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2.
A A Pract ; 15(8): e01502, 2021 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34403375

RESUMO

Adenotonsillectomies are one of the most common otolaryngologic surgeries performed to alleviate obstructive sleep-disordered breathing and apnea in children. The pain management following adenotonsillectomy continues to be a challenge for both pediatric anesthesiologists and otolaryngologists due to the mortality that stems from the use of opioid pain medications in children who have an increased baseline risk airway obstruction and apnea that is exacerbated by any exposure to opioids. We present a case utilizing bilateral suprazygomatic maxillary nerve (SZMN) blocks or, more accurately, suprazygomatic infratemporal-pterygopalatine fossa injections to achieve opioid-free perioperative analgesia for pediatric adenotonsillectomy with nasal turbinate reduction.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides , Tonsilectomia , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Criança , Humanos , Dor Pós-Operatória/tratamento farmacológico , Fossa Pterigopalatina , Conchas Nasais
3.
Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg ; : 1945998211032901, 2021 Jul 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34311618

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To identify social determinants of health care that are associated with poorer pediatric well-differentiated thyroid cancer (WDTC) outcomes and increased stage at presentation. STUDY DESIGN: Using the SEER database (Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results), we retrospectively gathered data on pediatric WDTC across the United States between 1973 and 2015. SETTING: All patients between 0 and 19 years old with a diagnosis of WDTC were included. METHODS: Patient variables were analyzed for relationships to AJCC stage at presentation (American Joint Committee on Cancer), overall survival, and disease-specific survival. RESULTS: Among 3913 patients with pediatric thyroid cancer, 3185 were female (81.4%), 3366 had papillary thyroid cancer (85.3%), and 367 had follicular thyroid cancer (9.4%). Two- and 5-year overall and disease-specific survival approached 100%. However, when outcomes were analyzed by specific populations, male sex, non-Caucasian race, poverty, and language isolation were linked to worse overall survival. Male sex and poverty were associated with poorer disease-specific survival. Regarding overall AJCC stage at presentation, male sex and Black race were related to higher overall presenting AJCC stage. Later AJCC T stage at presentation was seen in male, Hispanic, Asian, and Black patients. There were no variables significantly related to following through with recommended surgery. CONCLUSION: Pediatric WDTC continues to carry an excellent prognosis in the United States. However, when we consider specific populations, the social determinants of health care affect survival and disease burden at presentation: male sex, poverty, language isolation, and race affected survival and/or AJCC stage at presentation in pediatric WDTC.

4.
Cleft Palate Craniofac J ; : 10556656211007689, 2021 Apr 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33845627

RESUMO

Despite promising outcomes for >50 years, nonsurgical orthodontic airway plates (OAP) are only infrequently offered for babies with Robin sequence in a few parts of the world. This article demonstrates possibility of providing functional improvement using an OAP to help these babies overcome their functional and structural difficulties on their own. Two consecutively treated cases are presented exemplifying that OAP treatment that had originated from Europe is reproducible and effective in an institution in the United States.

5.
Nat Med ; 27(1): 125-135, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33432170

RESUMO

Most of what we know about adaptive immunity has come from inbred mouse studies, using methods that are often difficult or impossible to confirm in humans. In addition, vaccine responses in mice are often poorly predictive of responses to those same vaccines in humans. Here we use human tonsils, readily available lymphoid organs, to develop a functional organotypic system that recapitulates key germinal center features in vitro, including the production of antigen-specific antibodies, somatic hypermutation and affinity maturation, plasmablast differentiation and class-switch recombination. We use this system to define the essential cellular components necessary to produce an influenza vaccine response. We also show that it can be used to evaluate humoral immune responses to two priming antigens, rabies vaccine and an adenovirus-based severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 vaccine, and to assess the effects of different adjuvants. This system should prove useful for studying critical mechanisms underlying adaptive immunity in much greater depth than previously possible and to rapidly test vaccine candidates and adjuvants in an entirely human system.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra Influenza/imunologia , Tonsila Palatina/imunologia , Adjuvantes Imunológicos , Linfócitos B/citologia , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Vacinas contra COVID-19/imunologia , Centro Germinativo/citologia , Glicoproteínas de Hemaglutininação de Vírus da Influenza , Humanos , Técnicas In Vitro , Tecido Linfoide/imunologia , Vacina contra Sarampo-Caxumba-Rubéola/imunologia , Organoides/citologia , Organoides/imunologia , Vacinas Antirrábicas/imunologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia
6.
Laryngoscope ; 131(6): E1941-E1949, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33405268

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: The purpose of this study is to develop consensus on key points that would support the use of systemic bevacizumab for the treatment of recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (RRP), and to provide preliminary guidance surrounding the use of this treatment modality. STUDY DESIGN: Delphi method-based survey series. METHODS: A multidisciplinary, multi-institutional panel of physicians with experience using systemic bevacizumab for the treatment of RRP was established. The Delphi method was used to identify and obtain consensus on characteristics associated with systemic bevacizumab use across five domains: 1) patient characteristics; 2) disease characteristics; 3) treating center characteristics; 4) prior treatment characteristics; and 5) prior work-up. RESULTS: The international panel was composed of 70 experts from 12 countries, representing pediatric and adult otolaryngology, hematology/oncology, infectious diseases, pediatric surgery, family medicine, and epidemiology. A total of 189 items were identified, of which consensus was achieved on Patient Characteristics (9), Disease Characteristics (10), Treatment Center Characteristics (22), and Prior Workup Characteristics (18). CONCLUSION: This consensus statement provides a useful starting point for clinicians and centers hoping to offer systemic bevacizumab for RRP and may serve as a framework to assess the components of practices and centers currently using this therapy. We hope to provide a strategy to offer the treatment and also to provide a springboard for bevacizumab's use in combination with other RRP treatment protocols. Standardized delivery systems may facilitate research efforts and provide dosing regimens to help shape best-practice applications of systemic bevacizumab for patients with early-onset or less-severe disease phenotypes. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 5 Laryngoscope, 131:E1941-E1949, 2021.


Assuntos
Inibidores da Angiogênese/uso terapêutico , Bevacizumab/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Papillomavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Respiratórias/tratamento farmacológico , Consenso , Técnica Delfos , Humanos , Internacionalidade
7.
Laryngoscope ; 131(4): E1342-E1344, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32886794

RESUMO

This case series examines interactive AR during minor otolaryngologic procedures. Although VR has been successfully used for pediatric vascular access, removing children from comforting people in the real world has resulted in patient anxiety. AR offers a potential advantage, utilizing distracting holographic images when patients maintain eye contact with parents. The primary objective was to determine the effect of AR on fear during pediatric otolaryngologic procedures. Secondary objectives included evaluating pain; procedure compliance; and patient, parent and physician attitudes toward AR, as well as assessing the feasibility of adding AR to a busy outpatient otolaryngologic clinic. Laryngoscope, 131:E1342-E1344, 2021.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/prevenção & controle , Medo/psicologia , Holografia/estatística & dados numéricos , Otolaringologia/métodos , Cooperação do Paciente/psicologia , Adolescente , Ansiedade/psicologia , Atitude Frente a Saúde , Realidade Aumentada , Criança , Endoscopia/métodos , Endoscopia/psicologia , Holografia/instrumentação , Humanos , Laringoscopia/métodos , Laringoscopia/psicologia , Masculino , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Nasais/psicologia , Otolaringologia/estatística & dados numéricos
8.
Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg ; 164(5): 984-1000, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32960148

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: In the chronic phase of the COVID-19 pandemic, questions have arisen regarding the care of patients with a tracheostomy and downstream management. This review addresses gaps in the literature regarding posttracheostomy care, emphasizing safety of multidisciplinary teams, coordinating complex care needs, and identifying and managing late complications of prolonged intubation and tracheostomy. DATA SOURCES: PubMed, Cochrane Library, Scopus, Google Scholar, institutional guidance documents. REVIEW METHODS: Literature through June 2020 on the care of patients with a tracheostomy was reviewed, including consensus statements, clinical practice guidelines, institutional guidance, and scientific literature on COVID-19 and SARS-CoV-2 virology and immunology. Where data were lacking, expert opinions were aggregated and adjudicated to arrive at consensus recommendations. CONCLUSIONS: Best practices in caring for patients after a tracheostomy during the COVID-19 pandemic are multifaceted, encompassing precautions during aerosol-generating procedures; minimizing exposure risks to health care workers, caregivers, and patients; ensuring safe, timely tracheostomy care; and identifying and managing laryngotracheal injury, such as vocal fold injury, posterior glottic stenosis, and subglottic stenosis that may affect speech, swallowing, and airway protection. We present recommended approaches to tracheostomy care, outlining modifications to conventional algorithms, raising vigilance for heightened risks of bleeding or other complications, and offering recommendations for personal protective equipment, equipment, care protocols, and personnel. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: Treatment of patients with a tracheostomy in the COVID-19 pandemic requires foresight and may rival procedural considerations in tracheostomy in their complexity. By considering patient-specific factors, mitigating transmission risks, optimizing the clinical environment, and detecting late manifestations of severe COVID-19, clinicians can ensure due vigilance and quality care.


Assuntos
COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Controle de Infecções/normas , Cuidados Pós-Operatórios , Traqueostomia , Infecção Hospitalar/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa do Paciente para o Profissional/prevenção & controle , Pandemias , Equipamento de Proteção Individual , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Laryngoscope ; 131(2): E653-E658, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32438519

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: To confirm the standard of care pertaining to postoperative mobilization practices following initial tracheostomy, to establish face validity of novel early mobilization tools, and to conduct a safety and feasibility pilot study. STUDY DESIGN: Multi-institutional survey and prospective cohort study. METHODS: Experts at our tertiary-care children's hospital developed an Early Pediatric Mobility Pathway for tracheostomy patients utilizing a novel risk-assessment tool. Surveys were distributed to professional colleagues in similar children's hospitals to establish face validity and incorporate respondent feedback. Additional surveys were disseminated to tertiary-care children's hospitals across the country to establish the current standard of care, and a pilot study was conducted. RESULTS: Seventy-seven percent of respondents from tertiary hospitals across the country confirmed the standard of care to defer mobilization until the first trach change. Greater than 83% of the respondents used to establish face validity of the tools agreed with the clinical components and scoring structure. The safety and feasibility of early mobilization prior to initial trach change was confirmed with a pilot of 10 pediatric patients without any adverse events. CONCLUSIONS: Mobilization of pediatric patients prior to initial trach change is feasible and can be safe when risk factors are assessed by a multidisciplinary team. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 4 Laryngoscope, 131:E653-E658, 2021.


Assuntos
Deambulação Precoce/métodos , Medição de Risco/métodos , Traqueostomia/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Protocolos Clínicos/normas , Deambulação Precoce/efeitos adversos , Deambulação Precoce/normas , Humanos , Projetos Piloto , Estudos Prospectivos , Traqueostomia/reabilitação
10.
Laryngoscope ; 130(6): 1590-1594, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31448817

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Static Endoscopic Evaluation of Swallowing (SEES) has been demonstrated to have a strong correlation with the Videofluoroscopic Swallow Study (VFSS) in adults. In children, Fiberoptic Endoscopic Evaluations of Swallow (FEES) are frequently performed to avoid repeated VFSS; however, a subset of the population does not tolerate FEES. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the utility of a modified SEES in children. METHODS: Charts of 50 consecutive patients who underwent FEES evaluations were reviewed. Patients age 3 months to 12 years undergoing SEES, FEES, and VFSS were extracted. We compared a binary assessment of outcome on SEES versus VFSS as the diagnostic standard to report characteristics, including sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predicted value. RESULTS: A total of 36 patients met all inclusion criteria (mean age 2.8 years). Using the VFSS as the diagnostic standard, residue seen on SEES had a sensitivity of 80.0%, specificity of 85.7%, a positive predictive value of 88.9%, and a negative predictive value of 75.0% for predicting deep penetration or aspiration. CONCLUSION: SEES may be helpful for developing an initial diagnostic impression and may serve as a platform for patient and caregiver counseling. In children who are unable to cooperate with FEES, SEES may provide clinical insight in predicting an abnormal swallow study; however, a normal SEES was less reliable in predicting a safe swallow on subsequent VFSS in this patient population. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 4 Laryngoscope, 130:1590-1594, 2020.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Deglutição/diagnóstico , Deglutição/fisiologia , Endoscopia Gastrointestinal/métodos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Tecnologia de Fibra Óptica , Fluoroscopia , Humanos , Lactente , Gravação em Vídeo
11.
Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg ; 161(6): 1031-1035, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31547773

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare the evaluation of vocal fold mobility between flexible nasal laryngoscopy (FNL) and a handheld application-based translaryngeal ultrasound (TLUS) platform. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective analysis included patients with unknown vocal fold mobility status who underwent FNL and TLUS. SETTING: Tertiary referral center. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: TLUS was performed on 23 consecutive children (<18 years old) presenting for laryngoscopy due to unknown vocal fold mobility status. After the recording of three 10-second TLUS videos as well as FNL, the study was divided into 2 parts: parental assessment of laryngeal ultrasound at the time of patient evaluation and random practitioner assessment of ultrasound videos. RESULTS: We describe 23 patients who underwent TLUS and FNL. Ten patients (43.5%) had normal vocal fold function bilaterally, and 13 (56.5%) had either left or right vocal fold immobility. Family members and physicians correctly identified the presence and laterality of impaired vocal fold mobility in 22 of 23 cases (κ = 0.96). The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of FLUS in diagnosing vocal fold immobility were 92.3%, 100%, 100%, and 90.9%, respectively. Random practitioners accurately identified the presence and laterality of vocal fold immobility under all circumstances. CONCLUSION: A handheld application-based ultrasound platform is both sensitive and specific in its ability to identify vocal fold motion impairment. Portable handheld TLUS has the potential to serve as a validated screening examination, even by inexperienced providers, and in specific cases may obviate the need for an invasive transnasal laryngoscopy.


Assuntos
Ultrassonografia , Paralisia das Pregas Vocais/diagnóstico por imagem , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Laringoscopia , Masculino , Posicionamento do Paciente , Testes Imediatos , Estudos Prospectivos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Paralisia das Pregas Vocais/fisiopatologia
13.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 9130, 2019 06 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31235758

RESUMO

BYL719 is a PI3K inhibitor that has demonstrated efficacy in the treatment of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. BYL719 exerts its therapeutic effect by suppressing AKT and other proliferative signaling mechanisms. Despite PI3K inhibition and AKT suppression, residual activity of protein S6, a core marker of proliferative activation, has been observed. HER3, either via dimerization or activation by its ligand neurgeulin (NRG), is known to activate PI3K. Thus, we hypothesized that co-targeting HER3 and PI3K would lead to greater suppression of the PI3K-AKT signaling pathway and greater tumor suppression than with BYL719 alone. We investigated biochemical expression and activation of the HER3-PI3K-AKT-S6 pathway in HNSCC cell lines and patient-derived xenografts (PDXs). Antitumor effects of HER3 and PI3K inhibitors alone and in combination were evaluated in cell culture and murine models. Treatment of HNSCC cell lines with BYL719 significantly reduced AKT activation and suppressed tumor growth. However, S6 was persistently activated despite suppression of AKT. Combination treatment with KTN3379, a monoclonal antibody targeted against HER3, and BYL719 led to enhanced suppression of in vitro and in vivo cancer growth and durable suppression of AKT and S6. Therefore, inhibition of HER3 with KTN3379 enhanced the effects of PI3K inhibition in pre-clinical HNSCC models. These data support co-targeting HER3 and PI3K for the treatment of HSNCC.


Assuntos
Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Inibidores de Fosfoinositídeo-3 Quinase/farmacologia , Receptor ErbB-3/metabolismo , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/patologia , Tiazóis/farmacologia , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Humanos , Camundongos , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação para Cima/efeitos dos fármacos , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
14.
JAMA Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg ; 145(7): 617-623, 2019 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31120475

RESUMO

Importance: The incidence of thyroid cancer is increasing by 3% annually. This increase is often thought to be attributable to overdiagnosis in adults. A previous study reported a 1.1% annual increase in the incidence of pediatric thyroid cancer. However, the analysis was limited to the period from 1973 to 2004 and was performed in a linear fashion, which does not account for changes in incidence trends over time. Objective: To analyze trends in pediatric thyroid cancer incidence based on demographic and tumor characteristics at diagnosis. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cross-sectional study included individuals younger than 20 years who had a diagnosis of thyroid cancer in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) 9 database from 1973 to 2013. Cases of thyroid cancer were identified using the International Classification of Diseases for Oncology, Third Edition and were categorized by histologic type, stage, and tumor size. Main Outcomes and Measures: Annual percent change (APC) in the incidence rates was calculated using joinpoint regression analysis. Results: Among 1806 patients included in the analysis, 1454 (80.5%) were female and 1503 (83.2%) were white; most patients were aged 15 to 19 years. The overall incidence rates of thyroid cancer increased annually from 0.48 per 100 000 person-years in 1973 to 1.14 per 100 000 person-years in 2013. Incidence rates gradually increased from 1973 to 2006 (APC, 1.11%; 95% CI, 0.56%-1.67%) and then markedly increased from 2006 to 2013 (APC, 9.56%; 95% CI, 5.09%-14.22%). The incidence rates of large tumors (>20 mm) gradually increased from 1983 to 2006 (APC, 2.23%; 95% CI, 0.93%-3.54%) and then markedly increased from 2006 to 2013 (APC, 8.84%; 95% CI, 3.20%-14.79%); these rates were not significantly different from incidence rates of small (1-20 mm) tumors. The incidence rates of regionally extended thyroid cancer gradually increased from 1973 to 2006 (APC, 1.44%; 95% CI, 0.68%-2.21%) and then markedly increased from 2006 to 2013 (APC, 11.16%; 95% CI, 5.26%-17.40%); these rates were not significantly different from the incidence rates of localized disease. Conclusions and Relevance: The incidence rates of pediatric thyroid cancer increased more rapidly from 2006 to 2013 than from 1973 to 2006. The findings suggest that there may be a co-occurring increase in thyroid cancer in the pediatric population in addition to enhanced detection.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/mortalidade , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Mortalidade/tendências , Programa de SEER , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/diagnóstico , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
15.
J Ultrasound Med ; 38(2): 393-397, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30099758

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The applications of using ultrasound for the evaluation and management of otolaryngologic diagnoses are expanding. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the current experience of ultrasound training in otolaryngology residency programs. METHODS: All allopathic and osteopathic otolaryngology residency programs in the United States were surveyed online via an e-mailed survey link to the resident representatives of the Section for Residents and Fellows in Training of the American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery. We present a descriptive analysis of the survey results. RESULTS: A total of 110 responses were obtained from resident representatives at MD and DO otolaryngology residency programs, representing a response rate of 94.8%. Forty-four percent of residents reported that they would not feel comfortable with performing ultrasound-guided procedures after residency; 43% reported that they do not perform ultrasound procedures as a part of their residency training; and 60% of those trainees performing ultrasound procedures do not log the procedures. Twenty-three percent of residents did not have access to an ultrasound machine. Most respondents (71%) desired more exposure to diagnostic and/or interventional ultrasound training during residency. CONCLUSIONS: Although current experience is variable, there is a strong interest in increasing resident skill acquisition in ultrasound training among otolaryngology residents. Some barriers to these goals may be a lack of trained faculty members using ultrasound and insufficient recording mechanisms for residents performing ultrasound procedures.


Assuntos
Competência Clínica/estatística & dados numéricos , Internato e Residência , Otolaringologia/educação , Ultrassom/educação , Humanos , Ultrassonografia , Estados Unidos
16.
Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg ; 160(3): 540-545, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30453837

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Vocal fold immobility with resultant dysphagia is a known cause of morbidity in the pediatric population. Herein we evaluate the efficacy and adverse events of injection laryngoplasty in children. STUDY DESIGN: Case series with chart review. SETTING: Tertiary academic children's hospital. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Patients <12 years of age with unilateral vocal fold immobility, dysphagia, and objective swallow study data were included. Primary outcome measures included perioperative adverse events and the ability to advance the diet, as defined by initiation of oral feeds or reduction in thickener following postoperative swallow study. RESULTS: The mean age of the cohort (N = 41) was 43.83 months (range, 0.5-144 months), and 46.3% of patients were <18 months old. Perioperative adverse events included increased oxygen requirement (n = 3), prolonged operating room time secondary to tenuous cardiopulmonary status (n = 2), and postoperative readmission within 30 days (n = 1). A total of 63.63% (n = 21 of 33) of patients safely advanced their diet following objective improvement on swallow study. Patients undergoing injection laryngoplasty ≤6 months of the onset of vocal fold immobility were more likely to advance their diet following surgery. CONCLUSION: Injection laryngoplasty has the potential to advance or initiate an oral diet for children with vocal fold immobility, including those in the first months of life. It is relatively free of adverse events, but certain limitations in the pediatric population must be considered. Preoperative characteristics, including timing of injection and premorbidity diet, may guide clinicians in predicting those patients most likely to advance their diet following injection laryngoplasty.


Assuntos
Materiais Biocompatíveis/administração & dosagem , Laringoplastia/métodos , Paralisia das Pregas Vocais/terapia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Protocolos Clínicos , Estudos de Coortes , Durapatita/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Injeções , Masculino , Resultado do Tratamento
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