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1.
Niger J Clin Pract ; 24(1): 38-44, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33473023

RESUMO

Background: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection has been recognized globally as a major public health challenge necessitating a global call for increased awareness, patients' identification, and development of activities for prevention and control of the disease. Consequently, massive health education campaigns and screening exercises have been mounted globally to mark the World Hepatitis Day (WHD). Aims: As part of WHD 2016 activities, we undertook a survey and screening of health care workers in order to raise awareness, identify patients and contribute to the Global Health Strategy goal of eliminating HBV infection by the year 2030. Method: This was a cross-sectional analytical study done at the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Ituku-Ozalla, Enugu, Nigeria. Hospital workers voluntarily presented themselves to be screened using a rapid test kit and completing a semi-structured investigator-administered questionnaire. Results: A total of 3123 participants were studied. The mean age of the participants was 39.4 ± 9.6 years. The seroprevalence of HBV infection was 2.3%. Most (97.0%) of the participants had previously heard about HBV infection and over two thirds (68.1%) could correctly identify risk factors and modes of transmission of HBV. Twenty-eight and a half percent of the participants knew their hepatitis B virus status prior to the study. Conclusion: The seroprevalence of HBV among healthcare workers in Enugu, Nigeria is relatively low compared to figures from other African countries. The healthcare workers have considerable knowledge of the disease. However, the observed knowledge gaps in awareness and screening need to be addressed.


Assuntos
Vírus da Hepatite B , Hepatite B , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Pessoal de Saúde , Hepatite B/diagnóstico , Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos
2.
Niger J Clin Pract ; 22(7): 932-935, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31293257

RESUMO

Background: Hepatitis B virus infection is endemic in Nigeria, yet few data exist about the extent of infection in rural communities. Objective: To determine seroprevalence of hepatitis B surface antigenemia in two rural communities in Nigeria. Methods: A 330-person survey for seroprevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) was carried out in two rural communities in Enugu State, Nigeria, in January, 2017. All study participants were screened for HBsAg using chromatographic immunoassay. Results: The mean age of participants was 57.2 ± 17.4 years, (range = 10-92 years) with 168 (50.9%) aged 60 years and above. The prevalence of HBsAg was found to be 2.1% with the 18-29 years age group having the highest prevalence. Conclusion: There is need to increase hepatitis B surveillance in rural communities to reduce transmission and institute early treatment.


Assuntos
Doenças Endêmicas , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/sangue , Vírus da Hepatite B/isolamento & purificação , Hepatite B/epidemiologia , População Rural , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Feminino , Hepatite B/sangue , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/imunologia , Vírus da Hepatite B/imunologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
3.
Niger J Clin Pract ; 21(10): 1265-1270, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30297557

RESUMO

Introduction: Urolithiasis is a global disease condition secondary to a variety of factors, and sometimes associated with serious complications. Determination of stone composition is important in delineating causative factors. Knowledge of causative and precipitating factors aids patient management and prevention of recurrence. Objective: The authors' aim was to evaluate the practice and perspective of doctors regarding chemical analysis of stones in management of urolithiasis. Materials and Methods: This comparative cross-sectional study was done between December 2016 and May 2017 in two teaching hospitals in South-East, Nigeria. Data were collected using self-administered questionnaires. Results: In all, 88 doctors with mean (standard deviation) age of 37.3 (9.5) years participated in the study. Urinary bladder stones were the most frequently managed, 51 (58.0%); 45 (51.1%) participants do not routinely send stones for chemical analysis. All respondents (100%) agreed that stone analysis is beneficial to patient management. Conclusion: This study showed that in spite of all respondents affirming that chemical analysis of uroliths is beneficial to patient management, more than half of respondents do not routinely send stones for analysis.


Assuntos
Assistência à Saúde , Assistência ao Paciente , Médicos , Padrões de Prática Médica , Cálculos Urinários/química , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Hospitais de Ensino , Humanos , Laboratórios Hospitalares , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nigéria , Inquéritos e Questionários , Urolitíase
4.
BMC Infect Dis ; 18(1): 288, 2018 06 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29954344

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B vaccination is the most effective method of prevention for hepatitis B virus infection. It is a major public health problem in Nigeria, and health workers are at increased risk. This study determined the uptake of hepatitis B vaccination and assessed its determinants among health care workers (HCWs). METHODS: A hospital-based cross-sectional study was conducted between July and August, 2016 using self-administered structured questionnaires among 3132 HCWs in University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu, South-East, Nigeria. Data was analysed using SPSS version 22. Binary logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors that influenced uptake of vaccination. Ethical clearance was obtained from the Research Ethics Committee of the health facility. RESULTS: The uptake of hepatitis B vaccination was 14.2% (n = 445). The number of doses received were: 3 doses (218/3132, 48.9%), 2 doses (71/3132, 16.0%), and one dose (156/3132, 35.1%). The reasons for non-uptake of vaccination included: cost of vaccine 48 (10.8%), 'did not believe they could be infected' 28 (6.6%), long vaccination schedule, and lack of time 150 (35.1%). The Odds for uptake of hepatitis B vaccination were 22% lower among nurses compared to doctors (AOR = 0.78, 95% CI = 0.54-0.98, P = 0.037). It increased with increasing age (AOR = 1.30, 95% CI = 1.08-1.59, P <  0.001), increasing duration of work in the hospital (AOR = 1.19, 95% CI = 1.09-1.32, P = 0.032), and was about twice higher among those that had tertiary education than others that had less education (AOR = 1.96, 95 CI = 0.76-5.07, P = 0.164). CONCLUSIONS: The uptake of hepatitis B vaccination was low among HCWs in Enugu, Nigeria. Age, staff category, and duration of work in the hospital, were independently associated with hepatitis B vaccination. Provision of adequate hepatitis B surface antigen screening facilities and vaccination sites where the cost of vaccination is subsidized for all HCWs is recommended.


Assuntos
Pessoal de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Vacinas contra Hepatite B/uso terapêutico , Hepatite B/prevenção & controle , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Vacinas contra Hepatite B/economia , Hospitais de Ensino , Humanos , Esquemas de Imunização , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nigéria , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros , Médicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
5.
Nig Q J Hosp Med ; 23(1): 58-64, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24579497

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The critically ill patient undergoes rapid changes in the internal milieu requiring quick intervention. Point of care testing has been shown to be valuable in the early diagnosis and management of such patients. OBJECTIVE: This study determined the agreement between I-STAT Abbot point of care testing with standard laboratory testing in the analysis of electrolytes and glucose concentrations in critically ill patients. METHODS: The study was performed in a Sub-Saharan Tertiary Teaching Hospital in critically ill patients. Electrolyte and glucose analysis were measured with I-STAT Abbot Analyzer unit with parallel blood specimens (n = 30) tested in the laboratory on an ion-selective electrode, SFRI analyzer ISE 6000. RESULTS: There was no significant difference in mean sodium, potassium, chloride and glucose between I-STAT POCT and standard laboratory measurements. The agreement between POCT and laboratory glucose was good p(c) = 0.967, mean difference of 0.79 and 95% limit of agreement from -3.83 to +5.107 mmol/L, p = 0.733. Bicarbonate was moderate (p) = 0.637, mean difference of 1.95 and 95% limit of agreement from -4.294 to +0.394 mmol/L, p = 0.101. There was moderate agreement for sodium (p(c)) = 0.32, mean difference of 5.8 and 95% limit of agreement from -0.378 to +11.98 mmol/L, p = 0.064. Agreement for potassium was moderate (p(c)) = 0.439, mean difference of 0.15 and limit of agreement from -0.401 to +0.701 mmol/L, p = 0.588. There was, however, a significant difference in mean chloride, and BUN values; chloride (p(c)) = 0.0796, mean difference of 13.8 and 95% limit of agreement from -7.55 to + 20.015 mmol/L. Blood urea nitrogen (p(c)) = 0.064, mean difference of 18.55 and 95% limit of agreement from -30.126 to +6.974 mmol/L. CONCLUSION: The mean sodium, potassium, glucose and bicarbonate were comparable with moderate to good agreement between I-STAT POCT and ISE 6000 Analyzer. Though, the mean BUN and chloride levels between the analytical methods differ significantly.


Assuntos
Análise Química do Sangue/métodos , Análise Química do Sangue/normas , Estado Terminal , Sistemas Automatizados de Assistência Junto ao Leito/normas , Centros de Atenção Terciária , África ao Sul do Saara , Glicemia/análise , Eletrólitos/sangue , Humanos
6.
Nig Q J Hosp Med ; 22(2): 103-8, 2012.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23175907

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Electrolytes and acid-base disorders are common challenges seen in the intensive care unit (ICU) resulting in difficulty in weaning patients off the ventilator, prolonged admission periods, preventable cardiac arrhythmias and cardiac arrest. These require prompt lab results most of which are done serially, ideally a point of care test (POCT), as most central hospital lab result's turnaround time (TAT) sometimes might not meet up with the urgency of clinical decision making in the ICU. OBJECTIVE: To determine the incidence of electrolytes and acid-base abnormalities using i-Stat portable analysers in the ICU of the Lagos University Teaching Hospital (LUTH). METHOD: The i-STAT Portable Clinical Analyzer, a POCT system consisting of a hand-held analyzer and single-use cartridges that measure different panels of analytes in 65-100 microl of blood using an EC8+ cartridge type analyzer for sodium, potassium, chloride, urea, glucose, pH, blood gases [TCO2, pO2, pCO2]) and heamatocrit was used. RESULTS: Over 66.78% of the patients had multiple electrolytes and acid-base abnormalities. Azotemia in 20%, hypoglycaemia in 13.33%, and hyperglycaemia in 53.33% of patients. CONCLUSION: it is concluded from this study that electrolyte and acid base abnormalities is not uncommon in the intensive care unit of LUTH and the i-STAT Portable Clinical Analyzer was helpful in facilitating early diagnosis and treatment.


Assuntos
Desequilíbrio Ácido-Base/sangue , Desequilíbrio Ácido-Base/diagnóstico , Estado Terminal , Sistemas Automatizados de Assistência Junto ao Leito , Equilíbrio Hidroeletrolítico , Desequilíbrio Hidroeletrolítico/diagnóstico , Adulto , Feminino , Hospitais de Ensino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Monitorização Fisiológica/instrumentação , Desequilíbrio Hidroeletrolítico/sangue
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