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Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360726


Fungal diseases pose a major threat to ornamental plants, with an increasing percentage of pathogen-driven host losses. In ornamental plants, management of the majority of fungal diseases primarily depends upon chemical control methods that are often non-specific. Host basal resistance, which is deficient in many ornamental plants, plays a key role in combating diseases. Despite their economic importance, conventional and molecular breeding approaches in ornamental plants to facilitate disease resistance are lagging, and this is predominantly due to their complex genomes, limited availability of gene pools, and degree of heterozygosity. Although genetic engineering in ornamental plants offers feasible methods to overcome the intrinsic barriers of classical breeding, achievements have mainly been reported only in regard to the modification of floral attributes in ornamentals. The unavailability of transformation protocols and candidate gene resources for several ornamental crops presents an obstacle for tackling the functional studies on disease resistance. Recently, multiomics technologies, in combination with genome editing tools, have provided shortcuts to examine the molecular and genetic regulatory mechanisms underlying fungal disease resistance, ultimately leading to the subsequent advances in the development of novel cultivars with desired fungal disease-resistant traits, in ornamental crops. Although fungal diseases constitute the majority of ornamental plant diseases, a comprehensive overview of this highly important fungal disease resistance seems to be insufficient in the field of ornamental horticulture. Hence, in this review, we highlight the representative mechanisms of the fungal infection-related resistance to pathogens in plants, with a focus on ornamental crops. Recent progress in molecular breeding, genetic engineering strategies, and RNAi technologies, such as HIGS and SIGS for the enhancement of fungal disease resistance in various important ornamental crops, is also described.

Resistência à Doença/genética , Fungos Mitospóricos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Melhoramento Vegetal , Doenças das Plantas , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/microbiologia
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(18)2020 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32906764


Chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum morifolium) is an economically important ornamental crop across the globe. As floral color is the major factor determining customer selection, manipulation of floral color has been a major objective for breeders. Anthocyanins are one of the main pigments contributing to a broad variety of colors in the ray florets of chrysanthemum. Manipulating petal pigments has resulted in the development of a vast range of floral colors. Although the candidate genes involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis have been well studied, the genetic and transcriptional control of floral color remains unclear. Despite advances in multi-omics technology, these methods remain in their infancy in chrysanthemum, owing to its large complex genome and hexaploidy. Hence, there is a need to further elucidate and better understand the genetic and molecular regulatory mechanisms in chrysanthemum, which can provide a basis for future advances in breeding for novel and diverse floral colors in this commercially beneficial crop. Therefore, this review describes the significance of anthocyanins in chrysanthemum flowers, and the mechanism of anthocyanin biosynthesis under genetic and environmental factors, providing insight into the development of novel colored ray florets. Genetic and molecular regulatory mechanisms that control anthocyanin biosynthesis and the various breeding efforts to modify floral color in chrysanthemum are detailed.

Antocianinas/biossíntese , Antocianinas/genética , Chrysanthemum/metabolismo , Antocianinas/metabolismo , Chrysanthemum/genética , Flores/genética , Expressão Gênica/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Pigmentação/genética , Pigmentos Biológicos/genética , Melhoramento Vegetal/métodos , Proteínas de Plantas/biossíntese , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética
Plant Cell Rep ; 35(10): 2113-23, 2016 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27417695


KEY MESSAGE: Chloroplast genome of Solanum commersonii and S olanum tuberosum were completely sequenced, and Indel markers were successfully applied to distinguish chlorotypes demonstrating the chloroplast genome was randomly distributed during protoplast fusion. Somatic hybridization has been widely employed for the introgression of resistance to several diseases from wild Solanum species to overcome sexual barriers in potato breeding. Solanum commersonii is a major resource used as a parent line in somatic hybridization to improve bacterial wilt resistance in interspecies transfer to cultivated potato (S. tuberosum). Here, we sequenced the complete chloroplast genomes of Lz3.2 (S. commersonii) and S. tuberosum (PT56), which were used to develop fusion products, then compared them with those of five members of the Solanaceae family, S. tuberosum, Capsicum annum, S. lycopersicum, S. bulbocastanum and S. nigrum and Coffea arabica as an out-group. We then developed Indel markers for application in chloroplast genotyping. The complete chloroplast genome of Lz3.2 is composed of 155,525 bp, which is larger than the PT56 genome with 155,296 bp. Gene content, order and orientation of the S. commersonii chloroplast genome were highly conserved with those of other Solanaceae species, and the phylogenetic tree revealed that S. commersonii is located within the same node of S. tuberosum. However, sequence alignment revealed nine Indels between S. commersonii and S. tuberosum in their chloroplast genomes, allowing two Indel markers to be developed. The markers could distinguish the two species and were successfully applied to chloroplast genotyping (chlorotype) in somatic hybrids and their progenies. The results obtained in this study confirmed the random distribution of the chloroplast genome during protoplast fusion and its maternal inheritance and can be applied to select proper plastid genotypes in potato breeding program.

Genoma de Cloroplastos , Hibridização Genética , Solanum/genética , Sequência de Bases , Códon/genética , Cruzamentos Genéticos , DNA Circular/genética , Marcadores Genéticos , Variação Genética , Genótipo , Mutação INDEL/genética , Filogenia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Sequências de Repetição em Tandem/genética
PLoS One ; 10(5): e0125332, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25966355


We report the chloroplast (cp) genome sequence of tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum) obtained by next-generation sequencing technology and compared this with the previously reported common buckwheat (F. esculentum ssp. ancestrale) cp genome. The cp genome of F. tataricum has a total sequence length of 159,272 bp, which is 327 bp shorter than the common buckwheat cp genome. The cp gene content, order, and orientation are similar to those of common buckwheat, but with some structural variation at tandem and palindromic repeat frequencies and junction areas. A total of seven InDels (around 100 bp) were found within the intergenic sequences and the ycf1 gene. Copy number variation of the 21-bp tandem repeat varied in F. tataricum (four repeats) and F. esculentum (one repeat), and the InDel of the ycf1 gene was 63 bp long. Nucleotide and amino acid have highly conserved coding sequence with about 98% homology and four genes--rpoC2, ycf3, accD, and clpP--have high synonymous (Ks) value. PCR based InDel markers were applied to diverse genetic resources of F. tataricum and F. esculentum, and the amplicon size was identical to that expected in silico. Therefore, these InDel markers are informative biomarkers to practically distinguish raw or processed buckwheat products derived from F. tataricum and F. esculentum.

Cloroplastos/genética , Fagopyrum/classificação , Fagopyrum/genética , Genoma de Cloroplastos , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Sequência de Bases , Sequência Conservada , Evolução Molecular , Fagopyrum/citologia , Marcadores Genéticos/genética , Variação Genética , Mutação INDEL , Análise de Sequência de DNA