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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e233780, 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153469

RESUMO

Abstract Hematological and blood biochemical reference information is important to establish physiological status of freshwater stingray populations and improve care and management protocols in artificial environments. Here, we used a commercial freshwater stingray with high mortality rates in the market (Potamotrygon magdalenae), as an example to understand how artificial environments and handling protocols influence physiological status of captive freshwater stingrays. To this purpose, blood from five adult males and six adult females was collected to perform complete blood counts and blood chemistry analyses. All sampled animals showed good body condition with no differences between sexes. Differences between sexes were only found for the differential count of lymphocytes. Red blood results were consistent with previously studied potamotrygonids while white blood results showed higher values of leukocytes, thrombocytes, heterophils and lymphocytes in P. magdalenae compared to other Potamotrygonids. All types of leukocytes described for elasmobranchs were found except neutrophils and basophils. Blood metabolites showed an influence of ex situ diet in total protein, triglycerides and cholesterol. Glucose results were consistent while urea showed lower levels than those recorded for other freshwater stingrays. These results highlight the importance of physical, physiological and health analysis in freshwater stingrays as a part of welfare assessment to improve monitoring protocols and survival rates in public or private aquaria.


Resumo A informação de referência hematológica e bioquímica do sangue é importante para estabelecer o estado fisiológico das populações de arraias de água doce e melhorar os protocolos de cuidado e manejo em ambientes artificiais. Aqui, usamos uma espécie comercial de arraia de água doce com elevadas taxas de mortalidade no mercado (Potamotrygon magdalenae) como espécie exemplo para compreender de que modo os ambientes artificiais e os protocolos de manipulação influenciam o estado fisiológico das arraias de água doce em cativeiro. Para este fim, foi coletado sangue de cinco machos adultos e seis fêmeas adultas para realizar contagens completas de células sanguíneas e análises bioquímicas de sangue. Todos os animais amostrados mostraram boa condição corpórea, sem diferenças entre os sexos. Diferenças entre os sexos foram encontradas só na contagem diferencial de linfócitos. Os resultados de células sanguíneas vermelhas foram consistentes com potamotrigonídeos previamente estudados, enquanto o leucograma revelou valores mais elevados de leucócitos, trombócitos, heterófilos e linfócitos em P. magdalenae, em comparação com outros potamotrigonídeos. Todos os tipos de leucócitos descritos para elasmobrânquios foram encontrados, exceto para neutrófilos e basófilos. Todos os tipos de leucócitos descritos para elasmobrânquios foram encontrados, exceto para neutrófilos e basófilos. Os metabólitos do sangue mostraram influência da dieta ex situ nas proteínas totais, triglicerídeos e colesterol. Os resultados da glicose foram consistentes, enquanto a ureia mostrou níveis mais baixos do que os registrados para outras espécies de arraias de água doce. Os resultados da glicose foram consistentes, enquanto a ureia mostrou níveis mais baixos em P. magdalenae. Estes resultados enfatizam a importância da análise física, fisiológica e de saúde em arraias de água doce como parte da avaliação do bem-estar para melhorar os protocolos de monitoramento e as taxas de sobrevivência em aquários públicos ou privados.

2.
Braz J Biol ; 82: e233780, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33787714

RESUMO

Hematological and blood biochemical reference information is important to establish physiological status of freshwater stingray populations and improve care and management protocols in artificial environments. Here, we used a commercial freshwater stingray with high mortality rates in the market (Potamotrygon magdalenae), as an example to understand how artificial environments and handling protocols influence physiological status of captive freshwater stingrays. To this purpose, blood from five adult males and six adult females was collected to perform complete blood counts and blood chemistry analyses. All sampled animals showed good body condition with no differences between sexes. Differences between sexes were only found for the differential count of lymphocytes. Red blood results were consistent with previously studied potamotrygonids while white blood results showed higher values of leukocytes, thrombocytes, heterophils and lymphocytes in P. magdalenae compared to other Potamotrygonids. All types of leukocytes described for elasmobranchs were found except neutrophils and basophils. Blood metabolites showed an influence of ex situ diet in total protein, triglycerides and cholesterol. Glucose results were consistent while urea showed lower levels than those recorded for other freshwater stingrays. These results highlight the importance of physical, physiological and health analysis in freshwater stingrays as a part of welfare assessment to improve monitoring protocols and survival rates in public or private aquaria.


Assuntos
Elasmobrânquios , Hematologia , Rajidae , Animais , Feminino , Água Doce , Masculino
3.
J Fish Biol ; 91(4): 1228-1235, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28809037

RESUMO

This study found that the reef stingray Urobatis concentricus presents a matrotrophic aplacental viviparous reproduction with yolk sac and trophonemata formation. Growth of ovarian follicles occurs asynchronously and continuously with fecundity of three embryos per female. A maximum size of 58·4 cm total length and 37·6 cm disc width was recorded, corresponding to a mature female of 3 or 4 years of age.


Assuntos
Reprodução , Rajidae/fisiologia , Animais , Feminino , México , Folículo Ovariano/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Rajidae/embriologia , Rajidae/crescimento & desenvolvimento
4.
J Fish Biol ; 82(5): 1753-7, 2013 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23639171

RESUMO

This study reports the first bicephalic embryo of smalltail shark Carcharhinus porosus, which was removed from a pregnant female in coastal waters of the tropical eastern Pacific Ocean. The observation suggested that although the individual's body was well formed, the malformation of the head would have affected it survival.


Assuntos
Embrião não Mamífero/anormalidades , Tubarões/anormalidades , Tubarões/embriologia , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Gravidez
5.
J Fish Biol ; 80(5): 1246-66, 2012 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22497382

RESUMO

Reproductive aspects of the round ray Urotrygon rogersi were studied based on 2005 specimens obtained in the artisanal shrimp fishery operating on the Colombian Pacific coast. Females reached greater maximum total length (L(T) ), disc width (W(D) ) and mass (M) (38·0 cm, 19·9 cm and 348 g) than males (32·5 cm, 17·0 cm and 165 g). Sex ratio of juveniles and adults was 1:1. Clasper length increased rapidly between 10·0 and 12·5 cm W(D) . The smallest mature male measured 10·5 cm W(D) and the largest immature individual 13·7 cm W(D) . Male first maturity was reached at 61·8% of maximum W(D) , and estimated W(D50) was between 11·5 and 11·8 cm. The smallest mature female measured 10·5 cm W(D) ; the size at first maturity was 52·8% of maximum W(D) , and estimated W(D50) was between 11·8 and 12·3 cm. Embryos were found in females ≥ 10·5 cm W(D) and maximum fecundity was three embryos per female (mode = 1) and varied with maternal size. Embryos were found in all months, but three birthing peaks per year were identified and a gestation period of 4-5 months estimated. Based on ovulation time, embryonic growth and parturition dates, a triannual reproductive cycle was inferred for this species, with overlapping ovarian and uterine cycles. These results suggest that U. rogersi has a reproductive strategy based on low fecundity, a rapid reproductive cycle (short ovulation and gestation time), three birth peaks per year and large embryos. This strategy probably allows U. rogersi to withstand the fishing pressure they are subject to on the Colombian Pacific coast. The results also suggest that the study area is an important nursery and reproductive area for this species.


Assuntos
Reprodução/fisiologia , Rajidae/fisiologia , Animais , Tamanho Corporal , Colômbia , Embrião não Mamífero , Feminino , Fertilidade , Masculino , Folículo Ovariano/fisiologia , Oceano Pacífico , Periodicidade , Razão de Masculinidade , Maturidade Sexual
6.
J Fish Biol ; 80(5): 1563-79, 2012 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22497397

RESUMO

Sexual, ontogenic and temporal effects in the diet of Dasyatis longa were evaluated to determine feeding habits and trophic ecology. Numeric indices and the index of relative importance were applied to establish the feeding strategy of the species. Independence of the diet with respect to sex, dry or rainy season and size was evaluated with contingency tables, correspondence analysis and multivariate analysis (MANOVA). The trophic relationships of D. longa (by sex and size intervals) were determined using Levin's niche breadth index and the Pianka's diet overlap index and their significance was determined by null models. The trophic level for each size interval and the species was also calculated. Dasyatis longa showed a narrow niche breadth feeding mainly on shrimps and fishes and its diet was dependent on size, but not on sex or season. Juvenile individuals (class I) fed on shrimps, sub-adults (class II) on fishes and adults (class III) on stomatopods. Significant overlaps between size classes I and II and classes II and III were found. The trophic level shows D. longa to be a secondary or tertiary consumer. Due to considerable fishing pressures on shrimps, the principal prey of D. longa, it will be important to determine their ability to adapt to changes in prey populations.


Assuntos
Dieta , Comportamento Alimentar , Cadeia Alimentar , Estações do Ano , Rajidae/fisiologia , Análise de Variância , Animais , Tamanho Corporal , Feminino , Conteúdo Gastrointestinal , Masculino , Oceano Pacífico
7.
J Fish Biol ; 78(4): 1213-24, 2011 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21463316

RESUMO

The food habits and trophic ecology of Urotrygon rogersi were analysed to ascertain sexual, ontogenetic, temporal and spatial effects on the diet. These effects were examined with contingency tables, simple correspondence analysis and MANOVA. The trophic relationships of the species were determined with Levin's niche amplitude index and Pianka's diet overlap index. Urotrygon rogersi is a predator of benthic organisms, especially shrimp and polychaetes. Analysis of sex and time showed no significant differences, but differences among class sizes were found. A strong trend towards diet specialization and a strong overlap between sexes and between class sizes were found. Finally, fishing activity on shrimps in the study area could force U. rogersi to change its trophic spectrum over time as an adaptation to the considerable reduction in its principal prey.


Assuntos
Dieta , Elasmobrânquios/fisiologia , Animais , Tamanho Corporal/fisiologia , Elasmobrânquios/anatomia & histologia , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Feminino , Conteúdo Gastrointestinal , Masculino , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores de Tempo
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