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1.
J Affect Disord ; 296: 17-25, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34583099

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Depression is one of the prevalent mental illnesses and leading cause of global disease burden. However, most people with depression do not access treatment. Remission without treatment may occur in some cases of depression. This study aimed to estimate the short-term remission (natural recovery) from untreated depression. METHODS: A systematic review and meta-analysis was registered on PROSPERO and conducted following PRISMA guidelines. EMBASE, PsycINFO, and PubMed were searched, supplemented with an additional hand search to identify studies reporting natural recovery from untreated depression. Study selection and screening were carried out by three independent reviewers. Methodological quality assessment of the included studies was conducted. Remission was defined as no longer meeting the diagnostic criteria or scoring below the cut off points of the validated tools as reported by the included studies. The data were synthesized using narrative summary and random-effects meta-analysis. RESULTS: Sixteen waitlist-controlled trial studies were included in the systematic review and meta-analysis. The duration of follow-up ranged from 4 to 12 weeks with a median duration of 8 weeks. The overall pooled remission from untreated depression was 12.5%, 95% confidence interval (7.8, 18.0%). Due to lack of published data, we were unable to determine if the severity of depression symptoms was associated with remission rates. CONCLUSIONS: Short-term remission from depression without treatment is uncommon. Across studies, 8 - 18% of people remitted without treatment within 12 weeks. Waitlist control groups may not represent all persons with depression.

2.
J Affect Disord ; 295: 1234-1242, 2021 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34665135

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Depression is considered a global crisis due to its high prevalence and associated disabilities. The burden posed by depression could be reduced by increasing access to timely treatment. Limited information is available on treatment rates of depression, particularly in low- and middle-income countries. This study aimed to estimate the treatment rates for depression in the general adult population by World Bank income classification. METHODS: We searched PubMed, EMBASE, PsycINFO, and CINAHL, supplemented with hand-search of reference lists to identify community-based studies. The overall treatment rate for depression was estimated from studies that reported any treatment (behavioral or pharmacological treatments) in healthcare or informal non-healthcare settings. Data were pooled using a random-effects meta-analysis model. Subgroup analyses by income classification were completed. Meta-regression was conducted by study characteristics. The protocol was pre-registered at PROSPERO (CRD42020161683). RESULTS: We included 65 studies comprising 1.1 million participants from 79 countries and territories. The global 12-month/lifetime pooled treatment rate was 34.8% (95% confidence interval: 29.9, 39.9%). The treatment rates were 48.3% (43.0, 53.6%) in high-income countries, 21.4% (15.1, 27.7%) in middle-income countries, and 16.8% (11.3, 23.0%) in low-income countries. Among the treated samples, 12-month minimally adequate treatment was estimated to be 40%. LIMITATION: We reported a substantial level of between-study heterogeneity, which was partially explained by study characteristics in the meta-regression. CONCLUSION: Globally, approximately one-third of people with depression receive treatment. Three in five treated people with depression did not receive minimally adequate treatment. Depression treatment rates are considerably lower in low-and middle-income countries.


Assuntos
Depressão , Renda , Adulto , Depressão/epidemiologia , Depressão/terapia , Humanos , Prevalência
4.
BMJ Open ; 11(7): e048931, 2021 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34210733

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to compare depressive symptoms among people with HIV/AIDS and the general population sample. We also assessed the factors associated with depressive symptoms. DESIGN: A comparative cross-sectional study was conducted. SETTINGS: Antiretroviral therapy clinics in three primary healthcare facilities and semi-urban area in Northwest Ethiopia. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 1115 participants (558 people with HIV/AIDS and 557 comparison group) aged 18 years and above were recruited. A total of 1026 participants (530 people with HIV/AIDS and 496 comparison group) completed the interview. We excluded people with known HIV-positive status from the comparison group. OUTCOME MEASURE: Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) was used to assess depressive symptoms. The proportion of depressive symptoms was compared between samples of the general population and people with HIV/AIDS using χ2 statistics. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was done to examine the associated factors. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of depressive symptoms was 13.3% (11.2%-15.4%). The prevalence was significantly higher in people with HIV/AIDS compared with the community sample (16.6% vs 12.3%), p=0.001. The difference was also significant in the multivariable logistic regression (OR 1.7). For the overall sample, depressive symptoms were significantly associated with older age, being single, divorced/widowed marital status, and poor social support. CONCLUSIONS: Depressive symptoms were higher in people with HIV/AIDS compared with the general population. It is necessary to include mental healthcare and screening for depression in routine HIV/AIDS care.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida , Infecções por HIV , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/complicações , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/epidemiologia , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/epidemiologia , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Prevalência
5.
Psychol Res Behav Manag ; 14: 637-644, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34093046

RESUMO

Background: Substance use-related problems including cigarette smoking and alcohol use are among leading preventable risk factors for premature death. However, people with these problems did not get the appropriate treatment they need. Stigma against substance use could be the potential barrier for people with problematic substance use to seek professional help. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate magnitude and associated factors of perceived stigma towards problematic substance use. Methods: A total of 2400 participants were screened using the Cut down, Annoyed, Guilty, and Eye-opener (CAGE) Adapted to Include Drugs (CAGE-AID) questionnaire. We found 540 participants screened positive for problematic substance use (alcohol, hashish, tobacco and khat) and interviewed them for perceived stigma using Perceived Stigma of Substance Abuse Scale (PSAS). Logistic regression was used to examine associated factors with perceived stigma. Results: Three hundred forty-five (63.9%) participants reported perceived stigma above the mean value of Perceived Stigma of Substance Abuse Scale (PSAS). Variables positively associated with perceived stigma were lower wealth and joblessness, history of separation from family members before age of 18 years, poly-substance misuse and awareness about economic crisis of substance use. Conclusion: Approximately, three in five people with problematic substance use perceived having been stigmatized by others. Health planning for problematic substance use should focus on stigma.

6.
Int J Ment Health Syst ; 15(1): 42, 2021 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33957944

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Relapse in psychiatric disorders is highly distressing that posed a huge burden to the patients, family, and society. It interrupts the process of recovery and may increase the risk of resistance to treatment. Relapse detection and taking preventive measures against its possible factors are crucial for a better prognosis. OBJECTIVE: To assess lifetime relapse and its associated factors among people with schizophrenia spectrum disorders who are on follow-up at Comprehensive Specialized Hospitals in Amhara region, Ethiopia. METHOD: An institution-based cross-sectional study was conducted from July 13-August 13, at Comprehensive Specialized Hospitals in Amhara region, Ethiopia, 2020. Data were collected from 415 randomly selected participants using an interviewer administered questionnaire. Relapse was determined using participants' medical records and a semi-structured questionnaire. Data were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 25. Logistic regression analysis was done to identify the explanatory variables of relapse. Variables with P-value < 0.05 were considered significantly associated with relapse. RESULT: The magnitude of lifetime relapse was 57.4% (95% CI = 53-62%). Relapse was significantly associated with comorbidity of another mental illness (AOR = 1.84, 95% CI = 1.06, 3.18), non-adherence to medication (AOR = 2.23, 95% CI = 1.22, 4.07), shorter duration on treatment (AOR = 1.71, 95% CI = 1.05, 2.81), and experiencing stressful life events (AOR = 2.42, CI = 1.2, 4.66). CONCLUSION: In the current study, more than half of the participants had lifetime relapses. Comorbid mental illnesses, non-adherence, duration of treatment ≤ 5 years, and experiencing stressful life events were factors associated with relapse. This requires each stakeholder to give concern and work collaboratively on the respective factors that lead to relapse.

7.
Addiction ; 116(10): 2617-2634, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33245581

RESUMO

AIMS: To estimate the treatment rate for alcohol use disorders (AUDs) in the general adult population. Treatment rates were also considered in relation to economic differences. METHODS: Systematic review and meta-analysis. We searched PubMed, EMBASE, PsycINFO and CINAHL databases to identify studies that reported treatment rates for alcohol use disorders in the general population. Independent reviewers screened the articles based on predefined inclusion criteria. Data were extracted using a standardized data extraction form. We conducted quality assessments of the included studies. The overall treatment rates were estimated from studies that reported any treatment for AUDs from healthcare or informal non-healthcare settings (any treatment). We estimated the separate treatment rates for each diagnostic category as reported in the primary studies: AUD as a single disorder, alcohol abuse and alcohol dependence. Data were pooled using a random-effect model. RESULTS: Thirty-two articles were included to estimate the treatment rates (percentage treated among the total number of people with AUDs). The pooled estimate of people with AUDs who received any treatment were 14.3% (95% CI: 9.3-20.3%) for alcohol abuse, 16.5% (95% CI: 12-21.5%) for alcohol dependence and 17.3% (95% CI: 12.8-22.3%) for AUD. A subgroup analysis by World Bank economic classification of countries found that the treatment rate for AUD was 9.3% (95% CI: 4.0-15.7%) in low and lower-middle-income countries. CONCLUSION: Globally, approximately one in six people with AUDs receives treatment. Treatment rates for AUDs are generally low, with even lower rates in low and lower-middle-income countries.


Assuntos
Alcoolismo , Adulto , Alcoolismo/epidemiologia , Alcoolismo/terapia , Humanos
8.
Epilepsy Behav ; 111: 107233, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32563892

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Premature mortality is common in people with epilepsy, but the causes vary where suicide is considered as one of the commonest. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to compare suicidal behavior between people with epilepsy and the general population and identify associated factors in Northwest Ethiopia. METHODS: We have conducted a comparative cross-sectional study in Northwest Ethiopia. We have selected people with epilepsy from outpatient departments and the comparisons from the general population. Suicidal behavior was assessed by the revised version of Suicidal Behaviors Questionnaire (SBQ-R). Logistic regression was implemented to look for associations between factors and the dependent variable. RESULTS: The prevalence of suicidal behavior in people with epilepsy was 18.2%, significantly higher than the community sample, which was 9.8% (p-value = .001). This difference persists in the multivariable logistic regression model by which the odds of suicidal behavior in people with epilepsy was two times more as compared to the community sample. Other variables positively associated with suicidal behavior for the overall sample were depressive symptoms, no formal education, divorced/widowed marital status, and higher perceived criticism. Better social support was protective factor for suicidal behavior. CONCLUSION: The proportion of suicidal behavior is twofold higher in people with epilepsy than the general population. Routine screening for suicide risk should be an integral part of epilepsy treatment.


Assuntos
Epilepsia/psicologia , Apoio Social , Ideação Suicida , Suicídio/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Epilepsia/epidemiologia , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estado Civil , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Suicídio/prevenção & controle , Adulto Jovem
9.
Pediatric Health Med Ther ; 11: 109-117, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32273789

RESUMO

Background: Undernutrition remains one of the most common causes of morbidity and mortality among children throughout the world particularly in developing countries. The present study aimed to assess the magnitude and associated factors of undernutrition among children aged 12-59 months. Methods: A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted in Wolaita district from May to June 2015. Multi-stage stratified systematic random sampling procedure was used. Data were collected using a pretested interviewer-administered questionnaire from 626 children aged 12-59 months. Height and weight were measured by trained data collectors and WHO Anthro version 3.2.2 software was used. Data were entered into Epi Info version 3.3.5 and were exported and analyzed using SPSS version 21. Multivariable logistic regression model with a step-wise method was used to determine the predictors of undernutrition. Results: One third (34.1%; 95% CI 30.4-37.9%) of children were stunted while 6.9% and 11.9% of them were wasted and underweight, respectively, based on WHO Z score <-2. Children live in mother-headed households which often use unprotected sources of water and children who did not get minimum dietary diversity were more likely to be stunted compared to their counterparts. Children residing in rural residences, being a male child, having less power for mother decision-making, presence of diarrhea in the last 2 weeks of the survey and who did not get the minimum dietary diversity were found to be significant determinants of underweight. Children living rural, male sex, their order of birth being 5th and above and who had not got the minimum meal frequency were more likely to be wasted than their counterparts. Conclusion and Recommendation: Undernutrition has a high prevalence in under-5-year-old children of Wolaita district. Under nutrition was associated with female-headed households, unprotected sources of water, below the minimum dietary diversity, rural residence, participation of mother in decision-making, presence of diarrhea, and minimum meal frequency. Thus, nutritional intervention programs in Wolaita district in Ethiopia should focus on these factors.

10.
J Health Popul Nutr ; 39(1): 6, 2020 04 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32290871

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Early years of life are period of maximal growth and development of human brain. Development of young child is influenced by biological endowment and health of child, nutritional status of child, relationships with primary caregivers, family, and support systems in the community. This study was aimed to assess childhood development in relation to their nutritional status. METHOD: Community-based cross-sectional study was employed. Multi-stage systematic random sampling technique was used to select 626 children aged 12-59 months with mother/caregivers' pairs in Wolaita district in 2015. Child development assessment was done using third edition of age and stage questionnaire. Height and weight were measured by trained data collectors then the WHO Anthro version 3.2.2 software was used to convert nutritional data indices. Data were entered into Epi-info version 3.3.5 and was exported and analyzed using STATA version 14. Correlation and multiple logistic regression were used. RESULT: High risk of developmental problem in children were 19.0% with 95% CI (16.06%, 22.3%), and it is expressed as communication 5.8%, gross motor 6.1%, fine motor 4.0%, personal social 8.8%, and problem solving 4.1%. One-third (34.1%) of the study participants were stunted while 6.9% and 11.9% of them were wasted and underweight respectively. Weight-for-age (WAZ) and height-for-age positively correlated with all five domains of development, i.e., with communication, gross motor, fine motor, personal social, and problem solving (r = 0.1 - 0.23; p < 0.0001, and r = 0.131 - 0.249; p < 0.0001) respectively. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION: Overall child development was directly related with nutritional status. So, available resources should be offered to decrease children undernutrition. Further assessment on childhood development of children is necessary.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Transtornos da Nutrição Infantil/epidemiologia , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/epidemiologia , Dieta Saudável/estatística & dados numéricos , Estado Nutricional , Antropometria , Transtornos da Nutrição Infantil/etiologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Infantil , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/etiologia , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Prevalência , Inquéritos e Questionários
11.
Behav Neurol ; 2019: 4681958, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31814856

RESUMO

Introduction: Most people with epilepsy suffer from a dual burden. In one hand, they struggle with the symptoms and disabilities on the other hand from misconceptions and stigma associated with it. But there are no recent studies which assess the community's perception and attitude. Objective: To assess the perception and attitude of the community towards people with epilepsy and identify associated factors. Methods: A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted in South Ethiopia from a total of 701 participants. Data were collected with face to face interview using a structured questionnaire developed based on the Health Belief Model (HBM). Data were presented with frequencies, tables, and figures. Univariate and multivariable logistic regression was done to identify significantly important variables. The presence of association was presented by odds ratio and 95% confidence interval. Ethical clearance was obtained from Wolaita Sodo University. Results: The most frequently mentioned perceived causes for epilepsy were stress (91%), substance use (61.8%), and bad spirit (49.8%) while loss of consciousness and falling (80.7%) and sleep problems (78%) were considered symptoms of epilepsy. Only 13.1% of the participants think that they may be susceptible for epilepsy. Six hundred sixty (94.2%) participants will not employ a person with epilepsy while only 47 (6.7%) of the participants will allow a family member to marry a person with epilepsy. In multivariable analysis, understanding the illness as a medical problem was associated with perceived susceptibility and perceived benefit of modern treatment was significantly associated with having a current medical problem. Conclusions: The knowledge about the cause, possible susceptibility, better treatment options, and attitude of the participants were similar to other low-income settings. The negative attitude was high and multidimensional. All stakeholders must work to increase awareness about the cause, symptoms, and treatment options for epilepsy and to decrease the negative attitude of the community.


Assuntos
Atitude Frente a Saúde/etnologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde/etnologia , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Epilepsia/psicologia , Etiópia , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Preconceito/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
12.
Front Psychiatry ; 10: 519, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31379631

RESUMO

Background: Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) occurs after exposure to actual or threatened death, serious injury, or sexual violence. Road traffic accident (RTA) is one of the traumatic experiences, which may result in PTSD. But treatment is mainly concentrated on physical health. This may be due to a lack of evidence in low-income countries. Aim: To determine the incidence level and identify risk factors of PTSD after RTA. Methods: Longitudinal panel study was done to assess the incidence of PTSD after RTA. The study was conducted in three orthopedic settings of Bahir Dar town Northwest, Ethiopia. The study was on 299 adult car accident survivors. PTSD Checklist (PCL) civilian version, Sheehan disability assessment scale, Patient Health Question (PHQ-2), and Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT) were instruments to assess the outcome and associated factors. The generalized linear model with Poisson log-linear method was applied to identify associated factors. Ethical clearance was obtained from Bahir Dar University. Individuals with PTSD symptoms were linked to the psychiatric clinic. Result: One hundred thirty-nine (46.5%) participants had at least three extremely severe symptoms that fulfil criteria B, C, and D of Diagnostic Statistical Manual IV of PTSD. The most frequent severe symptoms were having repeated, disturbing memories, thoughts, or images. Two hundred ten (70.2%) participants reported the extreme impact of the accident on work or schooling and 156 (51.9%) reported extreme problems in social functioning. Alcohol dependence, hazardous alcohol consumption, and harmful use were reported by 7.9%, 15.1%, and 4.7% of the participants, respectively. In the final model witnessing death, severe sleep problem and severe impairment in family functioning were significantly associated with PTSD. Conclusion: Nearly half of RTA survivors develop PTSD. Clinicians need to link these patients to the psychiatry clinic. Special attention should be given to patients who witnessed death, with a serious disability, and previous psychiatric history.

13.
Subst Abuse Treat Prev Policy ; 14(1): 25, 2019 06 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31174556

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Substance miss use and neuro-psychiatric conditions are a growing public health challenges, but 76 to 85% of people with those disorders in low and middle-income countries did not receive treatment. The aim of this study was to see help seeking behavior and determinant factors in residents with problematic substance uses. METHODS: A total of 2400 participants had screened for problematic substance uses and 548 participants were found positive for problematic substance uses. Then, we had interviewed 548 participants for help seeking behavior by pre-tested modified General Help Seeking Questionnaire. Logistic regression with its corresponding p-value < 0.05; Adjusted odds ratios (AOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) have been used. RESULTS: Among five hundred and forty-eight participants with problematic substance use, only one hundred and sixty-eight (30.7%) with 95% CI (27, 35%) had sought help. Age above 35 years [AOR = .47 95% CI (.25, .90)], who had common mental disorders [AOR = 4.12, 95% CI (2.7, 6.3)], who had comorbid medical condition [AOR = 3.0, 95% CI (1.7, 5.3)], and grand-families' history of substance use [AOR = 2.18, 95% CI (1.4, 3.4)] were significantly associated with help seeking behavior. CONCLUSION: Help-seeking behavior was infrequent in people with problematic substance use. Advanced age was a barrier to seek help while medical illnesses, common mental disorders and history of substance use in grand families were found to enforce to seek help.


Assuntos
Comportamento de Busca de Ajuda , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/psicologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Comorbidade , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Saúde da Família , Feminino , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
14.
Ann Gen Psychiatry ; 17: 34, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30093914

RESUMO

Background: Depression is one of the most disabling and chronic mental illnesses. Despite its high burden, many people suffering from depression did not perceive that they had a treatable illness and consequently most of them did not seek professional help. The aim of this study was to assess the level of professional help-seeking behavior and associated factors among individuals with depression. Methods and materials: The community-based cross-sectional study was conducted among residents of Dessie, Northeast Ethiopia. First, 1165 residents were screened for depression using patient health questionnaire and then 226 individuals who were screened positive for probable depression were interviewed with General Help-Seeking Questionnaire to assess the professional help-seeking behavior of participants with depression. Major associated variables were identified using logistic regression with 95% confidence interval (CI), and variables with a p value less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results: Among the total participants with depressive symptoms, only 25.66% of them did seek professional help. Being female [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 2.769, 95% CI (1.280, 5.99)], current alcohol drinking [AOR = 2.74, 95% CI (1.265, 5.940)], co-morbid medical-surgical illness [AOR = 4.49, 95% CI (1.823, 11.071)], perceiving depression as illness [AOR = 2.44, 95% CI (1.264, 4.928)], having moderate depressive symptoms [AOR = 2.54, 95% CI (1.086, 5.928)] and moderately severe depressive symptoms [AOR = 7.67, 95% CI (2.699, 21.814)] were significantly associated with help seeking behavior of participants. Conclusions: Level of professional help-seeking behavior is as low as previous studies in different countries. The severity of depressive symptoms, co-morbidity of medical-surgical illness, current drinking of alcohol, being female, and perceiving depression as illness were significantly associated with professional help-seeking behavior for depressive symptoms. Working on mental health literacy in the community is important to increase help-seeking behavior.

15.
Psychiatry J ; 2017: 7517450, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28680879

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Substance use is a growing concern globally and its association with students' academic performance is not well studied. OBJECTIVE: This study was aimed to assess the prevalence of substance use (alcohol, tobacco, and khat) and its association with academic performance among university students. METHODS: Cross-sectional study was conducted among Wolaita Sodo University students. A total of 747 students were selected by using cluster sampling technique. Data were collected by pretested self-administered questionnaire and examined using descriptive statistics and linear regression with 95% confidence intervals. Variables with p value of less than 0.05 were considered as statistically significant. RESULT: Prevalence of substance use (alcohol, tobacco, and khat) was 28.6%. Substance use (current smoking, chewing khat at least weekly, drinking alcohol on a daily basis, and having intimate friend who uses substance) was significantly and negatively associated with students' academic performance. CONCLUSION: Substance use among Wolaita Sodo University students was as common as other studies in Sub-Saharan countries and negatively associated with students' academic achievement. The common practice of substance use and its association with poor academic performance demand the universities to have a good control of substance and to implement youth friendly activities.

16.
Front Psychiatry ; 8: 86, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28579966

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Alcohol is attributable to many diseases and injury-related health conditions, and it is the fifth leading risk factor of premature death globally. Hence, the objective of this study was to assess the proportion and associated factors of problematic alcohol use among University students. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Cross-sectional study was conducted among 725 randomly selected University students from November to December 2015. Data were collected by self-administered questionnaire, and problematic alcohol use was assessed by Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test. Chi-square test was used to show association of problematic use and each variable and major predicators was identified using logistic regression with 95% confidence interval (CI); and variables with p-value less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant. RESULTS: About 83 (11.4%) of the samples were problematic alcohol users of which 6.8% had medium level problems and 4.6% had high level problems. Significantly associated variables with problematic alcohol use among students were presence of social phobia (AOR = 1.7, 95% CI: 1.0, 2.8), lifetime use of any substance (AOR = 6.9, 95% CI: 3.8, 12.7), higher score in students cumulative grade point average (AOR = 0.6, 95% CI: 0.4, 0.9), and having intimate friend who use alcohol (AOR = 2.2, 95% CI: 1.3, 3.8). CONCLUSION: Problematic alcohol use among university students was common and associated with social phobia, poor academic achievement, lifetime use of any substance, and peer pressure. Strong legislative control of alcohol in universities is important to reduce the burden of alcohol.

17.
Psychiatry J ; 2017: 5643136, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28299314

RESUMO

Introduction. Social phobia is the most prevalent and chronic type of anxiety disorder worldwide and it affects occupational, educational, and social affairs of the individual. Social phobia is also known for its association with depression and substance use disorder. Objective. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and associated factors of social phobia among high school students in Ethiopia. Methods. Cross-sectional study was conducted among 386 randomly selected students. Data were collected using pretested and self-administered questionnaire. Social phobia was assessed by using Social Phobia Inventory (SPIN). Logistic regression was used to analyze the data with 95% confidence interval and variables with p value less than 0.05 were considered as statistically significant. Results. From 386 study participants, 106 (27.5%) of them were positive for social phobia. Being female (AOR = 3.1; 95% CI: 1.82-5.27), current alcohol drinking (AOR = 1.75; 95% CI: 1.03-2.98), poor social support (AOR = 2.40; 95% CI: 1.17-4.92), and living with single parent (AOR = 5.72; 95% CI: 2.98-10.99) were significantly associated with social phobia. Conclusion. The proportion of social phobia was higher compared to previous evidences. School-based youth-friendly mental health services might be helpful to tackle this problem.

18.
Depress Res Treat ; 2016: 8913160, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27747101

RESUMO

Background. Suicide is a serious cause of mortality worldwide and is considered as a psychiatric emergency. Suicide is more frequent in peoples living with HIV/AIDS than in general population. Objective. To assess the proportion and determining factors of suicidal ideation and attempt among peoples living with HIV/AIDS in Ethiopia. Methods. Institutional based cross-sectional study was conducted from May to June 2015 by selecting 393 participants using systematic random sampling technique. Suicide manual of Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) was used to collect data. Logistic regression was carried out and odds ratio with 95% confidence intervals was computed. Results. The proportion of suicidal ideation and attempt was 33.6% and 20.1%, respectively. Female sex (AOR = 2.6, 95%CI: 1.27-5.22), marital status (AOR = 13.5, 95%CI: 4.69-39.13), depression (AOR = 17.0, 95%CI: 8.76-33.26), CD4 level (AOR = 2.57, 95%CI: 1.34-4.90), and presence of opportunistic infection (AOR = 5.23, 95%CI: 2.51-10.88) were associated with suicidal ideation, whereas marital status (AOR = 8.44, 95%CI: 3.117-22.84), perceived HIV stigma (AOR = 2.9, 95%CI: 1.45-5.99), opportunistic infection (AOR = 2.37, 95%CI: 1.18-4.76), and poor social support (AOR = 2.9, 95%CI: 1.58-5.41) were significantly associated with suicidal attempt. Conclusion. Suicidal ideation and attempt were high among HIV positive patients. Therefore early screening, treatment, and referral of suicidal patients are necessary in HIV clinics.

19.
Patient Prefer Adherence ; 10: 1847-1852, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27703333

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to assess the level of patient satisfaction and associated factors with psychiatric outpatient services in Ethiopia. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was performed from May 2015 to June 2015. A total of 454 participants selected by systematic random sampling were included in this study. Pretested and interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to collect the data. Patient satisfaction was measured using Charleston Psychiatric Outpatient Satisfaction Scale, and other validated tools were used to assess the associated variables. Multivariate logistic regressions with 95% confidence interval (CI) were used to assess the strength, and P-value <0.05 was used to indicate significance of association. RESULTS: A total of 441 respondents were enrolled, with a response rate of 97.1% and magnitude of satisfaction of 61.2%. Being male (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] =0.612, 95% CI: 0.39, 0.94), being widowed (AOR =0.13, 95% CI: 0.05, 0.36), urban residence (AOR =0.49, 95% CI: 0.31, 0.78), diagnosed with schizophrenia (AOR =0.48, 95% CI: 0.28, 0.81), unfavorable attitude (AOR =0.49, 95% CI: 0.28, 0.86), and poor social functioning (AOR =0.52, 95% CI: 0.34, 0.80) were significantly associated with satisfaction. CONCLUSION: More than one-third of psychiatric service consumers were dissatisfied with the service they received. Integrating patients to their own treatment plan and regular service evaluation are important to improve satisfaction.

20.
Behav Neurol ; 2016: 3189108, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28053370

RESUMO

Introduction. Antiepileptic drugs are effective in the treatment of epilepsy to the extent that about 70% of people with epilepsy can be seizure-free, but poor adherence to medication is major problem to sustained remission and functional restoration. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and associated factors of antiepileptic drug nonadherence. Methods. Cross-sectional study was conducted on 450 individuals who were selected by systematic random sampling method. Antiepileptic drug nonadherence was measured by Morisky Medication Adherence Scale (MMAS) and logistic regression was used to look for significant associations. Result. The prevalence of AEDs nonadherence was 37.8%. Being on treatment for 6 years and above [AOR = 3.47, 95% CI: 1.88, 6.40], payment for AEDs [AOR = 2.76, 95% CI: 1.73, 4.42], lack of health information [AOR = 2.20, 95% CI: 1.41,3.43], poor social support [AOR = 1.88, 95%, CI: 1.01, 3.50], perceived stigma [AOR = 2.27, 95% CI: 1.45, 3.56], and experience side effect [AOR = 1.70, 95% CI: 1.06, 2.72] were significantly associated with antiepileptic drug nonadherence. Conclusion. More than one-third of people with epilepsy were not compliant with their AEDs. Giving health information about epilepsy and its management and consequent reduction in stigma will help for medication adherence.


Assuntos
Anticonvulsivantes/administração & dosagem , Epilepsia/tratamento farmacológico , Epilepsia/psicologia , Adesão à Medicação/psicologia , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Epilepsia/epidemiologia , Etiópia , Feminino , Previsões , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cooperação do Paciente/psicologia , Prevalência , Inquéritos e Questionários
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