly. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether enrollment in an automated remote monitoring service for community-dwelling adults with COVID-19 at home ("COVID Watch") was associated with improved mortality. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort analysis. SETTING: Mid-Atlantic academic health system in the United States. PARTICIPANTS: Outpatients who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 between 23 March and 30 November 2020. INTERVENTION: The COVID Watch service consists of twice-daily, automated text message check-ins with an option to report worsening symptoms at any time. All escalations were managed 24 hours a day, 7 days a week by dedicated telemedicine clinicians. MEASUREMENTS: Thirty- and 60-day outcomes of patients enrolled in COVID Watch were compared with those of patients who were eligible to enroll but received usual care. The primary outcome was death at 30 days. Secondary outcomes included emergency department (ED) visits and hospitalizations. Treatment effects were estimated with propensity score-weighted risk adjustment models. RESULTS: A total of 3488 patients enrolled in COVID Watch and 4377 usual care control participants were compared with propensity score weighted models. At 30 days, COVID Watch patients had an odds ratio for death of 0.32 (95% CI, 0.12 to 0.72), with 1.8 fewer deaths per 1000 patients (CI, 0.5 to 3.1) (P = 0.005); at 60 days, the difference was 2.5 fewer deaths per 1000 patients (CI, 0.9 to 4.0) (P = 0.002). Patients in COVID Watch had more telemedicine encounters, ED visits, and hospitalizations and presented to the ED sooner (mean, 1.9 days sooner [CI, 0.9 to 2.9 days]; all P < 0.001). LIMITATION: Observational study with the potential for unobserved confounding. CONCLUSION: Enrollment of outpatients with COVID-19 in an automated remote monitoring service was associated with reduced mortality, potentially explained by more frequent telemedicine encounters and more frequent and earlier presentation to the ED. PRIMARY FUNDING SOURCE: Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute.

6.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(10): e2127799, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34665240

RESUMO

Importance: Mortality across US counties varies considerably, from 252 to 1847 deaths per 100 000 people in 2018. Although patient satisfaction with health care is associated with patient- and facility-level health outcomes, the association between health care satisfaction and community-level health outcomes is not known. Objective: To examine the association between online ratings of health care facilities and mortality across US counties and to identify language specific to 1-star (lowest rating) and 5-star (highest rating) reviews in counties with high vs low mortality. Design, Setting, and Participants: This retrospective population-based cross-sectional study examined reviews and ratings of 95 120 essential health care facilities across 1301 US counties. Counties that had at least 1 essential health care facility with reviews available on Yelp, an online review platform, were included. Essential health care was defined according to the 10 essential health benefits covered by Affordable Care Act insurance plans. Main Outcomes and Measures: The mean rating of essential health care facilities was calculated by county from January 1, 2015, to December 31, 2019. Ratings were on a scale of 1 to 5 stars, with 1 being the worst rating and 5 the best. County-level composite measures of health behaviors, clinical care, social and economic factors, and physical environment were obtained from the University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health County Health Rankings database. The 2018 age-adjusted mortality by county was obtained from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Wide-ranging Online Data for Epidemiological Research database. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to estimate the association between mean facility rating and mortality, adjusting for county health ranking variables. Words with frequencies of use that were significantly different across 1-star and 5-star reviews in counties with high vs low mortality were identified. Results: The 95 120 facilities meeting inclusion criteria were distributed across 1301 of 3142 US counties (41.4%). At the county level, a 1-point increase in mean rating was associated with a mean (SE) age-adjusted decrease of 18.05 (3.68) deaths per 100 000 people (P < .001). Words specific to 1-star reviews in high-mortality counties included told, rude, and wait, and words specific to 5-star reviews in low-mortality counties included Dr, pain, and professional. Conclusions and Relevance: This study found that, at the county level, higher online ratings of essential health care facilities were associated with lower mortality. Equivalent online ratings did not necessarily reflect equivalent experiences of care across counties with different mortality levels, as evidenced by variations in the frequency of use of key words in reviews. These findings suggest that online ratings and reviews may provide insight into unequal experiences of essential health care.

7.
Am J Perinatol ; 2021 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34450673

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Urban neighborhood greenness is associated with greater cardiovascular health in the general population, and with better pregnancy and neonatal outcomes. Hypertension in pregnancy is a leading cause of maternal mortality and long-term cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in women. We sought to examine the association between greenness and hypertensive disorders of pregnancy. STUDY DESIGN: This study is a secondary analysis of a prospective cohort study of 1,943 women who received prenatal care from December 2013 to December 2016 at a single, urban, and tertiary academic medical center in Philadelphia, PA. Greenness measure was quantified via residential tree canopy cover within circumferential buffers of 100- and 500-meter radii around participants' homes. Associations between greenness and hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (defined as gestational hypertension or preeclampsia) were estimated by using multilevel logistic regression accounting for maternal sociodemographic information (race-ethnicity, insurance status, and age) medical history (diabetes, body mass index, smoking history, and parity), neighborhood deprivation index, and including 1,225 Philadelphia residents for whom key exposure and outcome data were available. RESULTS: At baseline, the participants' mean (SD) age was 27.5 (5.9) years, (range: 14-44 years). The majority of participants were non-Hispanic Black (857, 70.2%). Participants with less residential tree canopy cover were significantly more likely to have hypertensive disorders of pregnancy. The multivariable-adjusted odds ratio of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy among participants with less than 10% compared with those with greater than 30% tree canopy cover was 2.14 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.11-4.15) within 100-meter buffer. CONCLUSION: In our cohort, greenness was associated with lower hypertensive disorders of pregnancy odds. Our findings add to evidence that greenness may confer health benefits and warrant further investigations in identifying whether there is a causal pathway through which greenness may be protective against hypertensive disorders of pregnancy. KEY POINTS: · Low residential tree canopy is associated with increased risk of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy. · 100-meter buffers are most sensitive in identifying associations between tree canopy and HDP risk. · The role of greenness against hypertensive disorders of pregnancy should be further studied experimentally.

8.
Environ Res ; 201: 111620, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34216611

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine the association of urban residential tree canopy cover with perceived stress in a cohort of pregnant women in Philadelphia, PA, and explore whether this association differed among participants with a history of anxiety and depression. STUDY DESIGN: We performed a secondary analysis of 1294 participants of the Motherhood & Microbiome (M&M) pregnancy cohort who lived in Philadelphia, with first visit perceived stress (Cohen's Perceived Stress Scale, PSS-14), and key covariate data. Tree canopy cover was calculated as percent cover within 100 and 500 m radii buffers around participants' homes. We performed multilevel mixed effects linear regression models, with perceived stress as the dependent variable. The main independent variable was tree canopy coverage. Individual-level covariates included season of last menstrual period, history of depression or anxiety, race/ethnicity, insurance, parity, and age. Census tract neighborhood deprivation index was used to account for area-level socioeconomic confounding variables. We also examined whether a history of anxiety or depression, modified the association between tree canopy coverage and perceived stress. RESULTS: Most participants were non-Hispanic Black (70.6%, n = 913), on Medicaid or uninsured (60.4%, n = 781), and 15.8% (n = 204) of participants had a prior history of depression or anxiety. We did not detect associations between tree canopy coverage and perceived stress overall. However, we detected effect modification; among participants with a history of depression or anxiety, each standard deviation increase in tree canopy cover was associated with lower PSS-14 in 100 m buffers (ß -1.0, 95% CI -1.8, -0.2), but not among participants with no histories of depression or anxiety (ß 0.2, 95% CI -0.3, 0.7) (interaction P = 0.007). Results were similar in directionality but not statistically significant within 500 m buffers. CONCLUSION: Residential tree canopy coverage was associated with reduced perceived stress among urban-dwelling pregnant women with history of anxiety or depression. Future studies of the effects of greenness and other stress-reducing efforts should consider underlying mental health conditions as effect modifiers.


Assuntos
Gestantes , Árvores , Humanos , Gravidez , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia
9.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(7): e2118801, 2021 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34323984

RESUMO

Importance: Although racial disparities in acute pain control are well established, the role of patient analgesic preference and the factors associated with these disparities remain unclear. Objective: To characterize racial disparities in opioid prescribing for acute pain after accounting for patient preference and to test the hypothesis that racial disparities may be mitigated by giving clinicians additional information about their patients' treatment preferences and risk of opioid misuse. Design, Setting, and Participants: This study is a secondary analysis of data collected from Life STORRIED (Life Stories for Opioid Risk Reduction in the ED), a multicenter randomized clinical trial conducted between June 2017 and August 2019 in the emergency departments (EDs) of 4 academic medical centers. Participants included 1302 patients aged 18 to 70 years who presented to the ED with ureter colic or musculoskeletal back and/or neck pain. Interventions: The treatment arm was randomized to receive a patient-facing intervention (not examined in this secondary analysis) and a clinician-facing intervention that consisted of a form containing information about each patient's analgesic treatment preference and risk of opioid misuse. Main Outcomes and Measures: Concordance between patient preference for opioid-containing treatment (assessed before ED discharge) and receipt of an opioid prescription at ED discharge. Results: Among 1302 participants in the Life STORRIED clinical trial, 1012 patients had complete demographic and treatment preference data available and were included in this secondary analysis. Of those, 563 patients (55.6%) self-identified as female, with a mean (SD) age of 40.8 (14.1) years. A total of 455 patients (45.0%) identified as White, 384 patients (37.9%) identified as Black, and 173 patients (17.1%) identified as other races. After controlling for demographic characteristics and clinical features, Black patients had lower odds than White patients of receiving a prescription for opioid medication at ED discharge (odds ratio [OR], 0.42; 95% CI, 0.27-0.65). When patients who did and did not prefer opioids were considered separately, Black patients continued to have lower odds of being discharged with a prescription for opioids compared with White patients (among those who preferred opioids: OR, 0.43 [95% CI, 0.24-0.77]; among those who did not prefer opioids: OR, 0.45 [95% CI, 0.23-0.89]). These disparities were not eliminated in the treatment arm, in which clinicians were given additional data about their patients' treatment preferences and risk of opioid misuse. Conclusions and Relevance: In this secondary analysis of data from a randomized clinical trial, Black patients received different acute pain management than White patients after patient preference was accounted for. These disparities remained after clinicians were given additional patient-level data, suggesting that a lack of patient information may not be associated with opioid prescribing disparities. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03134092.

10.
JMIR Hum Factors ; 2021 Jul 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34264197

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The use of graphic narratives, defined as stories that use images for narration, is growing in health communication. OBJECTIVE: In this study, we describe the design and implementation of a graphic narrative screensaver (GNS) to communicate a guideline recommendation (avoiding low-value acid suppressive therapy (AST) use in hospital inpatients), and examine the comparative effectiveness of the GNS versus a text-based screensaver (TBS) on clinical practice (low-value AST prescriptions) and clinician recall. METHODS: During a two-year period, GNS and TBS were displayed on inpatient clinical workstations. The number of new AST prescriptions were examined in the four quarters before, the three quarters during, and the one quarter after screensavers were implemented. Additionally, an electronic survey was sent to resident physicians one year after the intervention to assess screensaver recall. RESULTS: Designing an aesthetically engaging graphic that could be rapidly understood was critical in the development of the GNS. The odds of receiving an AST prescription on medicine and medicine subspecialty services after the screensavers were implemented was lower for all 4 quarters (GNS and TBS broadcast together; only TBS broadcast; only GNS broadcast; no AST screensavers broadcast) compared to the quarter prior to implementation (Odds Ratio (OR) 0.85, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 0.78-0.92; OR 0.89, CI 0.82-0.97; OR 0.87, CI 0.80-0.95; OR 0.81, CI 0.75-0.89, respectively; p<0.0001 for all comparisons). There were no statistically significant decreases for other high volume services such as the surgical services. These declines appear to have begun prior to screensaver implementation. When surveyed about the screensaver content one year later, resident physicians recalled both the GNS and TBS (61% vs 77%, p=0.07), and were more likely to recall the main message of the GNS compared to the TBS (70% vs 2%, p <0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: It is feasible to use a graphic narrative embedded in a broadcast screensaver to communicate a guideline recommendation, but further study is needed to determine the impact of graphic narratives on clinical practice.

12.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; 17(9): 2868-2872, 2021 09 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33970786

RESUMO

Widespread SARS-CoV-2 vaccine uptake will be critical to resolution of the COVID-19 pandemic. Politicians have the potential to impact vaccine sentiment and uptake through vaccine-related communication with the public. We used tweets (n = 6,201), abstracted from Quorum, a public affairs software platform, to examine changes in the frequency of vaccine-related communication by legislators on the social media platform, Twitter. We found an increase in vaccine-related tweets by legislators following the arrival of SARS-CoV-2 in the United States. In the pre-COVID-19 era the majority of vaccine-related tweets were generated by Democrat and state senators. The increase in tweets following the arrival of COVID-19, however, was greater among Republican and federal legislators than Democrat or state legislators. This suggests that legislators who were previously less engaged in public discussion of vaccination, became engaged following the arrival of SARS-CoV-2, which may have implications for COVID-19 vaccine uptake among their followers.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Mídias Sociais , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , SARS-CoV-2 , Estados Unidos
13.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(6): e27300, 2021 06 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33939620

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As policy makers continue to shape the national and local responses to the COVID-19 pandemic, the information they choose to share and how they frame their content provide key insights into the public and health care systems. OBJECTIVE: We examined the language used by the members of the US House and Senate during the first 10 months of the COVID-19 pandemic and measured content and sentiment based on the tweets that they shared. METHODS: We used Quorum (Quorum Analytics Inc) to access more than 300,000 tweets posted by US legislators from January 1 to October 10, 2020. We used differential language analyses to compare the content and sentiment of tweets posted by legislators based on their party affiliation. RESULTS: We found that health care-related themes in Democratic legislators' tweets focused on racial disparities in care (odds ratio [OR] 2.24, 95% CI 2.22-2.27; P<.001), health care and insurance (OR 1.74, 95% CI 1.7-1.77; P<.001), COVID-19 testing (OR 1.15, 95% CI 1.12-1.19; P<.001), and public health guidelines (OR 1.25, 95% CI 1.22-1.29; P<.001). The dominant themes in the Republican legislators' discourse included vaccine development (OR 1.51, 95% CI 1.47-1.55; P<.001) and hospital resources and equipment (OR 1.22, 95% CI 1.18-1.25). Nonhealth care-related topics associated with a Democratic affiliation included protections for essential workers (OR 1.55, 95% CI 1.52-1.59), the 2020 election and voting (OR 1.31, 95% CI 1.27-1.35), unemployment and housing (OR 1.27, 95% CI 1.24-1.31), crime and racism (OR 1.22, 95% CI 1.18-1.26), public town halls (OR 1.2, 95% CI 1.16-1.23), the Trump Administration (OR 1.22, 95% CI 1.19-1.26), immigration (OR 1.16, 95% CI 1.12-1.19), and the loss of life (OR 1.38, 95% CI 1.35-1.42). The themes associated with the Republican affiliation included China (OR 1.89, 95% CI 1.85-1.92), small business assistance (OR 1.27, 95% CI 1.23-1.3), congressional relief bills (OR 1.23, 95% CI 1.2-1.27), press briefings (OR 1.22, 95% CI 1.19-1.26), and economic recovery (OR 1.2, 95% CI 1.16-1.23). CONCLUSIONS: Divergent language use on social media corresponds to the partisan divide in the first several months of the course of the COVID-19 public health crisis.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/psicologia , Comunicação em Saúde , Mídias Sociais/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Idioma , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
14.
Psychiatr Serv ; 72(7): 776-783, 2021 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34015944

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Previous studies indicate that patients' satisfaction with mental health care is correlated with both treatment outcomes and quality of life. The aims of this study were to describe online reviews of mental health treatment facilities, including key themes in review content, and to evaluate the correlation between narrative review themes, facility characteristics, and review ratings. METHODS: United States National Mental Health Services Survey (N-MHSS) facilities were linked to corresponding Yelp pages, created between March 2007 and September 2019. Correlations between review ratings and both machine learning-generated latent Dirichlet allocation topics and N-MHSS-reported facility characteristics were measured by using Spearman's rank-order correlation coefficient. Significance was defined by a Bonferroni-adjusted p<0.001. RESULTS: Of 10,191 unique mental health treatment facilities, 1,383 (13.6%) had relevant Yelp pages with 8,133 corresponding reviews. The number of newly reviewed facilities and the number of new reviews increased throughout the study period. Narrative topics positively correlated with review ratings included caring staff (Spearman's ρ=0.39) and nonpharmacologic treatment (ρ=0.16). Topics negatively correlated with review ratings included rude staff (ρ=-0.14) and safety and abuse (ρ=-0.14). Of 126 N-MHSS survey items, 11 were positively correlated with review rating, including "outpatient mental health facility" (ρ=0.13), and 33 were negatively correlated with review rating, including accepting Medicare (ρ=-0.21). CONCLUSIONS: Narrative topics provide information beyond what is currently collected through the N-MHSS. Topics associated with positive and negative reviews, such as staff attitude toward patients, can guide improvement in patients' satisfaction and engagement with mental health care.


Assuntos
Saúde Mental , Qualidade de Vida , Idoso , Humanos , Medicare , Satisfação do Paciente , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde , Estados Unidos
15.
Am J Emerg Med ; 47: 154-157, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33812332

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the rate at which commercially-insured patients fill prescriptions for naloxone after an opioid-related ED encounter as well as patient characteristics associated with obtaining naloxone. METHODS: This is a retrospective cohort study of adult patients discharged from the ED following treatment for an opioid-related condition from 2016 to 2018 using a commercial insurance claims database (Optum Clinformatics® Data Mart). The primary outcome was a pharmacy claim for naloxone in the 30 days following the ED encounter. A multivariable logistic regression model examined the association of patient characteristics with filled naloxone prescriptions, and predictive margins were used to report adjusted probabilities with 95% confidence intervals. RESULTS: 21,700 patients had opioid-related ED encounters during the study period, of which 1743 (8.0%) had encounters for heroin overdose, 8825 (40.7%) for overdose due to other opioids, 5400 (24.9%) for withdrawal, and 5732 (26.4%) for other opioid use disorder conditions. 230 patients (1.1%) filled a prescription for naloxone within 30 days. Patients with heroin overdose (2.6%; 95%CI 1.7 to 3.4), recent prescriptions for opioid analgesics (1.4%; 95%CI 1.1 to 1.7), recent prescriptions for buprenorphine (1.9%; 95%CI 1.0 to 2.9), and naloxone prescriptions in the prior year (3.3%; 95%CI 1.8 to 4.8) were more likely to obtain naloxone. The rate was significantly higher in 2018 [1.9% (95%CI 1.5 to 2.2)] as compared to 0.4% (95%CI 0.3 to 0.6) in 2016. CONCLUSIONS: Few patients use insurance to obtain naloxone by prescription following opioid-related ED encounters. Clinical and policy interventions should expand distribution of this life-saving medication in the ED.


Assuntos
Overdose de Drogas/epidemiologia , Prescrições de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Naloxona/uso terapêutico , Antagonistas de Entorpecentes/uso terapêutico , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/epidemiologia , Síndrome de Abstinência a Substâncias/epidemiologia , Adulto , Bases de Dados Factuais , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Seguro Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
16.
Healthc (Amst) ; 9(3): 100545, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33901987

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine the feasibility of the Practical Alternative to Hospitalization (PATH) program, an intervention that offers ED clinicians an outpatient care pathway for patients initially designated for inpatient admission or observation. METHODS: We evaluated a novel care delivery model that was piloted at a tertiary academic medical center in December 2019. An advanced practice provider screened patients designated for inpatient admission or observation and identified eligible participants. Outpatient services were customized for each patient but primarily included care coordination and monitoring through telemedicine and home health services. The primary feasibility outcome was the proportion of eligible patients who were enrolled in the program, as well as patient outcomes after discharge including return ED visits and averted ED boarding time. RESULTS: A total of 199 patients were designated for inpatient admission or observation during PATH program hours. Of 52 eligible patients, 30 (58%) were enrolled. The mean participant age was 62.5 years (SD 17.5), and 25 (83%) had non-Hispanic Black race/ethnicity. The most common disease conditions were chest pain, heart failure, and hyperglycemia. 4 (13%) enrolled patients returned to an ED within 30 days. We estimate that ED boarding time was reduced by 8.2 h (SD 8.1) per patient. CONCLUSION: Emergency physicians and patients were willing to use a novel service that provided an alternative disposition to hospitalization. IMPLICATIONS: alternative payment models that seek to reduce hospital utilization and cost may consider strengthening systems to monitor and coordinate care for patients after ED discharge.


Assuntos
Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Hospitalização , Assistência Ambulatorial , Estudos de Viabilidade , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Alta do Paciente
17.
Subst Abus ; 42(4): 957-961, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33751909

RESUMO

Background: Improving linkage to opioid use disorder (OUD) treatment and services is a public health priority. Public libraries, a community resource for health information, may be well positioned to support and guide people who use drugs, as well as their families and friends. In this study, we sought to evaluate the availability and types of resources offered to patrons inquiring about OUD information, OUD treatment, and naloxone access. Methods: We conducted an audit (secret shopper) study from April 2019 to June 2019 in which an auditor anonymously called Pennsylvania public libraries. We used a purposive sampling strategy to select libraries located in geographically diverse regions across the urban-rural continuum. We categorized responses and verified via phone or website whether referrals to treatment centers and other organizations provided OUD treatment or services. Results: We obtained responses from 100 public libraries located across 48 of the 67 counties in Pennsylvania. Among the libraries that responded, 57 provided health information resources (e.g., books, websites) and 82 provided "next step" referrals to an organization that could provide further assistance. Among the libraries that provided referrals, 39 were to treatment centers, of which 33 were specifically to treatment centers that offer medications for OUD. Of the responding libraries, 28 communicated information about naloxone access. Conclusion: Public libraries can and do connect patrons to OUD treatment and support services; however, there is wide interlibrary variation in the resources presented, demonstrating opportunities for improvement in how libraries engage and refer patrons with substance use needs.

19.
J Gen Intern Med ; 36(11): 3373-3382, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33782896

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The opioid epidemic is widely recognized as a legislative priority, but there is substantial variation in state adoption of evidence-based policy. State legislators' use of social media to disseminate information and to indicate support for specific initiatives continues to grow and may reflect legislators' openness to opioid-related policy change. OBJECTIVE: We sought to identify changes in the national dialogue regarding the opioid epidemic among Democratic and Republican state legislators and to estimate changing partisanship around understanding and addressing the epidemic over time. DESIGN: Longitudinal natural language processing analysis. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 4083 US state legislators in office between 2014 and 2019 with any opioid-related social media posts. MAIN MEASURES: Association between opioid-related post volume and state overdose mortality, as measured by Kendall's rank correlation coefficient. Latent Dirichlet allocation analysis of all social media posts to identify key opioid-related topics. Longitudinal analysis of differences in the prevalence of key topics among Democrats and Republicans over time. KEY RESULTS: In total, 43,558 social media posts met inclusion criteria, with the vast majority to Twitter (n=28,564; 65.6%) or Facebook (n=14,283; 32.8%). Posts were more likely to mention fentanyl and less likely to mention heroin over time. The volume of opioid-related content was positively associated with state-level unintentional overdose mortality among both Democrats (tau=0.42, P<.001) and Republicans (tau=0.39, P<.001). Democrats' social media content has increasingly spoken to holding pharmaceutical companies accountable, while Republicans' social media content has increasingly spoken to curbing illicit drug trade. Overall, partisanship across topics increased from 2016 to 2019. CONCLUSION: The volume of opioid-related social media posts by US state legislators between 2014 and 2019 is associated with state-level overdose mortality, but the content across parties is significantly different. Democrats' and Republicans' social media posts may reflect growing partisanship regarding how best to address the overdose epidemic.

20.
Int J Equity Health ; 20(1): 75, 2021 03 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33691724

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We analyze the degree to which community violence in Mexico, largely due to organized crime violence, affects health care service utilization. METHODS: This study exploits temporal and geographic variation in monthly county-level homicide rates, matching outpatient service utilization from individual longitudinal measures. Sensitivity analyses test for an age specific concentration of violence, respiratory conditions that are likely unrelated to violence, insurance status and health center availability per capita. We test for distributional responses to violence by urban and rural localities. RESULTS: The likelihood of service utilization increases by 5.2% with each additional homicide per 100,000. When we include self-reported health conditions in the model, our main coefficient remains significant at 4.5%. We find no added effect to our results from interaction terms for age specific concentration of violence, respiratory conditions, insurance status, or health center availability. A substantial increase of 11.7% in the likelihood of service utilization occurs in localities with > = 100,000 inhabitants, suggesting that service utilization is sensitive to the location of violence. CONCLUSIONS: Results highlight the relationship between and increase in violence at the local level and an increase in health care service utilization. This study is among the first to examine this relationship empirically in Mexico. Future research is needed to shed more light on this relationship and its mechanisms.


Assuntos
Atenção à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Homicídio , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/etnologia , Violência , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , México , População Rural
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...